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Sampling

Outline
 FT of comb function
 Sampling
• Nyquist Condition
 sinc interpolation
• Truncation
• Aliasing

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling

As we saw with the CCD camera and the pinhole imager, the detector plane is not a
continuous mapping, but a discrete set of sampled points. This of course limits the
resolution that can be observed.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Limits of Sampling

• Finite # of data points


• Finite field of view
• High spatial frequency features can be missed or recorded
incorrectly

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Formalism of Sampling

⎛ 2x ⎞ ∞
⎛x⎞
{fn}= ∫ TopHat⎜ ⎟Comb
⎜ ⎟ f (x)dx
−∞ ⎝ fov⎠ ⎝Δx⎠
recall that ∞
Combx
( )= ∑ δ(x−n) dx
n=−∞

1; x≤1
TopHatx
( ) ={0; x>1
22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition
Formalism of Sampling

⎛ 2x ⎞ ∞
{fn}= ∫ TopHat⎜ ⎟ ∑ δ(x−nΔx) f (x)dx
−∞ ⎝ fov⎠n=−∞
+fov
∞ 2
= ∑ ∫ f (x)δ(x−nΔx)
n=−∞−fov
2
+fov
2
fn = ∫ f (x)δ(x−nΔx)dx
−fov
2
22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition
Formalism of Sampling

f(x)

Comb(x/x)

TopHat(2x/fov)

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Formalism of Sampling

f(x)

Comb(x/x)

TopHat(2x/fov)

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Formalism of Sampling

{fn}

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Frequency of Sampling
data =Table @If @Mod@x, 7D<2, 1, - 1D * Exp@- Hx - 128L^2 ê 1000D, 8x, 1, 256<D;

ListPlot @data , 8PlotJoined -> True , PlotRange -> All , Axes -> False , AspectRatio -> 1 ê 4,
PlotStyle -> Thickness @0.005 D<D

FT
k

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Frequency of Sampling

every point

x
FT

every second point


k

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Frequency of Sampling

every point

x
FT

every third point


k

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Frequency of Sampling

every point

x
FT

every fourth point


k

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling
1

0.5

2 3 4 5 6

-0.5

-1

In[19]:= p2=Plot @Cos@2 Pi 0.2 Hx - 1LD, 8x, 1, 6<,


8PlotPoints -> 512,
PlotStyle -> 8Thickness @0.01 D, RGBColor@1, 0, 0D<<D

In[11]:= p4 =ListPlot @Table @Cos@2 Pi 1.2 xD, 8x, 0, 5, 1<D,


Prolog -> AbsolutePointSize @10DD

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling

1 1

0.5 0.5

2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

In[19]:= p2 =Plot @Cos@2 Pi 0.2 Hx - 1LD, 8x, 1, 6<,


8PlotPoints -> 512,
PlotStyle -> 8Thickness @0.01 D, RGBColor@1, 0, 0D<<D

In[11]:= p4 =ListPlot @Table @Cos@2 Pi 1.2 xD, 8x, 0, 5, 1<D,


Prolog -> AbsolutePointSize @10DD

In[18]:= p1 =Plot @Cos@2 Pi 1.2 Hx - 1LD, 8x, 1, 6<,


8PlotPoints -> 512,
PlotStyle -> 8Thickness @0.01 D, RGBColor@0, 0, 1D<<D

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling

1
1

0.5
0.5

2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 5 6

-0.5
-0.5

-1
-1

In[19]:= p2 =Plot @Cos@2 Pi 0.2 Hx - 1LD, 8x, 1, 6<,


8PlotPoints -> 512,
PlotStyle -> 8Thickness @0.01 D, RGBColor@1, 0, 0D<<D

In[11]:= p4 =ListPlot @Table @Cos@2 Pi 1.2 xD, 8x, 0, 5, 1<D,


Prolog -> AbsolutePointSize @10DD

In[20]:= p3 =Plot @Cos@2 Pi 2.2 Hx - 1LD, 8x, 1, 6<,


8PlotPoints -> 512,
PlotStyle -> 8Thickness @0.01 D, RGBColor@0, 1, 0D<<D

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling

1
1

0.5
0.5

2 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 5 6

-0.5
-0.5

-1
-1

Nyquist theorem: to correctly identify a frequency


you must sample twice a period.

