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Material

Balances and
Separations
WMSU
Reporters:
Seila Molina 1
WESTERN MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY
A. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH A SINGLE MATERIAL

B. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH MULTIPLE

MATERIALS

C. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH REACTORS

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A. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH A SINGLE MATERIAL

1. SPLITTING SINGLE-MATERIAL FLOW STREAMS

2. COMBINING SINGLE-MATERIAL FLOW STREAMS

3. COMPLEX PROCESSES WITH A SINGLE MATERIAL

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B. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH MULTIPLE MATERIALS

1. MIXING MULTIPLE-MATERIAL FLOW STREAMS

2. SEPARATING MULTIPLE-MATERIAL FLOW STREAMS

3. COMPLEX PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE MATERIALS

C. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH REACTORS


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MATERIAL BALANCES AND SEPARATION
The alchemists, perhaps the original practitioners of science for profit, tried
to develop processes for making gold out of less expensive metals. Viewed
from the vantage point of modern chemistry, it is clear why they failed. Except
for processes involving nuclear reactions, with which we are not concerned in
this text, a pound of any material, such as lead, in the beginning of any process
will yield a pound of that material in the end, although perhaps in a different
form. This simple concept of the conversation of mass leads to a powerful
engineering tool, the material balance, in this chapter the material balance
around a black box unit operation is introduced first. Then these black boxes
are identified as actual unit operations that perform useful functions, initially,
these black boxes have nothing going on inside them that affects the materials
flow. Then it is presumed that material quantities are produced or consumed
within the box. In all cases the flow is assumed to be a steady state, that is, not
changing with time. This constraint is lifted in subsequent chapters.
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A.MATERIAL BALANCES WITH A SINGLE
MATERIAL
Material flows can be most readily understood and analyzed by
using the concept of a black box. These boxes are schematic
representations of real processes or flow junctions, and it is not
necessary to specify just what this process is to be able to develop
general principles about the analysis of flows.
1. SPLITTING SINGLE-MATERIAL FLOW STREAMS
A black box receives flow from one feed source and separates this
into two or more flow streams. The flow into the box is labeled X0, and
the two flows out of the box are X1 and X2. If again it is assumed that
steady state conditions exist and that no material is being destroyed
or produced, then the material balance is…. 6
2. COMBINING SINGLE-MATERIAL FLOW STREAMS
A black box can also receive numerous influents and
discharge one effluent. If the influents are labeled X1, X2, . . . , Xm,
the material balance would yield. . .
3. COMPLEX PROCESSES WITH A SINGLE MATERIAL
The preceding simple examples illustrates the basic pronciple
of material balances, the two assumptions used to approach the
analysis above are that flows are in steady state ( they do not
change with time) and that no material is being destroyed
(consumed) or created (produced). If these possibilities are
included in the full material balance, the equation reads. . .
B. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH MULTIPLE
MATERIALS
Mass and volume balances can be developed with
multiple materials flowing in a single system. In some cases
the process is one of mixing, where several inflow streams
are combined to produce a single outflow streams
according to some material characteristics.
1. MIXING MULTIPLE-MATERIAL FLOW
STREAMS
because the mass balance and volume equations are
actually the same equation, it is not possible to develop
2. SEPARATING MULTIPLE-MATERIAL FLOW
STREAMS
So far, we have discussed black boxes in which the characteristics of the material flows are not
altered by the black boxes. In this section the black boxes receive flows made up of mixtures of two or
more materials, and the intent of the black box is to change the concentration of these influents.
The objective of a material separator is to split a mixed-feed material into the individual
components by exploiting some difference in the material properties.
3. COMPLEX PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE
MATERIALS
The preceding principles of mixing and separating using black boxes can be
applied to a complex system with multiple materials by analyzing the system as
a combination of several black boxes. The stepwise procedure can be applied
to this system as well.
C. MATERIAL BALANCES WITH REACTORS
To this point we have assumed not only that the system is in
steady state but that there is no production or destruction of the
material of interest. So we consider next a system wherein the
material is being destroyed or produced in a reactor but in which the
steady state assumption is maintained. That is, the system does not
change with time so that, if the flows are sampled at any given