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WRITING A

POSITION
PAPER
POSITION PAPER
 Also called an argumentative paper or a
manifesto
 An essay that presents a person’s or
group’s position or stand on a particular
issue
Goal: to convince the reader of
the acceptability of the writer’s
position and it does so by:
 presenting rational support to a
writer’s position, through the use
of evidence;
 Presenting counter-evidence to or
flaws in the arguments of the
opposing position;
 Using emotional appeals
PARTS OF A POSITION PAPER
1. ISSUE – an idea or question over which
people are divided; it’s also called a
controversy
2. THESIS – also called the claim, is a statement
that expresses your stand or position on an
issue
3. REASONS – also called arguments, are used
to explain to the reader why his or her
position is logical, acceptable, and
believable
4. SUPPORT – refers to the evidence or ideas
to substantiate the reasons
a. FACTS – figures and the writer’s own
observations or reports from scholarly
studies
b. COMPARISONS – similarities or
differentiation between two ideas,
concepts, or situations
c. EXAMPLES – real-life demonstrations
of an idea
d. OPINIONS – the author’s feelings or
generalizations
5. OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS OR
COUNTERARGUMENTS – give the arguments
opposing your stand by refuting them so
that any opposition in the reader’s mind is
dealt with
STEPS
I. CHOOSE AN ISSUE FOR A TOPIC
II. COLLECT INFORMATION ON THE ISSUE
III. ORGANIZE THE CONTENT
LOGICAL APPEALS
 This is the use of facts in order to support
a position; it persuades the audience by
targeting their thinking.
EMOTIONAL APPEALS
 This is the use of the audience’s feelings
for the subject of the paper – such as
anger, pity, and aversion – in order to
persuade.
LOGICAL APPEALS: THE USE OF
EVIDENCE AND LOGICAL
REASONING
1. ARGUMENT FROM TRANSITIVITY
2. ARGUMENT FROM INCOMPATIBILITY
3. ARGUMENT FROM RECIPROCITY
4. ARGUMENT FROM COMPARISON
5. ARGUMENT FROM GENERALIZATION
6. ARGUMENT FROM EXAMPLES
7. ARGUMENT FROM CAUSE
8. ARGUMENT FROM SIGN
ARGUMENT FROM TRANSITIVITY
 This involves three terms associated
through the process of classification. In
this type of argument, two classification
statements serve as premises which then
serve as the basis for argument,
presented in the form of conclusion.

A is B; B is C; thus, A is C
ARGUMENT FROM
INCOMPATIBILITY
 Thispresents two contradictory choices,
such that the choice of one means the
exclusion of the other.
ARGUMENT FROM
RECIPROCITY
 This says that individuals and situations
that can be put together under the same
category should be treated in the same
way.
ARGUMENT FROM
COMPARISON
 This argues that two situations will have
the same outcome because of the
similarities between these situations.
ARGUMENT FROM
GENERALIZATION
 This
uses one member of a population to
make conclusions about the entire
population.
ARGUMENT FROM EXAMPLES
 This uses a group of examples – a sample
– from that population to serve as your
basis.
ARGUMENT FROM CAUSE
 This
posits that A is caused by B, which
means that the presence of A (cause) will
mean the presence of B (effect).
 STRONG CAUSE or SUFFICIENT CAUSE– The
occurrence of the cause guarantees the
existence of the effect.
 WEAK CAUSE or NECESSARY CAUSE - The
occurrence of the cause is necessary for
the effect to occur.
ARGUMENT FROM SIGN
 Thisuses a sign or indicator X to argue for
the existence of condition Y.
EMOTIONAL APPEALS: THE USE
OF EMOTIONAL TRIGGERS TO
MOVE PEOPLE
 BANDWAGON OR “JOIN-THE-CROWD”
APPEAL
 APPEAL TO COMMON FOLK
 FALSE AUTHORITY
 NAME CALLING OR “AD HOMINEM”
 ASSOCIATION
BANDWAGON OR “JOIN-THE-
CROWD” APPEAL
 The writer uses people’s tendency to
conform with the majority, pointing out
that his or her position enjoys support from
many people.
APPEAL TO COMMON FOLK

 The persuasion is done by pointing out


that a person is no different from ordinary
people, or, that a product or idea is
something that ordinary people would
purchase or support.
FALSE AUTHORITY
A type of false reasoning in which a
person speaks as expert on something on
which he/she has no expertise.
NAME CALLING or “AD
HOMINEM”
 Uses labels with negative meanings to
cast one’s opponent in a bad light
ASSOCIATION
 This is done by creating a link between
one thing or idea and another one that
people have a positive or negative
feelings for.