So, if x is the sampling, then π/x is the maximum


spatial frequency.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling A Simple Cosine Function

Consider a simple cosine function,

s1 (t ) = cos(2πf o t )

We know the Fourier Transform of this

€ (2πf o t ) ⇔ π (δ ( f − f o ) + δ ( f + f o ))
cos
⎛1⎞
What happens when we sample this at a rate of ⎜ ⎟
⎝Δt⎠
€ 1
where has the units of Hz
Δt
and Δt = the dwell of the sampled signal.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling A Simple Cosine Function (cont …)

So that,

s1 (n) = cos(2πf o nΔt )


= s1 ( t )∑ δ ( t − nΔt )
F {s1 (n)} = F {s1 ( t )∑ δ ( t − nΔt )}
= F {s1 ( t )} ⊗ F {∑ δ ( t − nΔt )}
⎡2π ⎛ 2πn ⎞⎤
= π [δ ( f − f o ) + δ ( f + f o )] ⊗ ⎢ ∑ δ ⎜⎝ f − ⎟⎠⎥
⎣ Δt Δt ⎦

Note, I’ve taken a short cut and left off the integrals that

are needed to sample with the delta function.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Define A New Frequency: Case 1

Define a new frequency 2π


fs = ; "the sampling frequency"
Δt
Case 1:
fs
fo < = f n = Nyquist frequency
2
€ 2f0

-fs 0 fs
In this case, there is no overlap and regardless of the complexity of this
spectrum (think of having a number or continuum of cosine functions),
the frequency spectrum correctly portrays the time evolution of the
signal.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Case 2
f o > f s 2 = f n = Nyquist frequency
2f0

-fs 0 fs
Now the frequency spectrum overlaps and look what happens to our picture,
2f’0 f'0 = fs −f0

-fs 0 fs
So it appears as though we are looking at a frequency of

f s − f o < f o - this is an aliased signal.


22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition
Nyquist Theorem

Consider what happens when there is a complex spectrum. Then the entire
spectrum overlaps. Either way, the frequency spectrum does not
correspond to a correct picture of the dynamics of the original time
domain signal.

Nyquist Theorem: In order to correctly determine the frequency spectrum


of a signal, the signal must be measured at least twice per period.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Return to the sampled cosine function

cos(2πf o nΔt ) ; Δt = 1 f
s

So ⎛2πf o n ⎞
cos⎜ ⎟
€ ⎝ fs ⎠

Now let
fo > fs ∴ fo = fs − ( fs − fo )
€ 14 2 43
Δf


22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition
(cont…)
⎛2πn ⎞
cos⎜ [ f s − Δf ]⎟ or use :
⎝ fs ⎠
cos( A + B) =
⎛ 2πn ⎞
cos⎜2πn − Δf ⎟ cos( A) cos( B) − sin ( A) sin ( B)
⎝ fs ⎠
A = 2πn ∴ cos( A) = 1;sin ( A) = 0
⎛ Δf ⎞
cos⎜−2πn ⎟
⎝ fs ⎠
⎛2πnΔf ⎞

cos⎜ ⎟
€ ⎝ fs ⎠
Therefore we can see that it is not the Fourier Transform that fails to
correctly portray the signal, but by our own sampling process we mis-
represented the signal.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition
A Fourier Picture of Sampling

⎛ 2x ⎞ ∞

{fn}= ∫ TopHat⎜ ⎟ ∑ δ(x−nΔx)1 4 2f (4
x)dx
⎝ fov⎠ 3
−∞1 44 2 4 43 n=
1 −∞
44 2 4 43 c
c c
⎛ n2π ⎞ ∞
( ) ⊗ 2πΔx ∑ δ⎜k−
Sinckfov ⎟⊗ F(k)
⎝ Δx ⎠
1 4 4n=
4−∞
4 4 2 4 4 4 4 43
Look at this first

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


A Fourier Picture of Sampling

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Bandwidth Limited

time domain

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Limitations of Sampling

{fn}

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Limitations of Sampling

perfect sampling

average 3 data points

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Limitations of Sampling

perfect sampling

average 5 data points

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Limitations of Sampling

perfect sampling

average 7 data points

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Reciprocal Space

real space reciprocal space

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

real space under sampled

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sampling

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

real space zero filled

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Sinc interpolation

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Filtering

We can change the information content in the image by


manipulating the information in reciprocal space.

