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Sahil Sharma

B.Tech(Textile Chemistry)-VII Sem


Why do we
need any
standard or
a system?
Level of improvement / quality

Systematic Approach

Without any system

Time
International Organization for
Standardization
 It is a developer of international
standards.
 It is not a government entity.
Brief
introduction
It is established in 1947.

ISO's name : In fact, "ISO" is a word,


derived from
the Greek isos, meaning "equal “.
From "equal" to "standard", the line of
thinking that
led to the choice of "ISO" as the name of
the
organization is easy to follow.
The scope of ISO is not limited to any
particular
branch; it covers all standardization
Benefittes Of ISO standards
The “certification” refers to the issuing of
written assurance (the certificate) by an
independent external body that it has
audited a management system and verified
that it conforms to the requirements
specified in the standard.
It means that the auditing body then
records the certification in its client
register. So, the organization’s
management system has been both
certified and registered.
Accreditation is initial evaluation and
periodic review of the competence by
Certifying Bodies for EMS Auditors.
How to get the
certificate ?
Certificati
on
Auditin
g
Section I - Company Information

Section II - Additional Company Information

Section III - Quality System Information

Section IV – The ISO Certification


Company Information
i. Date
ii. Company Name
iii. Address
iv. City
v. State
vi. Zip
vii. Contact Name
viii. Phone and ext.
ix. E-mail
Additional Company
Information
i. Is your company a part of large organization
ii. Please list the facilities you wish to include in your
certification
iii. Site name
iv. Zip
v. No. of Employees
vi. No. of Shifts
Quality System Information
i. Please briefly describe your company's products or services
ii. Is the facility(s) to be certified involved in design?
iii. Please check the standard(s) you wish to be registered to:
a. ISO 9001:2008
b. ISO 14001:2004
c. ISO/IEC 20000
d. TS16949
vi. Is your company currently certified?
vii. If yes, which standard(s) -
a. By whom?
b. When is your next audit?
c. Is it a Renewal or Surveillance Audit?
The ISO Certification
Process

A. Report of Process self audits

B. Pre-certification audit analysis


Certification Flow Chart
Final Design
Application Documentation

Determine In-Plant
Standards Monitoring

Sample Production YES


Selection Meets Authorize
Spec.? Marking
NO
Compliance
Evaluation Corrective
Action
The ISO 9000 family addresses "Quality
management".
The customer's quality requirement.

 Applicable regulatory requirements .

 Enhance customer satisfaction .

 Achieve continual improvement of its


performance in pursuit of these objectives.
Identify Current management systems
(Quality, Health &Safety)

Identifying the Operating System

Documents key information

Identify regulatory compliances permits and


government reports

The process approach


“Environmental
management".
This means what the organization does to:

Minimize harmful effects on the environment caused


by its activities.

Achieve continual improvement of its environmental


performance.
oReduced cost of waste management.
oSavings in consumption of energy and materials
oLower distribution costs .
oImproved corporate image among regulators,
customers and the public .
oFramework for Continual improvement of
environmental
performance.
An EMS meeting the requirements of ISO
14001:2004 is a management tool enabling an
organization of any size or type to:

• Identify and control the environmental impact of


its activities, products or services, and to

• Improve its environmental performance


continually, and to

• Implement a systematic approach to setting


environmental objectives and targets, to
achieving these and to demonstrating that they
Continual Improvement

Management review Environmental policy

Planning
Checking and Implementation
corrective action and operation
 ISO TC/38 For Fastness
 ISO TC/94 Sc13 For Protective Clothing
 ISO TC 219 For Floor Covering
 ISO 13934-38 For Mechanical/Physical Properties
ISO 105-A01:1994 Textiles -- Tests
for colour fastness
Part A01: General principles of testing
Part A02: Grey scale for assessing change in colour
Part A03: Grey scale for assessing staining
Part A04: Instrumental assessment of change in
colour for determination of grey scale rating
ISO 105-B01:1994 Textiles -- Tests
for colour fastness –
Part B01: Colour fastness to
light: Daylight
Part B02: Colour fastness to artificial light: Xenon arc
fading lamp test
Part B03: Colour fastness to weathering: Outdoor
ISO 105-C01:1989 Textiles -- Tests for colour
fastness -- Part C01: Colour fastness to
washing: Test 1

ISO 105-D01:1993 Textiles -- Tests for colour fastness


-- Part D01: Colour fastness to dry
cleaning
Part D02: Colour fastness to rubbing: Organic
solvents
ISO 105-E01:1994 Textiles -- Tests for colour
fastness -- Part E01: Colour fastness to water
Part E02: Colour fastness to sea water
Part E03: Colour fastness to chlorinated water
(swimming-pool water)
art-E04:Colourfastness to Perspiration.

