Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

w  

  
 
  

  




 

 




 

w 

u O 
  


 

 
 
  
  






u O

  
 
!




u "O

  
 
!

# 


# 



u O
  
 
 

!

 

 


Antiseptics: chemical disinfectants applied to


skin, mm but not systemic

Cleaning: removal of dust, dirt, organics, FM.

Decontamination: general term applied to any


procedure by which microorganisms are
reduced to a level where items are safe to
handle
Patient¶s care items are divided into 3
categories:

Critical items
Semi--critical items
Semi
Non--critical items
Non

Depending on the risk of infection due to their utilization


Critical Semi critical Noncritical

jtems enter -sterile jtems come in jtems come in


tissues-cavities- contact with contact with intact
vascular system intact mm & skin
non intact skin

e.g.
e.g. needles, e.g. endoscopes,
sphygmomanometers,
implants, catheters, endotracheal tube,
bed linens, floors
surgical instruments thermometer

High level disinfectant, jntermediate and low


Sterilization: EO,
glutaraldehyde, chlorine level disinfectants,
autoclave,
active, hydrogen alcohols, phenols
plasma, sterilant
peroxide
Decreasing order of resistance of microorganisms
to disinfection and sterilization

Resistant
 Prions
 Bacterial spores
 Mycobacteria
 Small non-
non-enveloped
viruses
 Gram--negative bacteria
Gram
 Fungi
 Large non-
non-enveloped
viruses
 Gram--positive bacteria
Gram
Susceptible  Lipid enveloped viruses
O 

j. Heat
1- Moist heat or steam sterilization
2- Dry heat sterilization

jj. Low temperature (cold):


1. chemical
a. ethylene oxide
b. liquid steriliants: GLD, PAA, H2O2
2- plasma sterilizer

jjj. Other sterilizers:


1- ionizing radiation
2- filtration
3- microwaves; in pharmaceutical industries
 Heat is the most practical, efficient, and
inexpensive method of sterilization and
disinfection of objects that can withstand high
temperatures.

 There are two forms:


Moist heat is much more efficient than dry heat because:
 it kills microorganisms by coagulating and denaturing
their enzymes and structural proteins
 it is quicker in heating up the article to be sterilized.
Dry heat is believed to kill microorganisms by causing
destructive oxidation of essential cell constituents.
constituents.
   
             
                 
        È
È

               

              


       
                 

          


 !ÈÈ  !"
 !   !"#           $! 
  #%È
  #%È  #"
  #"&   $ # 
 Steam sterilization is
the most common and
preferred method for
sterilizing those items
that can withstand high
temperature and
moisture, e.g. culture
media, surgical
instruments and
dressings.
utoclave:


" '"
!"               
#"    
%" (  
)" *       + 
&" (   
," -          

O 

" O           


!" -          
Sterilization monitored routinely by
combination of mechanical,
chemical, and biological parameters

 Physical - cycle time, temperature,


pressure

 Chemical - heat or chemical sensitive


inks that change color when
germicidal--related parameters
germicidal
present

 Biological - Bacillus spores that


directly measure sterilization
(Geobacillus stearothermophilus)