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STUCTURE AND WRITTEN

EXPRESSION
TOEFL STRATEGIES
GENERAL STRATEGIES
1. Be familiar with the directions
2. Begin with the questions 1 through 15.
- 1 through 5 will be the easiest
- 6 through 10 will be moderate
- 11 through 15 will be the most difficult
3. Continue with questions 16 through 40
- 16 through 20 will be the easiest
- 21 through 35 will be moderate
- 36 through 40 will be the most difficult
4. If you have time, return to questions 11 through 15
and 36 through 40
5. Never leave any answer blank on your answer sheet.
THE STRUCTURE QUESTIONS:
STRATEGIES FOR THE STRUCTURE
QUESTIONS
1. First study the sentence.
2. Then study each answer based on
how well it completes the sentence.
3. Do not try to eliminate incorrect
answer by looking only at the
answer.
4. Never leave any answer answer
blank.
5. Do not spend too much time on the
structure question.
SENTENCE WITH ONE CLAUSE
 SKILL 1: Be Sure the Sentence has
Subject and a Verb

SUBJECT AND
VERBS

A sentence in English must have at least one


subject and one verb
 SKILL 2: BE CAREFULL OF OBJECTS
OF PREPOSITION
An object of preposition is a noun or a
pronoun that comes after a preposition,
such as in, at, of, to, by, behind, on,
after, and so on, to form a prepositional
phrase

OBJECT OF
PREPOSITION
A Preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun
that is called an object of the proposition. If a
word is an object of preposition, it is not the
subject
 SKILL 3: BE CAREFUL OF APPOSITIVE

APPOSITI ●
An Appositive is a noun tht comes before or
after another noun and is generally set of
from the noun with commas
VE ●
If a word is an appositive, it is not the subject.

APPOSITI ●
The following appositive strucures are
both possible in English
VE
APPOSITI ●


S APP, V
Tom, a really good mechanic, is fixing the car
APP, S, V
VE


A really good mechanic, Tom is fixing the car
 SKILL 4: BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT
PARTICIPLE

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

It is an adjedtive
A present participle is It is part of the verb
whenit is not
the –ing form of the when it is
accompanied by
verb. The present accompanied by some
some form of the verb
participle can be (1) form of the verb be.
e.g. The boy standing
part of the verb or (2) e.g. The boy is
in the corner was
an adjedtive. standing in the corner
naughty
 SKILL 5: BE CAREFUL OF PAST
PARTICIPLES
PAST
PARTICIPLE
A past participle often ends in –ed, but there are also many irregular
past participle. For many verbs, including –ed verb, the simple past
and the past participle are the same and can be easily confused. The –
ed form of the verb can be:

The past participle An adjective


The simple past
of a verb e.g. The picture
e.g. She painted this
e.g. She has painted painted by Karen is
picture
this picture now in a museum
Example of skill 1:
 Engineers----for works on the new
space program
 A. Necessary
 B. Are needed
 C. Hopefully
 D. Next month
Example of skill 2:
 With his friend----found the movie
theater
 A. Has
 B. He
 C. Later
 D. when
Example of skill 3:
 ----,Sarah rarely misses her basketball
shots
 A. An excellent basketball player
 B. A excellent basketball palayer is
 C. Sarah is an excellent basketball
player
 D. Her excellen basketball play
Example os skill 4:
 The child----playing in the yard is my
son
 A. Now
 B. Is
 C. He
 D. Was
Example skill 5:
 The packages-----mailed at the post
office will arrive monday
 A. have
 B. were
 C. them
 D. just