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HUMAN RESOURCE

DEVELOPMENT
DOMS
UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS
BUSE207 HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
UNIT I
Introduction: Definition, Scope and objectives - Evolution of HRD -
Developmental Perspective of HRD - HRD at macro and micro levels:
Outcomes of HRD in the National and Organizational contexts. Qualities
and Competencies required in a HRD professional. Importance of HRD in
the Present Context. Development of HRD Movement in India. Difference
between HRM and HRD Organisation of HRD Function
 
UNIT II
Human Resource Development System: HRD Mechanisms – Climate and
Culture – Influences of Employee Behaviour – Model of Employee
Behaviour – External and Internal Factors Influencing Employee Behaviour.
Learning and HRD: Learning Principles – Maximizing Learning – Individual
Differences in the Learning Process – Learning Strategies and Styles –
Recent Developments in Instructional and Cognitive Psychology.
BUSE207 HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

UNIT III
Developing Human Capacity: Aptitude - Knowledge - Values - Skills of Human
Relations - Responsiveness - Loyalty and Commitment - Transparency -
Leadership Development. 
Evaluating HRD: Human Resource Accounting - HR Audit and Benchmarking -
Impact Assessment of HRD initiatives on the bottom-line of an organization.
UNIT IV
Training and Development: Meaning and Scope of training - education and
development; Training need analysis - Types of training Internal and external -
Outbound Training - Attitudinal training - Principles Involved in Selection of
Training Method – Techniques of Training Different Levels - Training effectiveness. 
UNIT V 
Career Planning and Development: Definition - objectives – importance – career
development – principles of theories career planning – steps involved –
succession planning. 
Recent Trends in HRD: Training for trainers and HRD professionals - Promoting
Research in HRD.
Human Resource Development
Meaning
Leonard Nadler introduced  the term HRD  in
1969.Human Resource Development ( HRD) is a
positive concept in human resource
management. It is based on the belief that an
investment in human beings is necessary and
will invariably bring in substantial benefits to the
organization in the long run. It aims at overall
development of human resources in order to
contribute other well being of the employees,
organization and the society at large.
Human Resource Development
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the
framework for helping employees develop
their personal and organizational skills,
knowledge, and abilities.
Human Resource Development
According to Harris and Desimone
HRD is a set of systematic and planned
activities designed by an organization to
provide its members with the necessary skill
to meet current and future job demands.
Human Resource Development
Definition
Human resource development (HRD) is a
planned process of continuously helping
employees to acquire and sharpen necessary
skills to efficiently perform their present and
future job assignments and also to equip them
with capabilities to discover and exploit their
inner potential for their own satisfaction as
well as for organizational effectiveness.
The Scope of HRD
The scope of HRD
i.  Recruiting the employees within the dimensions and
responsibilities for developing human resources.
ii.  Selecting those employees having potentialities for
development to meet the present and the future
organizational needs.
iii.  Analyzing, appraising and developing performance
of employees as individuals, members of a group and
organizational with a view to develop them by
identifying the gaps in skills and knowledge.
The Scope of HRD
iv. Help the employees to learn from their superiors
through performance consultation, performance
counseling and interviews.
v. Train all the employees in acquiring new technical
skills and knowledge.
vi. Develop the employees in managerial and
behavioral skills and knowledge.
vii. Planning for employee’s career and introducing
developmental programs. Planning for succession and
develop the employees.
The Scope of HRD
ix. Changing the employees behavioral through
organizational development.
x.   Employees learning through group dynamics.
xi. Learning through social and religious
interactions.
xii. Learning through job rotation, job enrichment
and empowerment.
xiii. Learning through quality circles and schemes
of workers participation in the management
Objectives of HRD
• To develop capabilities of all individuals working in an
organization in relation to their present and changing
future job requirements.
• To develop better interpersonal and employer-employee
relationships in an organization
• To develop team spirit
• To develop coordination among different units of an
organization
• To develop organizational health by continuous renewal
of individual capabilities (averting manpower
obsolescence), keeping pace with the technological
changes
Objectives of HRD
• Suitable need based training programs
• Prepare newly inducted staff to perform their
work with high level of competency and excellence.
• Promote a culture of creativity, innovation,
human development, respect and dignity.
• Achieve excellence in every aspect of working life.
• Create environment for the trainees conducive to
their character building.
Objectives of HRD
• Drive fear out of the work place
• Create conditions to enable employees to take
pride in their workmanship

The Major Objectives are


Equity
Employability and
Adaptability/Competitiveness
EVOLUTION OF HRD
EVOLUTION OF HRD
Early Apprenticeship Training Program
• The origins of Human Resource can be traced since
18th century by apprenticeship training.
• In this era, small shops operated by skilled artisans
produced virtually all household goods, such as
furniture, clothing & shoes
• To meet a growing demand for their products craft
shop owners had to employ additional workers
• Without vocational training or technical schools, the
shop keepers had to educate & train their own workers
EVOLUTION OF HRD
• For little or no wages, these trainees or
apprentices, learned the craft of their master,
usually working in the shop
• Apprentices who mastered skills were
considered “yeomen”, & could leave their
masters & establish their own shops
EVOLUTION OF HRD
Early Vocational Education Programs
• De Witt Clinton, in 1809, founded the first
recognized privately funded vocational
school, referred as manual school, in New
York
• The purpose was to provide occupational
training to unskilled young people who were
unemployed or had criminal records
EVOLUTION OF HRD
Early Factory Schools
• With the advent of the industrial revolution during late
1800‟s, machines began to replace the hand tools of the
artisans.
• “Scientific” management principles recognized the
significant role of machines in better & more efficient
production systems
• Specifically semi skilled workers using machines could
produce more than the skilled workers in small craft shops
• This marked the beginning of factories
• Factories made it possible to increase production by using
machines
EVOLUTION OF HRD
Early Training Programs for Semiskilled & Unskilled
Workers
• Both apprenticeship programs & factory schools
provided training for skilled workers, very few
companies during this time offered training programs
for unskilled workers
• This changed after 2 significant historical events.
• 1st was the introduction of model T by Henry Ford in
1913. Model T was the 1st car to be mass produced
using an assembly line, in which production required
only the training of semiskilled workers to perform
several tasks
EVOLUTION OF HRD
• The new assembly lines cut production costs significantly
& Ford lowered its prices, making the model T affordable
to a much larger segment
• With increasing demand for Model T, ford had to design
more assembly lines, & this provided more training
opportunities
• The 2nd historical event was to out break of World War
1. To meet the huge demand for military equipments,
many factories that produced non-military goods had to
retool their machinery & retain their workers, including
the semiskilled.
EVOLUTION OF HRD
The Human Relations Movement
• One of the undesirable by–products of the factory system
was the frequent abuse of unskilled workers, including
children, who were often subjected to unhealthy working
conditions, long hours and low pay.
• The appalling / awful conditions urge a national anti-factory
campaign Led by Mary Parker Follett & Lillian Gilbreth
• The campaign gave rise to the “human relations” movement
advocating more humane working conditions
• The human relations movement provided a more complex &
realistic understanding of workers
• The HR movement highlighted the importance of human
behaviour on the job.
EVOLUTION OF HRD
The Establishment of Training Profession
• With the outbreak of World War II, the industrial
sector was once again asked to retool its factories to
support the war efforts
• With the World War II, the initiative led to the
establishment of new training program, with larger
organizations & unions
• The federal government established ”Training with
Industry” (TWI) services to coordinate training
programs across defence – related industries
EVOLUTION OF HRD
Emergence of HRD
• During 1960’s & 70’s, professional trainers realized
that their role extended beyond the classroom
training
• The move towards employee involvement in many
organizations required trainers to coach & counsel
employees
• T&D therefore expanded to include interpersonal
skills such as coaching, group process facilitation &
problem solving
EVOLUTION OF HRD
• 1980’s saw greater changes affecting the T & D
• In late 70’s early 80’s, discussions centered on
rapidly expanding profession
• Influential books helped to clarify & define HRD
• Since 90’s efforts are made to strengthen the
strategic role of HRD, i.e. How HRD links to &
supports the goals & objectives of organization
Evolution of HRD in India
• The Concept of HRD came into picture only in
1970’s. Larsen  and  Toubro  was the pioneer
in India to design  and  implement  an
integrated  HRD  system in  the   1970’s.
Slowly other   companies   also started
establishing  it.
Evolution of HRD in India
• The first workshop of HRD was held in 1979. Xavier
Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur was the first
to establish a centre for HRD.
• A survey conducted in 1982 by T.V Rao has shown
that the organizations have started implementing HR
policies with a positive approach and the techniques
like open appraisal system, training and
development, grievance handling etc. were being
used in the developed organizations. 
• In 1985, the national HRD network was established.
Evolution of HRD in India
• To analyses HRD climate in Indian
organizations another survey was carried out
and it was found that there were
indifferences among employees due to which
the general climate was not very conducive.
The top management’s commitment and
devotion towards effective implementation of
HRD was also not satisfactory.
Evolution of HRD in India
• Slowly the need and importance of HRD evolved
and the Indian Government also started realizing
its importance. A separate ministry of Human
Resource Development created by the Central
Government is its result. Government is also
making valuable contribution by formulating new
policies to develop appropriate linkages between
education, public heath, adult literacy and other
social programmes so as to ensure the overall
development of people in the country.
Evolution of HRD in India
• In this modern scientific and technological era it’s
the   ardent    need   of   hour    to   develop new
and innovative HR practices by undergoing
research  and development operations. It has
been  well understood that  human  resource  is
the most important resource and without good,
effective and competent, human resource, all
other  resources  will be waste. It should be
mandatory for all organisations  to have a
separate HR  department working under a
dynamic, competent  and effective HR  manager.
EVOLUTION OF HRD IN
CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE
1) THE COMMODITY CONCEPT
Human resource was referred as ‘a
commodity’ to be bought and sold. Wages
were decided on the basis of demand and
supply forces. Government also did not care
much about the work force at that time
2) THE FACTOR OF PRODUCTION CONCEPT
Labour is treated as any other factor of
production, money, material, land, etc.
EVOLUTION OF HRD IN
CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE
3)THE GOODWILL CONCEPT
Welfare measures like safety, first aid, lunch room, rest
room, etc. these measures proved to be a source of boosting
up the morale of workers, and enhancing their performance
4) THE PATERNALISTIC CONCEPT
Management must assume a fatherly and protective attitude
towards employers. Paternalism does not mean merely
providing benefits but it signifies to satisfy various needs of
employees just as parents meet the requirements of the
children.
5) THE HUMANITARIAN CONCEPT
To improve the productivity, physical, social and
psychological needs of workers must be fulfilled.
EVOLUTION OF HRD IN
CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE
6) THE HUMAN RESOURCE CONCEPT
Employees are the most valuable assets of an organisation.
There should be a conscious effort to realize organizational
goals by satisfying needs and aspirations of employees
7) THE EMERGING CONCEPT: HRD
Employees should be accepted as partners in the progress
of a company. They should have a feeling that the
organisation is their own. To this end, managers must offer
better quality of working life and provide opportunities to
people to exploit their potential fully. There should be
opportunities for self fulfilment in one’s work.
Qualities of a HRD Manager
According  to Rao,  a successful HRD manager requires the   following  
skills:
I. Essential Qualities
• Positive thinking and positive attitudes towards people.
• A high  desire   to learn.
• Interest   in people.
• Helpful   attitude.
• Initiative  taking   or  proactivity.
• Practice   and  perseverance.
• Communication   skills.
• Objectivity in approach.
• Personal  example  and  sense   of discipline.
Qualities of an HRD Manager
II. Functional Competencies
• Knowledge of appraisal systems and their functioning in
various organisations.
• Knowledge of potential  appraisal, assessment centres, in
basket exercises and such other potential development
mechanisms.
• Knowledge of various tests, questionnaires and other
measures of human and organizational processes.
• Ability to  design    and   coordinate  training programs for
managers, supervisors   and
• Professional knowledge of human resource management
and basic understanding of the industrial relations.
Qualities of an HRD Manager
• Knowledge of organizational culture and organizational
diagnosis and development skills.
• Knowledge of Career Planning Practices and skills to
develop systems.
• Knowledge and skills in counselling.
• Knowledge and skills in behavioural science research.
• Knowledge of role analysis methods, team building
interventions, job rotation etc.
• Knowledge of learning theories and personality
development.
Qualities of an HRD Manager
III. Managerial Competencies
• Organising ability – the ability to identify
talent and organize work, maintenance and
monitoring and feedback of information.
• System design and development skills.
• Implementing skills.
• Change agentry skills.
• Leadership abilities.
Comparison Chart
BASIS FOR COMPARISON HRM HRD

Meaning Human Resource Human Resource


Management refers to the Development means a
application of principles of continuous development
management to manage the function that intends to
people working in the improve the performance of
organization. people working in the
organization.

Nature Management function. Subset of Human Resource


Management.

Function Reactive Proactive


Objective To improve the To develop the skills,
performance of the knowledge and
employees. competency of
employees.
Process Routine Ongoing
Dependency Independent It is a subsystem.
Concerned with People only Development of the
entire organization.
Responsibility Responsibility of human  Responsibility of HRD is
resource development is given to all managers at
given to the personnel/ various levels of the
human resource organisation.
management
department and
specifically to personnel
manager
Activity coverage Broad- include Human Part of HRM- includes
Utilization functions like functions such as
recruitment, selection, performance and
placement, compensation, potential appraisal,
etc. career planning, etc.

Focus and orientation Growth and prosperity of Adding value to


the organization as a individuals, teams, and
productive unit. organization as a human
system.

Outcome Socialism and integration Healthy organizational


of employees culture conductive to
with the organization organizational goal
accomplishment and
effectiveness.
HRD @ Macro and Micro Level 
Micro level
Generally, HRD at micro level involves an organization’s
manpower planning, selection, training, performance
appraisal, development, potential appraisal, compensation,
organizational development, etc. Human resource
development is taken up at the organization or firm level
Macro level
Concerned with the development of people for the
nation’s well being. It takes, health, capabilities, skills,
attitudes of people, etc. useful to the development of the
nation as a whole.
HRD @ Macro and Micro Level 
Micro Level
• Personnel Management is concerned with man at
work and with their group relationship, with a view to
achieve the objectives of the organization through
their maximum personal contribution towards the
work-goal achievement
• Considering the importance of human factor in the
achievement of organizational goals, the
management and development of human resources
acquires immense importance. To give human
resources its due importance and to treat it
differently from non-human factors of production.
HRD @ Macro and Micro Level
• HRD is the process of achieving the best fit between
individuals, jobs, organizations and the environment. It is
the process of bringing the people and organization together
so that the goals of each are met.
• The HRD outcomes may include a higher level of employee
competence, better utilization of human resources through
higher motivation and commitment. The HRD outcomes can
influence the business goals of the organization.
• Good HRD practices may build the competencies and
commitment of employees to such an extent that they
make sure that the other variables are taken care of to a
great extent.
HRD @ Macro and Micro Level
Macro Level
• The economic development of a national economy
normally depends upon the availability and efficient
utilization of its resources. So far the development
experts and economists were concentrating more on
physical resources and physical capital formation.
• During the recent years it is being increasingly realized
that the importance of Human Resources cannot be
underestimated in the context of socio-economic
development and transformation in countries like
India.
HRD @ Macro and Micro Level
• Of all the factors of production, man has the highest
priority and is the most significant factor of production
and plays a pivotal role in the area of productivity and
quality.
• Human resource development means accumulation of
human capital and it's effective utilization for the
development of economy.
• Human capital is produced by an application of
productive resources to raw labour. The result of this
particular application is a trained worker whose
enhanced productive capacity results in a stream of
services of increased value.
Growth in GDP by investment in Human
Resources
(a) The higher the investment in human capital,
the greater would be the efficiency of workforce
per unit of output resulting in wealth generation
in the productive segment of the economy.
(b) A country which makes significant achievement
in HRD is generally supposed to make major
strides in overall growth of the economy.
(c) There is a strong correlation between HRD and
economic growth.
Growth in GDP by investment in Human
Resources
(d) The investment in HRD may get reflected in GDP growth
of the country. However it does not imply an increase in
industrial production and increased productivity in the
corporate sector.
(e) The corporate sector has to evolve its own HRD
strategies for the increase in labour efficiency.
(f) If there is proper development of human resources by
raising human capabilities at the gross-root level;
balanced absorption of human resources among major
economic activities can be achieved. Thus human
resources are the most strategic and crucial determinants
of growth.
Growth in GDP by investment in Human
Resources
(g) Better health and nutrition improves
longevity and enable them to maintain higher
productivity for longer periods of life. The
income generating life span increases.
Importance of HRD
• Human resource development now a days is considered as
the key to higher productivity, better relations and
greater profitability for any organisation. Appropriate HRD
provides unlimited benefits to the concerned organisation.
• HRD (Human Resource Development) makes people more
competent. HRD develops new skill, knowledge and
attitude of the people in the concern organisations.
• An environment of trust and respect can be created with
the help of human resource development.
• Helps the organisation in keeping the right person at the
right place for the right time and making its effective use.
Importance of HRD
• With appropriate HRD programme, people become more
committed to their jobs. People are assessed on the basis of
their performance by having an acceptable performance
appraisal system.
• It improves the all round growth of the employees. HRD also
improves team spirit in the organisation. They become more
open in their behaviour. Thus, new values can be generated.
• Improves   the  communication    system   to  open   the
channel    of   communication     so   that  every one
understands the other person in a better way and there is
no chance of ambiguity.
Importance of HRD
• Acceptability toward change can be created with the help of
HRD. Employees found themselves better equipped with
problem-solving capabilities.
• It also helps to create the efficiency culture In the organisation.
It leads to greater organisational effectiveness. Resources are
properly utilised and goals are achieved in a better way.
• It also helps to collect useful and objective data on employees
programmes and policies which further facilitate better human
resource planning.
• Makes employees ready to change and undergo transformation
and relearn after unlearning what they had already learnt.
Importance of HRD
• It improves the participation of worker in the
organisation. This improve the role of worker and
workers feel a sense of pride and achievement
while performing their jobs.
• Hence, it can be concluded that HRD provides a lot
of benefits in every organisation. So, the
importance of concept of HRD should be recognised
and given a place of eminence, to face the present
and future challenges in the organisation.
HRD Functions
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
• Human Resource Development (HRD) is an organizational
framework for improving and developing their human
capital for which the management implement certain
sub-systems or methods.
• The intended purpose of implementing such HRD
instruments is to gain a competitive edge in market place
through a competent and capable work force.
• Methods of HRD can focus on teaching the necessary
skills to the employees on the job, more specific abilities
that help to accomplish any task or responsibilities in an
organization; it improves technical and communicative
skills which improves the efficiency of employees
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Different types of sub-systems/ mechanisms
• Performance Appraisal ƒ
• Potential Appraisal and Development ƒ
• Career Planning ƒ
• Training and Development ƒ
• Career Development ƒ
• Organizational Development ƒ
• Role Analysis ƒ
• Employee Welfare and Quality of Work Life ƒ
• Self-Renewal and Institution Building ƒ
• Rewards ƒ
• Quality Circles, Task forces and Assignment Groupsƒ
• Employee Counseling and Coaching
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Performance Appraisal
• It is an indispensable aspect of HRD of analyzing the
performance of employees which enables the management
to understand where their people stand, what is been
expected from them and what they are actually contributing.
• Performance Appraisal is the most crucial HRD instrument,
under which the performance of the employees is
periodically appraised in the light of the difficulties faced by
the employees, along with the identification of their growth
needs.
• The purpose of conducting such an analysis is to assess the
present position of employees and to forecast the need for
training.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Performance Appraisal consists of
• Job Analysisƒ
• Establishing Performance Standardsƒ
• Communicating Performance Standards to the
employeesƒ
• Measurement of actual performanceƒ
• Comparison of Actual with the Standards developed
and evaluating deviations in performanceƒ
• Taking Corrective Action, if necessary
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Potential Appraisal and Development
• The term ‘potential’ refers to the abilities and skills possessed by
an employee. It is different from performance appraisal which
shows an employee’s current performance in his existing role.
• The purpose of Potential Appraisal is to develop latent abilities of
individuals. It provides all important information regarding
individuals that could be beneficial for them in framing career
opportunities.
• It ensures a good match between the potential of employees
and their job.
• The appraisal is carried out on the basis of (i) supervisor’s
observations, (ii) data retrieved from the earlier performance of
the employee’s, (iii) performance on roles in simulated settings
related to a new position.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Career Planning
• Planning of Career is of utmost importance for the growth
of employees.
• The first and the foremost step in career planning is to make
one’s SWOT analysis.
• Career must be planned in accordance with the education,
training, job search and work experience. Employees
should trace their career in the light of their individual
needs and capabilities.
• They should be aware of their potentiality and capabilities
that could exploit the available opportunities and career
should be planned accordingly.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Organizational Development
• It intends to change beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of
organizations that they can better become accustomed to new
technologies, markets and challenges at the dizzying rate of
change itself.
• Since organization is an open system, it must develop itself by
adopting various changes
• It provides a framework in which changes in climate and culture
of the organization takes place. It enables an organization to
harness human potential for attaining organizational objectives.
• O.D. includes survey feedback, team-building inter personal
sensitivity training, M.B.O, brain storming, process consultation,
stress management, etc.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Employee Welfare and Quality of Work life
• Welfare of employees should be the prior issue among the
managers in an organization. Since employees are considered
to be the greatest asset in any organization, their welfare must
be given preference by the management
• Proper healthy and hygienic working conditions and a
cohesive environment must be provided to them which could
motivate them for exhibiting better performance at work.
• The work life of the employees should be of good quality so
that they could feel comfortable at work and a sense of
belongingness would be developed among them, enabling
them to perform in an organized and optimum manner.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Rewards
• Reward is the appreciation of work in the form of bonus,
promotion, salary increment, control of preferred job
assignment etc which enhance the morale of employees and
motivate them to work with more zeal and enthusiasm. It is
the utmost important task of HRD department to look after the
reward that has to be given to the deserving employees over
and above their usual wages and salaries.
• Rewards are of two types viz; Intrinsic and Extrinsic.
• Intrinsic rewards are those which are received by the
individuals themselves as a result of satisfaction on job.
Extrinsic reward on the other hand is in the form of direct
compensation to be linked with the assessment of performance
of employees at work.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Quality Circle, Task forces and Assignment groups
• Quality Circle is a small group of workers engaged in similar
type of job. It is a participative type of management
system which enables the people involved to seek guidance
from a trainer to understand certain issues related to their
job and to find out solutions for the same.
• They meet voluntarily with each other on regular basis for
an hour per week, during office hours under the supervision
of a supervisor who provide them required training. It
promotes respect and understanding among the
subordinates and managers and it helps in maintaining
healthy relationship in an organization
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Training and Development
• Training refers to the systematic process of developing the
competencies relating to the job of employees for the
present and future roles and responsibilities in the
organization.
• Training Programmes are designed to increase the
knowledge, skills and capabilities of the employees in
order to make them competent to face the dynamic
challenges of globalization.
• To be effective, training programme should be
premeditated in a systematic way- backed up by the careful
needs assessment and thorough analysis of results.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Role Analysis
• Role is set of expected behavior patterns attributed to a person
occupying a given position in a unit. It is a process of accumulating,
examining and recording the information to define the requirement
of the roles in order to provide a basis for the role profile.
• Role analysis is a technique of maximizing the contribution of
human beings in attainment of organizational goals. It lays
emphasis over the demands made by the role holder, of what they
need to learn and of what they are capable of performing.
However, such analysis should be conducted periodically and must
be designed according to the constant changes taking place in
internal and external environment in which the organization exists.
The role should be developed in a way that could create
compatibility among the organizational strategies and the
employee’s needs.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Self-renewal System
• Organizations are the interactive social system of our
society. They must adapt themselves with the ever-
changing environment in which they exist.
• Proper research regarding the opportunities and threats
must be conducted which should be backed by regular
feedback. Self-renewal system implies that an organization
must keep itself updated and upgraded with time. It
should be ready to face any type of competition and must
be competent enough to survive in the era of cut-throat
competition. Self-renewal system requires role efficacy,
team building etc. activities for employees
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Employee Counseling
• It is an essential instrument of HRD. It is a process of
