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Scientific and

Critical
Thinking
Luthfi Ghiffari 140110170047
Luthfia Nurhalimah 140110170059
Valerie 140110170081
Alex Wijaya 140110170093
Ricardo Eka Putra 140110170101
Scientific
Method

A method to
justify scientific
knowledge and
make it reliable
“Critical thinking is
thinking correctly for one
self that successfully lead
to the most reliable
answers to questions and
solutions to problems”
—Steven D. Schafersman
What is Scientific
and Critical
thinking?

Think Reliable About Used by


Correctly Output Nature Scientist

Scientific

Critical
Empiricism
The Use of
Empirical Evidence
01
02 Rationalism
The Practice of
Logical Reasonig

Skepticism
Possessing a
Skeptical Attitude
03
01

Empiricsm
The use of empirical
evidence
Why Empirical
Evidence?

Empirical Evidence is
evidence that one can see,
hear, touch, taste, or smell

Based on observation and


experience and repeatable
Let’s see this comparison!
Hearsay Revelatory
Evidence Evidence
The source is Cannot be checked
sometimes unclear by others, not
Testimonial Authoritarian
repeatable
Evidence Evidence
Allowed in courts of Relative to the
law, but notoriously authorities
unreliable
Circumstancial
Evidence Spectral Evidence
Allows for more than Supernatural
one explanation entities? Please guys

02

Rationalism
The Practice of Logical
Reasonig
Why Rasionalism?

● To reason correctly
● To deny emotion and face
reality

How?
Study logic and reasoning!
Math is a good practice!
03

Skepticism
Constant questioning of your
personal of your beliefs and
conclusions.
Why being
skeptical?
orces us to analyze, strategize, and ultimately seek the
truth

CREDITS: This presentation template


was created by Slidesgo, including
icons by Flaticon, and infographics &
images by Freepik.
Examples Global warming
and climate
change
Yeti or the
Abominable
Snowman
an ape-like creature, taller
than a human, that inhabits
the Himalaian Mountians in
Tibet.

Flat Earth theory


the Earth is flat and
disc-shaped
“Extraordina
ry claims
require
extraordinar
y evidence.”
― Carl
Sagan