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Chapter 4

Key Concepts
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis

Krashen’s Monitor Model proposed that only


“acquisition” or subconsciously acquired knowledge
leads to productive output; “learning,” the learner’s
conscious knowledge of the rules of a language, only
serves as a monitor.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Affective Filter Hypothesis

A hypothesis of the Monitor Model suggesting


an affective filter can block access to language
acquisition under certain conditions, such as
when the learner is stressed or anxious.
automatic processing
automatic processing

In an information-processing view, this occurs


when a skill becomes practiced and can be carried
out relatively rapidly and without conscious effort
or short-term memory limitations.
cognitive linguistics
cognitive linguistics (CL)

An approach viewing meaning as


central to language; language is seen
as inextricably linked to cognition.
complex adaptive system (CAS)
complex adaptive system (CAS)

The view that language is acquired and


develops through the combined influences
of social interaction and cognitive
processes.
Comprehensible Input
Hypothesis
Comprehensible Input
Hypothesis
Monitor Model hypothesis stating that the
most effective way to increase L2 competence
is by exposure to “comprehensible input” (one
level beyond the learner’s current level).
Comprehensible Output
Hypothesis
Comprehensible Output
Hypothesis
Swain (1985) proposed that having to
produce the L2 encourages the learner to
attend to the language and thereby leads to
improved proficiency.
contrastive analysis
contrastive analysis

The comparison of the linguistic structures of


two or more languages, to determine their
similarities and differences. In 1950s and
1960s, it was used as a tool for L2 teaching.
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
(CAH)
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
(CAH)
In the strong form, this predicts that where there
are similarities between the two languages, the
learner will acquire L2 structures with ease; where
there are differences, the learner will have difficulty.
controlled processing
controlled processing

In an information-processing view, controlled


processing characterizes new skill learning, is
comparatively slow and effortful, and is
limited by short-term memory constraints.
cross-linguistic influence (CLI)
cross-linguistic influence
(CLI)
Refers to instances of phonological,
lexical, grammatical, or other aspects of
transfer from one language to another.
developmental error
developmental error

An error in learner language which does not


result from transfer from the first language,
but which reflects the learner’s gradual
discovery of the L2 system.
Error Analysis (EA)
Error Analysis (EA)

An approach to L2 acquisition research


involving the description and classification of
errors to gain insight into the learner's current
underlying knowledge of the L2 system.
explicit knowledge
explicit knowledge

In SLA, knowledge of the L2


(vocabulary, grammar rules, etc.) of
which learners are explicitly aware.
explicit learning
explicit learning

Learning with explicit awareness of


what is being learned.
implicit knowledge
implicit knowledge

In SLA, knowledge of the L2 that


underlies the learner’s performance, but
of which he or she is not explicitly aware.
implicit learning
implicit learning

Learning without awareness of what


is being learned.
information-processing approach
(cognitive approach)
information-processing approach
(or cognitive approach)
Stemming from cognitive psychology, this
approach emphasizes that the mental processes
used for interpreting experience are also involved
in the acquisition and use of a second language.
input processing (IP)
input processing (IP)

Model proposed by VanPatten on how


learners make form-meaning connections:
learners have limited processing capacity so
give priority to meaning.
intake
intake

The part of input that the learner


notices.
Interaction Hypothesis
Interaction Hypothesis

Hypothesis proposed by Long (1983) predicting that


interactional modification makes input
comprehensible; comprehensible input promotes
acquisition; therefore, interactional modification
promotes acquisition.
interlanguage
interlanguage

A term for the language produced by


a learner that differs in systematic
ways from that of a native speaker.
language acquisition device
language acquisition device

An element that UG linguists originally


proposed as an innate component, or
mental organ, to account for language
acquisition.
Monitor Model
Monitor Model

Krashen’s model of second language acquisition based


on the concept that learners have two systems
(acquisition and learning) and that the learned system
acts as a monitor (editor) on the acquired system.
Natural Order Hypothesis
Natural Order Hypothesis

Monitor Model hypothesis stipulating that


language elements are acquired in an
essentially fixed, pre-determined order.
negotiation for meaning
negotiation for meaning

Process in which learners and competent


speakers interact in various ways, making
adjustments in their speech until
understanding is achieved.
negative feedback
negative feedback

Drawing attention in some way to the


L2 learner’s incorrect utterances.
Noticing Hypothesis
Noticing Hypothesis

Proposed by Schmidt (1995), it states


that what learners notice in the input
is what becomes intake for learning.
noticing
noticing

Paying attention to language input


with some awareness.
output
output

The language produced by the


learner.
parameters
parameters

A small set of alternatives for a given grammatical


feature, for example, whether a complement, such as a
preposition (Prep), precedes or follows the main
element (or the “head”), such as the Noun (N) of a
noun phrase (Prep N or N Prep).
procedural knowledge
procedural knowledge

Knowledge of how to do something;


underlies automatic performance.
recasts
recasts

Rephrasing an L2 learner’s incorrect


utterance correctly.
scaffolding
scaffolding

In a sociocultural approach, the role played


by teachers, peers, and others in supporting
the learner’s development to get to a more
advanced stage.
sociocultural theory (SCT)
sociocultural theory (SCT)

Applied to SLA, refers to the view that social


interaction is necessary for L2 development
and learning needs to be examined in its
social context.
usage-based
usage-based

A usage-based approach emphasizes the


view that language constructions
emerge from real communicative events.
zone of proximal development
(ZPD)
zone of proximal development
(ZPD)
“The distance between the actual developmental level
as determined by independent problem solving and
the level of potential development as determined
through problem solving under adult guidance … ’’
(Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86)