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GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

Case Study
BSMT-1C
 A 20-year old student who recently went on
camping, suddenly developed 3 episodes of
loose bowel movement amounting to 1 cup
per episode on the morning prior to consult.
This was not associated with vomiting, fever
nor abdominal pain. Vital signs were within
normal. Physical examination revealed slightly
sunken eyeballs with dry lips and tongue with
hyperactive bowels.
Guide Questions:

 What specific part of gastrointestinal tract is affected in the


above case?
 Describe the normal anatomy and histology of various organs of
gastrointestinal tract.
a. Enumerate the epithelium of the various parts of the
gastrointestinal tract.
b. What are the typical layers of the intestinal wall from the
inner to the outer surface?
c. What is the blood and nerve supply of the small and large
intestines?
 Describe the primary organs functions of the gastrointestinal
tract including their respective functions and uses.
Guide Questions:

 What are the different phases of absorption?


 What are the functional types of movements in the gastrointestinal
tract?
 What are the enzymes important in the digestion?
 Describe the secretions of the gastrointestinal tract.
a. Saliva d. Gastric Secretion
b. Pancreatic secretion e. Bile
c. Duodenal Fluid f. Succus entericus
What specific part of gastrointestinal tract is
affected in the above case?

- Saraus
Enumerate the epithelium of the various
parts of the gastrointestinal tract

- Lim
K in d s o f E p ith e lia
K in d s o f E p ith e lia
G E N E R A L T Y P E S O F M U C O S A V A R IA T IO N S
1 . P ro te c t iv e M u c o s a – s t r a t if i e d s q u a m o u s e p it h e li u m ( o r a l c a v it y ,
p h a r y n x , e s o p h a g u s , a n a l c a n a l)

2 . S e c re t o r y M u c o sa – c e ll s t h a t s e c r e t e d i g e s t i v e e n z y m e s ( f o u n d
e x c lu s iv e ly in s t o m a c h )

3 . A b so r p t iv e M u c o sa – f o r n u t r ie n t a b s o r p t i o n ( s m a l l i n t e s t i n e )

4 . A b so r p t iv e / P ro te c t iv e M u c o s a – f o r w a t e r a b s o r p t i o n ( l a r g e
i n t e s t in e )
O R A L C A V IT Y
s t r a t if ie d s q u a m o u s
• P r o t e c t s a g a in s t a b r a s io n
O R A L C A V IT Y
s t r a t if ie d s q u a m o u s
• P r o t e c t s a g a in s t a b r a s io n

• C a n b e d iv id e d in t o m a in c a t e g o r ie s :

a . M a s t ic a t o r y m u c o s a

b . L in in g m u c o s a

c . S p e c ia liz e d m u c o s a
O R A L C A V IT Y
s t r a t if ie d s q u a m o u s
• M a s t ic a t o r y m u c o s a
- k e r a t in iz e d c e ll la y e r s
- g u m s (g in g iv a ), h a r d p a la t e ,
d o rsu m o f to n g u e

• L in in g m u c o s a
- n o n - k e r a t in iz e d c e ll la y e r s
- s o f t p a la t e , c h e e k s , t h e f lo o r o f
th e m o u th , th e p h a ryn x, th e
p o s t e r io r r e g io n o f t h e o r a l c a v it y
le a d in g t o t h e e s o p h a g u s
A N O R E C TA L
J U N C T IO N
S im p le c o lu m n a r t o
s t r a t if ie d s q u a m o u s

• R e c t u m – s im p le c o lu m n a r

• A n u s – s t r a t if ie d s q u a m o u s
H a v e A n y
Q u e s t io n

H a v e t h e m f o r o n e . L i v i n g g r a s s t o f o r c a n 't g a t h e r e d w a t e r s h a d w i n g e d . C r e e p ie s t d o n 't
s u b d u e w h i c h i t w o s e t h a d s e a s o n s . F i f t h y o u 'l l, m a n w h e r e i n s e a s o u r c r e e p in g c r e e p in g
n i g h t l ig h t s d iv i d e d v o i d t h e y 'r e .
H a v e A n y
Q u e s t io n

H a v e t h e m f o r o n e . L i v i n g g r a s s t o f o r c a n 't g a t h e r e d w a t e r s h a d w i n g e d . C r e e p ie s t d o n 't
s u b d u e w h i c h i t w o s e t h a d s e a s o n s . F i f t h y o u 'l l, m a n w h e r e i n s e a s o u r c r e e p in g c r e e p in g
n i g h t l ig h t s d iv i d e d v o i d t h e y 'r e .
What are the typical layers of the intestinal
wall from the inner to the outer surface?

- Luardo
What is the blood supply and nerve
supply of the small and large intestines?

- Pepito
Describe the primary organs functions of the
gastrointestinal tract including their
respective functions and uses.

- Resquites
What are the different phases of
absorption?

- Pailden
What are the functional types of
movements in the gastrointestinal tract?

- Labrador
What are the enzymes important
in digestion?

- Menchavez
Describe the secretions of the
gastrointestinal tract

- Nunez and Ouano


Saliva
FUNCTIONS OF SALIVA

 Chemical digestion: breaks down starch by the function of “salivary


amylase”
 Helps chewing and swallowing
 Lubricating effect: moisturizes the inside of the mouth and creates
smoother speech
 Solvent effect: dissolves food and allows the tongue to taste food
 Cleaning effect: washes away food debris and bacteria remaining in the
mouth
 Antibacterial effect: Lysozyme, peroxidase and lactoferrin fight against
pathogenic microorganisms
 pH buffering effect: Prevents sudden changes in pH
 Supplies minerals, including calcium and phosphorus, to teeth
XEROSTOMIA (DRY MOUTH)
Pancreatic Secretion
PANCREATIC JUICE

 DIGESTIVE ENZYMES
1.PROTEASES
2.PANCREATIC LIPASE
3.AMYLASE

 BICARBONATE
Duodenal Fluid
Gastric Secretion
Gastric Secretion
Cells/Glands Secretions Action
Mucuos cells Bicarbonate-rich alkaline Protects stomach wall
mucus
Gastric glands Components of gastric juice Help in the digestion

Stomach cells Intrinsic factor Absorption of vitamin B12

Chief cells Pepsinogens (pepsin) Breaks down proteins


Parietal cells Corrosive hydrochloric acid Converts pepsinogen to pepsin

Enteroendocrine Cells Gastrin Regulation of digestive


enzymes
Gastric Secretion
Organ Secretions Action

Secretin • Increases pancreatic juice


• Increases bile output
• Inhibits gastric gland secretion

Cholecystokinin • Increases pancreatic juice


DUODENUM • Stimulates gallbladder to
release bile

Gastric inhibitory peptide • Inhibits secretion of gastric


juice
• Stimulate insulin.
Bile
Succus Entericus