Weighting function in k-space.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Filtering

We can also emphasis the high frequency components.

Weighting function in k-space.

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Fourier Convolution

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Deconvolution

I ( x ) = O( x) ⊗ PSF ( x) + N ( x )
{
noise

Recall in an ideal world

i( k ) = O(k) − PSF(k)

∴ Try deconvolution with 1 PSF(k)

1
i perfect ( k ) = [O( k ) • PSF(k)
€ ]•
PSF (k )
an "inverse" filter
I perfect ( x) = [O( x) ⊗ PSF ( x) + N ( x)] ⊗ PSF −1 ( x)
14 2 43
means "inverse"
not 1
PSF ( x )

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Deconvolution (cont…)
This appears to be a well-balanced function, but look what happens in a
Fourier space however:
1 n(k)
i( k ) = O(k) • PSF(k) • +
PSF(k) PSF(k)
Recall that the Fourier Transform is linear where PSF(k) << n(k), then
noise is blown up. The inverse filter is ill-conditioned and greatly
increases the
€ noise particularly the high-frequency noise since
PSF (k ) ⇒ 0 at high k
1 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 43
normally
This is avoided by employing a “Wiener” filter.
PSF * ( k )
PSF
€w (k ) = 2
where * is the complex conjugate
PSF ( k ) + WN ( k )

noise power spectral density −2

−2
(S N)
= (S k
N ( ))

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition
Original Nyquist Problem
A black & white TV has 500 lines with 650 elements per line. These are
scanned through

Electron beam

Deflection magnets

Electron beam is scanned over the screen by deflection magnets and the
intensity of the beam is modulated to give the intensity at each point. The
refresh rate is 30 frames/second.
By the sampling theorem, if the frequency is f o , independent information
1
is available once every 2 f seconds.

frames lines pixels


Need 30 × 500 × 650 = 9.75 ×10 6 impulse sec
€ sec frame line
information ∴ f ≥ 4.875 MHz

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Fourier Transform of a Comb Function

Comb( x ) = ∑ δ ( x − nX )
−∞

where
⎧1, x = nX ⎫
δ ( x − nX ) = ⎨ ⎬
⎩0, x ≠ nX ⎭

The Fourier Transform we wish to evaluate is,


€ ∞
F {Comb(t )} = ∫ Comb( x )e−ikx dx
−∞

One trick to this is to express the comb function as a Fourier series


expansion,€not the transform.

i2πnx
Comb( x) = ∑ a e n
X

n=−∞

where
x
1 2 −i2πnx
a n = ∫ Comb( x )e X
dx
Normalization to keep
X −x 2
the series unitary Limits chosen since this
is a periodic function

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and€the Nyquist Condition


Fourier Transform of a Comb Function
Over the interval −x 2 to x the comb function contains only a single
2
delta function. x
1 2 − i2πnx
a n = ∫ δ ( x)e X
dx
€ € X −x 2
1 4 4 2 4 43
select the x= 0 po int,
note this is only true
of a Dirac delta function.

1
an =
X
∴ A series representation of the comb function is

1 ∞ i 2 πnx
Comb( x) = ∑ e X

€ X n=−∞

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition


Fourier Transform of a Comb Function

Now,

1 ∞ i 2 πnx
F{Comb} = ∫ ∑ e e dx X − ikx

−∞ X n=−∞

1 ∞ ∞
⎛ 2 πn ⎞
− ix ⎜ k− ⎟
= ∑∫e dx ⎝ X ⎠

X 1 4 2 43
n=−∞−∞

⎛ 2 πn ⎞
2 πδ ⎜ k− ⎟
⎝ X ⎠


2π ⎛ 2πn ⎞

∑ δ ( x − nX ) ⇔ ∑ δ ⎜k − ⎟
−∞ X ⎝
−∞ X ⎠


X 2π X
…1 € … X
0 x 0 k
€ €
Note:€Scaling laws hold

22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition