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The article is about The Era of Industrial Revolution
that started in the early 1700’s where Jethro Tull’s seed
drill was invented by Jethro Tull. It was a machine
figured in English agriculture to improve age-old
agrarian practices by applying science and technology.
Before the introduction of seed drills, the common
practice was to plant seeds by evenly throwing them
across the ground by hand. This has brought a positive
change to agriculture as it increases productivity and
saves time. In 1765, steam engine was further improved
by James Watt from Thomas Savery’s water by fire
(1698) to draw water directly from a well by means of a
vacuum created by condensing steam. This invention
makes the work more efficient and saves labour.
Next, Eli Whitney was an American inventor best known for
inventing the cotton gin. It is a machine that revolutionized the
production of cotton by greatly speeding up the process of
removing seeds from cotton fibre. This again is making the
production of cotton easier and faster. This machine helped to
double the amount of raw cotton yielded each decade after the
1800’s. On the other hand, Robert Fulton is widely known for
developing a commercially successful steamboat in 1807 called
the Clermont. He became interested in steam engines when he
was about twelve and was inspired by James Watt’s steam
engine. In conclusion, these people made a lot of changes in the
era of Industrial Revolution and their inventions benefitted
humans as they were used to produce more crops. Humans were
also able to travel further distances in a shorter period of time.
In the present time, their ideas are being innovated in order to
adapt with our current situation for a positive impact in the
industrial sector.
The author’s purpose of writing the article is to
explain the causes of conflict escalation between
Israelis and Palestinians and its effects to the
Palestinians. The author focuses on the
continuous military conflicts between Israelis and
Palestinians. This is the main point made by the
author in terms of the issue raised. The article is
especially for important world organizations such
as United Nations, Organisation of Islamic
Country (OIC), United Nations General Assembly
(UNGA),and United Nations Relief and Works
Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
(UNRWA) as well as the public in general.
Cause and effect is the text structure of organization
method used to show the different causes and effects of
various conditions. There are a few signal words which
may indicate that information in the text: because, as a
result. These signal words have been used effectively in
this article giving great impact on the issues discussed.
For example, because of the continuous military
conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians ,new Israeli
housing has been erected in their homelands. In
addition, the Palestinian refugee camps establishment
is also the consequence of this conflict. In conclusion,
Israel should not take Palestinians’ homelands and the
United Nations should take drastic actions to solve the
conflicts as soon as possible.
The author explains why the economy went to shambles in 2008
by stating the factors that caused the crisis to occur and its
effects towards the consumers at that time. The author mainly
addresses this article to the public especially to those who are
responsible for supporting their family financially. The crisis
occurred due to many factors such as easy credit conditions
which allowed people with no income to be eligible for large
loans. This can lead to bankruptcy when the loans cannot be
paid. The author concludes by saying that the economy is like a
big boat and once it gets moving quickly in the wrong direction it
is hard to turn it around. The government should take steps to
curb this issue so that it will not affect the economy of the
country. Through this article the reasons for the great recession
in 2008 has been made clear. We have understood that the
economy has the domino effect and that in the end everyone is
affected by its rise or downfall. This is important so that the past
is not repeated.
The purpose of this article is to tell people how
Saudi Arabia overcomes the fresh water
insufficiency in their country. This article focuses
on the problem of water shortage and the solution
which is the desalinization plants. This can be a
solution for the whole world since the ocean
covers more than seventy percent of the earth. The
article is for the public as general knowledge
which is written in the form of problem and
The desalinization process is done at highly
sophisticated water treatment plants along the
Persian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. Although it is costly,
several countries such as Japan , Australia , Spain
and China have also taken this step to resolve the
problem of fresh water shortage. Water shortage
occurs when their need for clean water in daily life
exceeds the amount of water that is provided.
In conclusion , the problem of water insufficiency
can be resolved with the existence of
desalinization plants as an alternative.
Underdeveloped countries can adopt other ways
to provide fresh water as this method requires a
very high cost.

In conclusion, water scarcity can be resolved with

desalinization plants as an alternative.
The author’s purpose of writing the article is to inform
people about saving the tigers and to gain donations
from the public in order to save the tigers. This is led
by Dr Miller and his team. The article is written for the
public. The text is written to emphasize the problem
and solution in saving tigers. Moreover, the argument
of this article is to let the public know that they
demand the preservation of these species, which can
make a difference. One of the vital ways is by donating
to Save the Tigers. For instance, public donations will
help to support and empower those who are fighting
the hardest to preserve the tigers. To conclude, the
author is reminding us to preserve the tigers as we owe
it to our grandchildren to do something.
Yes, the examples are credible. They use specific
arguments and examples in this article like the
other articles to ensure the public know how crucial
to save the majestic beasts and take actions of it.
Yes, we agree with the author because the tigers are
known as endangered species. Moreover, there are
irresponsible people who kill the tigers illegally to
make business out of it. Such as, making clothes
from tigers skin. The thing that can be learned from
this article is it is vital to save the tigers and
increase public consciousness in preserving these
endangered species. This is because tigers are part
of the chain to balance the ecosystem.
Physical geography was similarly unkind to the
ancient civilizations of India and China. The
Himalayan Mountains to the north, the Hindu
Kush Mountains and Thar Desert to the west, and
the Indian Ocean to the south essentially
prohibited India from interacting with other
people. The Chinese were virtually locked in by
their physical geography with the Gobi Desert to
the north, the Plateau of Tibet and the Himalayan
Mountains to the west and south, and the vast
Pacific Ocean to the east.
The author’s purpose of writing this text is to give educational
information and knowledge about the ancient civilizations of two
countries, India and China. The writer is focusing on the relation
between physical geography and the peoples’ interaction of both
countries. Thus, this text is written for the public to enhance
their knowledge about the ancient civilizations.