O 105-E06):Colour fastness to spotting:Alkali.

O 105-N01:Colour fastness to bleaching:Hypochlorite.


art-N02:Colour fastness to bleaching:Peroxide.

O 105-X12:Colour fastness to rubbing.


Colour fastness to artificial light: Xenon arc
fading
lamp test
A specimen of the textile to be tested
is exposed to artificial light under prescribed
conditions, along with a set of blue wool
references. The colour fastness is assessed by
comparing the change in colour of the
test specimen with that of the references
used.
For white (bleached or optically
brightened) textiles, the colour fastness is
assessed by comparing the change in
whiteness of the specimens with that of the
Modern
xenon arc
fading lamp
(ISO 105-E06)

Colour fastness to spotting:Alkali

Drops of a solution of sodium carbonate are placed on


the specimen, the surface of which is rubbed gently
with a glass rod to ensure penetration.The change in
colour of the textile is assessed with the grey scale.
(ISO 105-N01)

Colour fastness to
bleaching:Hypochlorite
A specimen of the textile is agitated in a solution
of sodium or lithium hypochlorite, rinsed in water,
agitated in a hydrogen peroxide solution or
sodium hydrogen sulfite solution, rinsed and
dried.The change in colour is assessed with the
grey scale.
(ISO 105-N02)
Colour fastness to
bleaching:Peroxide
A specimen of the textile in contact with
one or two specified adjacent fabrics is
immersed in the bleaching solution, rinsed and
dried. The change in colour of the specimen
and the staining of the adjacent fabric(s) are
assessed with the grey scales.
(ISO 105-X12):

Colour fastness to rubbing

Specimens of the textile are rubbed with a dry


rubbing cloth and with a wet rubbing cloth.Two
alternative sizes of rubbing finger are specified,
one for pile fabrics and one for other textiles.This
staining of the rubbing cloths is assessed with the
grey scale.
ELECTRONIC CROCK METER
 Crocking - A transfer of colorant from the surface
of a colored yarn or fabric to another surface or to
an adjacent area of the same fabric principally by
rubbing.
 Although a physical process, the primary
evaluation is for appearance (color)
 Wet and dry evaluation typically performed
applicable to many textile materials including dye
and printed fabrics, carpeting, and automotive
interior materials
 ISO 105-D02 - Organic Solvents
 ISO 105-X12 - Colorfastness to rubbing
 SAE J861 - Organic trim materials

ISO /DIS105-X12 - 1999 Colourfastness to rubbing


 Method suitable for all kinds of textiles
 Two alternative sizes of rubbing fingers specified
 Cylinder of a 16 mm diameter finger exerting a download
force of 9 N
 Finger with a rectangular rubbing surface of 19 mm x 25,4
mm (crock block) exerting a download force of 9 N for pile
fabrics including textile floor coverings
Suitable apparaturs referring to
AATCC TM 8
 Wet and Dry Test specified
 Recommended specimen size 5cm by 13cm
 Wet and dry tests are specified
 Mount white test cloth with the weave parallel to
the direction of rubbing
 Run test for 10 complete turns
 Evaluate the white test cloth using the Gray Scale
for staining
ISO Standards
 ISO 105 E01: Colorfastness to water
 ISO 105 E04: Colorfastness to perspiration
 Colour fastness to domestic and commercial laundering
(ISO 105-C06)
 Colour fastness to dry cleaning (ISO 105-D01)
 Spray test (EN 24920)
ISO 105-E01
Colourfastness to Water :
• Definition:
Resistance of the colour to immersion in water
• Procedure:
A water wetted specimen between two adjacent fabrics
and placed between two plates is submitted to a
pressure of 12.5 kPa for 4 hours at 37 + 2 °C
• Asessment:
Change in Colour of the specimen and staining of the
adjacend fabrics with the Grey Scales
ISO 105-E04
Colourfastness to Perspiration:
 Definition:
 Resistance of the colour to the action of human
perspiration

 Procedure:
 A with acid or alkaline histidine solutions wetted
specimen between two adjacent fabrics and placed
between two plates is submitted to a pressure of
12.5 kPa for 4 hours at 37 + 2 °C
 Assessment:
 Change in Colour of the specimen and staining of the
adjacend fabrics with the Grey Scales.
PRESPIRATION TESTER WITH GREY
SCALE
(ISO 105-C06)
Colour fastness to domestic and
commercial
laundering
A specimen of the textile in contact with
specified adjacent fabric or fabrics is
laundered, rinsed and dried.

PROCEDURE OF LAUNDERING:
Specimens are laundered under
appropriate conditions of temperature,
alkalinity, bleaching and abrasive action such
that the result is obtained in a conveniently
short time.The abrasive action is
accomplished by the use of a low liquor ratio
and an appropriate number of steel balls.
After drying the change in colour of the
specimen and the staining of the adjacent
(ISO 105-D01)

Colour fastness to dry cleaning

A specimen of the textile in contact with a cotton fabric


bag together with non-corrodible steel discs is agitated
in perchloroethylene, then squeezed or centrifuged,
and dried in hot air.The change in colour of the
specimen is assessed with the grey scale for assessing
change in colour.At the conclusion of the test, the
coloration of the solvent is assessed by comparing the
filtered solvent with un-used solvent by transmitted
light, by means of the grey scale for assessing staining.
A specified volume of distilled or fully deionized water
is sprayed on a test specimen which has been
mounted on a ring and placed at an angle of 45° so
that the centre of the specimen is at a specified
distance below the spray nozzle.The spray rating is
determined by comparing the appearance of the
specimen with descriptive standards and photographs.
ISO/TC 219
FLOOR COVERINGS

•Determination of fabric propensity to surface fuzzing


and to pilling (ISO 12945-1, 2, ASTM D 3512):
Determination of fabric propensity to surface fuzzing and
to pilling (ISO 12945-1, 2, ASTM D 3512):

At ISO 12945-2, a circular test specimen is passed over a friction


surface comprising the same fabric or, when relevant, a wool abradant
fabric, at a defined force with the test specimen able to rotate easily
around and axis through its centre, perpendicular to the plane of the
test specimen.Fuzzing and pilling are assessed visually after defined
stages of rub testing.
ISO 12945-2
54

ISO 12945-1
Tensile Properties of fabrics:
Determination of maximum force and elongation at
maximum force using the strip method (ISO 13934-1)
Determination of maximum force using the grape method
(ISO 13934-2)
The method is mainly applicable to woven textile fabrics . It can be
applicable to fabrics produced by other techniques. It is not
normally applicable to woven elastic fabrics, geo-textiles, non-
woven, coated fabrics, textile-glass woven fabrics and fabrics
made from carbon fibres or polyolefin tape yarn . The method
specifies the determination of the maximum force and elongation
at maximum force of test specimens in equilibrium with the
standard atmosphere for testing and of test specimens in the wet
state.
The method is restricted to the use of constant rate of extension
Instron

Instron
Preparation, marking and measuring of
fabric specimens and garments in tests
for determination of dimensional
change (ISO 3759):

Test specimens are selected to represent the bulk of the textile under
examination.Pairs of reference points are marked on each specimen
and the distance between each pair of reference points is measured
before and after specified treatments.
Tear properties of fabrics:

Elmendorf (ISO 13937-1)


The test is mainly applicable to woven textile fabrics . It may be
applicable to fabrics produced by other techniques, e.g. To
nonwovens (with the same under-mentioned restrictions as for the
woven fabrics).It general the test is not applicable to knitted fabrics
and woven elastic fabrics . It is not suitable for highly anisotropic
fabrics or loose fabrics where tear transfer from one direction to an
other direction of the fabric during the tear test is likely to occur.
Bursting properties of fabrics:
Hydraulic method for determination of bursting
strength and bursting distension (ISO 13938-1)
The method is applicable to knitted, woven, nonwoven
and laminated fabrics.It may be suitable for fabrics
produced by other techniques.The test is suitable for
test specimens in the conditioned or wet state. From the
available data there appears to be no significant
difference in the bursting strength results achieved
using hydraulic burst tester, for pressures up to
800kPa.This pressure range covers the majority of
performance levels expected of general apparel.For
specialty textiles requiring high bursting pressures, the
hydraulic apparatus is more suitable.
An European analytical system
for testing harmful substances.
International association for research and
testing in the field of textile ecology.

In 1980 Australian Textile Research Institute


(OTI) in Vienna started testing and analysing
harmful substances in garments and carpets

Later they make oko-tex standards


according to their analysis.

There are 17 testing centers all over world.


Textiles and garment products are tested based on
their ecological properties on humans.

The standard includes analysis of known harmful


substances.

Sample is passed when values of harmful


substances are within prescribed limits.

And applicant is awarded the authorization to label


his product as being “passed for harmful
substances according Oko–Tex Standard 100.
The international association for research and
testing in the field of textile ecology clearly states
that the production ecology has to be considered
also in association scheme.

Therefore the oko tex standard 1000 was


developed
and introduced.

There is a possibility to honour the efforts of the


manufacturers for production processes which are
environmentally friendly and which protect the
workers.
Oko - Tex International group of testing
authorities has brought transparency to the field
with three oko – tex standards:-

1.Oko-tex standard 100:- for final products.


2.Oko-tex standard 1000:- for factories.
3. Oko-tex standard 100 plus :- for the supply
chain as a whole.
The products should be free from
allergic dyes.