This text is used for comparison and contrast between both

countries involving their physical geography and interaction
among people. Due to geographical factors, having to travel far
from one place to another made interaction between the
civilizations seem impossible to do. For instance, the mountains
in India such as the Himalayan Mountains and the Thar Desert
are located at different directions which prohibited India from
interacting with other people. The same case happens to the
civilizations of China where they were virtually locked in by their
physical geography too.
The author made a conclusion that interactions or
communication are hard to make as they need to
create and use a medium in order to interact when
the locations are far apart and inaccessible.
Therefore, physical geography is the main reason
why the civilizations of India and China are hard
to interact with.

Therefore, physical geography plays a major role

in determining the civilization of countries such as
China and India.
This passage is written to inform the public about
the structure of a building so that it can withstand
earthquake. The passage mainly focus on readers
who live in Japan, some parts of United States,
India, Nepal and Philippines because their
country is prone to earthquake. It is important for
them to know so that they can make the right
decision in buying or building a shelter that can
protect them and their family. The passage speaks
about the criteria of a building that will be able to
stand the pressure of an earthquake by its type of
construction, shape, mass distribution, and
The most vital part of the building is the floor of the
building. To built a strong building, we must have a
strong ground floor that is flexible to minimize the
pressure of the earthquake. In order to support the
ground floor, we can use hollow columns that is firm or
inflexible so that it stay in its place and would not move
or forced out of shape while the rest of the building is
supported by the flexible columns that is located inside
the hollow columns. In addition, we can also use another
way to support the ground floor. By using rollers or
rubber pads to separate the base columns from the
ground, this will allow the columns to shake parallel
instead of divergent during an earthquake. These
methods can reduce the probability of the building from
collapsing easily when earthquakes occur.
The next focus is about the exterior walls of the building
which should be made with strong and tough materials such
as steels or fortified concrete. Not to forget, we must also pay
attention to the roof as it is located at the highest part of the
building. To help avert it from collapsing, the roof should be
made of materials that are light in weight. There is already a
lot of earthquakes resistant buildings that we can use as a
reference. One of the top 5 earthquakes resistant buildings is
the Philippine Arena. The arena was designed by the
Australian architecture firm Populous and the elite
engineering firm Buro Happold. Other than that is the Burj
Khalifa and Taipei 101 which are the famous skyscrapers in
this world. It is quite mesmerizing how the skyscrapers can
be earthquake resistant despite their height. This really
shows that the height does not matter as long as the building
is made by the strongest materials with a perfect design.
Based on the text that was given, the author’s purpose of
writing the text is to differentiate a hurricane and a tornado.
The author focuses on the characteristics of tornados and
hurricanes. This text is written for people who lives in the
northern region so that they can be more alert and cautious in
case these events may occur. People can identify whether the
natural disaster is a hurricane or a tornado. For example, a
hurricane can cause a flood and produce a tornado. So, we can
say that hurricane is more dangerous than a tornado.

This text was written in the form of compare and contrast. We

can identify the differences by the comparison that was made
within the text. It stated that hurricanes form in the ocean
while tornados form on land. In conclusion, both of these
natural disasters are deadly and can cause a massive
The author’s purpose of writing the article is to
inform the readers that the Omaha Beach is
dangerous. The passage is written for the public.
The author states that Omaha Beach has killed
3000 soldiers. He is trying to state his point that
the beach is indeed dangerous.
The author’s purpose of writing the article is to
inform the readers about the development of
small towns in United States in the early 1800s.
The writer’s focus is on the problem which is the
towns in the eastern United States which were
crowded. Hence, the land became expensive and
making it unaffordable for the people. Therefore,
the government’s effort to solve this matter is by
acquiring more land for the people. As a result,
people started to develop small cities on that new
land. The article is written to the public who need
to be informed about how the small cities were
formed in United States in 1800s.
The organizational method that is used is Problem
and Solution. The signal word ‘problem’ that
appears in the first paragraph shows the situation
of the cities in the eastern United States that were
crowded and hence the land became expensive.
The writer used the word ‘solution’ in the second
paragraph to inform the readers about what the
government had done to solve the issue. For
example the government gave more land to the
people and later, people started to develop small
cities on that land.
From the text, we can conclude that the United
States Government took actions to solve
overcrowding in cities by acquiring land from
other countries. The overall process contributed
to the country’s development.