They comply with the same pesticide


limits
which we apply to fruit and
vegetables.

Under the effect of perspiration, they


will at
most release no more heavy metals
An overview of
Regulation (EC) no. 1907/2006 concerning the
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation
and Restriction of Chemicals

Background to REACH
•New EU Regulation that became law in the UK
on 1
June 2007
•It’s big and broad in scope AND
•It’s not just for the chemical sector
The broad nature of REACH:

environmental protection
environment-related public
health
worker protection
work-related public health
consumer protection
•10 years in the making

•Set against a lack of knowledge on


chemicals.

•Aims to ensure a high level of


protection of human health and the
environment
“This Regulation is based on the
principle that it is for
manufacturers, importers and
downstream users to ensure that
they manufacture, place on the
market or use such substances that
do not adversely affect human
health or the environment”
•No data, no market

•All information on hazard and risk


management
should be systematically conveyed through
the supply
chain.

•Substances of high concern should be


replaced with
safer alternatives
Physico-chemical testing
Toxicological testing
Eco-toxicological testing
Environmental fate
Residues testing and analysis
 Alkylphenolethoxylates (APEOs)
 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS),
 bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl
ammonium chloride (DTDMAC),
 distearyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DSDMAC),
 di(hardened tallow) dimethyl ammonium chloride
(DHTDMAC),
 ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA), and
 Diethylene triamine penta acetate (DTPA)
4-aminodiphenyl (92-67-1)
Benzidine (92-87-5)
4-chloro-o-toluidine (95-69-2)
2-naphthylamine (91-59-8)
o-amino-azotoluene (97-56-3)
2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (99-55-8)
p-chloroaniline (106-47-8
2,4-diaminoanisol (615-05-4)
4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane (101-77-9)
3,3’-dichlorobenzidine (91-94-1)
3,3’-dimethoxybenzidine (119-90-4)
3,3’-dimethylbenzidine (119-93-7)
3,3’-dimethyl-4,4’- diaminodiphenylmethane (838-88-0)
p-cresidine (120-71-8)
4,4’-methylene-bis-(2-chloraniline) (101-14-4)
4,4’-oxydianiline (101-80-4)
4,4’-thiodianiline (139-65-1)
o-toluidine (95-53-4)
2,4-diaminotoluene (95-80-7)
2,4,5-trimethylaniline (137-17-7)
4-aminoazobenzene (60-09-3)
o-anisidine (90-04-0)
•C.I. Basic Red 9
• C.I. Disperse Blue 1
• C.I. Acid Red 26
• C.I. Basic Violet 14
• C.I. Disperse Orange 11
• C. I. Direct Black 38
• C. I. Direct Blue 6
• C. I. Direct Red 28
• C. I. Disperse Yellow 3
 The levels of ionic impurities in the dyes used shall not exceed the
following:
 Ag 100ppm;
 As 50 ppm;
 Ba 100 ppm;
 Cd 20 ppm;
 Co 500 ppm;
 Cr 100 ppm;
 Cu 250 ppm;
 Fe 2500 ppm;
 Hg 4 ppm;
 Mn 1000 ppm;
 Ni 200 ppm;
 Pb 100 ppm;
 Se 20 ppm;
 Sb 50ppm;
 Sn 250 ppm;
 Zn 1500 ppm.

 Any metal that is included as an integral part of the dye molecule


(e.g. metal complex dyes, certain reactive dyes, etc.) shall not be
Time line1 June 2007 REACH came into force (though
only supply chain
related duties apply)
1 June 2008 All other duties (apart from
restrictions) apply
1 June 2008 Registration for new substances starts

1 June to 30 Nov 2008 Pre-registration for existing


substances
1 Dec 2008 Registration for existing substances
(that have not been pre-registered) starts

1 Dec 2008 REACH Enforcement Regulations 2008


come into force
1 June 2009 Restrictions provisions apply
1 June 2009 Annex XIV published
1 Dec 2010 Deadline for Phase 1 registrations
•Telephone: 0845 408 9575
•E-mail:UKREACHCA@hse.gsi.gov.uk
•Post: UK REACH CA Helpdesk

2.3 Redgrave Court, Bootle


Merseyside, L20 7HS
www.hse.gov.uk/reach
•REACH is here

•It could impact on your business –

• it’s not just for the chemical sector


We need THIRD-PARTIES which provide independent
assurance of a product’s quality, performance, safety,
or suitability for end use.
REFERENCES :
www.iso.org
www.isowikipedia.org
ISO9000Council.org ( info@iso9000council.org)
Authorstream.com
ISO14000council.org
www.iso.org
 www.oekotex.com

www.google.com

www.hse.gov.uk/reach