dealing with the emotional problems and issues of the
employees to make them feel light and relaxed at work.
• It may be of different types viz; appraisal counseling,
career counseling, disciplinary counseling etc.
• It is being done to enable the employees to have positive
attitude towards work and to improve their performance.
Employee counseling is a process of handling the
psychology of the employees and making them happy at
work so that they could feel gratified while working which
ultimately leads to improved and enriched performance.
HRD Mechanisms/Sub-Systems
Career Development
• The action plans undertaken by the organization and the
individual employee to meet out the demands of their job
and career aspirations is to be termed as Career
Development.
• It refers to a set of programmes designed to match an
individual’s needs, abilities and career goals with current
and future opportunities in the organization.
• Since, Career Development focuses on future prospects of
development and growth; it has essentially a long term
orientation. It consists of all those activities that could
promote the development of an individual’s career
HRD Culture & Climate
HRD Culture
• Denison (1996) suggested that ‘Culture’ refers
to the deep structure of organizations, which
is rooted in the values, beliefs and
assumptions held by organizational
members.
• In contrast, ‘Climate’ refers to those aspects
of the environment that are consciously
perceived by organizational members.
HRD Culture
• Organizational culture is a system of shared
assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs
how people behave in organizations. These shared
values have a strong influence on the people in the
organization and dictate how they dress, act, and
perform their jobs.
• Every organization develops and maintains a unique
culture, which provides guidelines and boundaries
for the behavior of the members of the organization
HRD Culture
• Organizational or corporate culture is the pattern
of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and
assumptions that may not have been articulated
but shape the ways in which people in
organizations behave and things get done.
• ‘Values’ refer to what is believed to be important
about how people and organizations behave.
• ‘Norms’ are the unwritten rules of behaviour.
HRD Culture
Characteristics of culture
Furnham and Gunter (1993)
• It is difficult to define.
• It is multi-dimensional, with many different components
at different levels.
• It is not particularly dynamic and ever-changing.
• It takes time to establish and therefore time to change a
corporate culture.
• Culture represents the ‘social glue’ and generates a ‘we-
feeling’.
HRD Culture
The values and norms that are the basis of culture
are formed in following ways;
• over a period of time,
• by the leaders in the organization,
• is formed around critical incidents,
• develops from the need to maintain effective
working relationships among organization
members,
• is influenced by the organization’s environment.
HRD Culture
• Culture is learnt over a period of time, there
are two ways in which this learning takes place.
THE TRAUMA MODEL
– in which members of the organization learn to cope
with some threat by the erection of defence
mechanisms.
THE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT MODEL
– where things that seem to work become embedded
and entrenched.
HRD Culture
Components of Culture
▶Values – Explicit or Implicit
▶Norms
▶Artefacts
▶Management style
HRD Culture
Artefacts
• are the visible and tangible aspects of an
organization that people hear, see or feel and
which contribute to their understanding of the
organization’s culture.
• can include such things as the working
environment, the tone and language used in
official environment.
• can be very revealing.
HRD Culture
Management style
-is the approach managers use to deal with
people. It is also called ‘leadership Style’, it
consists of the following extremes:
• Charismatic/Non-Charismatic.
• Autocratic/Democratic.
• Enabler/Controller.
• Transactional/Transformational.
HRD Culture
Classifications of organizational culture
• Power-oriented
• People-oriented
• Task-oriented
• Role-oriented
Supporting and changing cultures
• It may not be possible to define an ideal culture or to prescribe
how it can be developed.
• But embedded cultures exert considerable influence on OB and
therefore performance.
• If there is an appropriate and effective culture, it would be
desirable to take steps to support or reinforce it.
• If the culture is inappropriate, attempts should be made to
determine what needs to be changed and to develop and
implement plans for change.
HRD Climate
HRD climate is the perception that the employees have
about the policies, procedures, practices, and conditions
which exist in the working environment.

Organisational climate is also referred to as the “situational


determinants” or “Environmental determinants” which
affect the human behaviour.

HRD Climate has three dimensions (T.V. Rao and E. Abraham)


• General climate,
• OCTAPAC culture and
• Implementation of HRD mechanisms
HRD Climate
The general climate
The general climate deals with the
importance given to human resources
development in general by the top
management and line managers.
HRD Climate
The OCTAPAC items deal with the extent to which are
• Openness
• Confrontation
• Trust
• Autonomy
• Pro-activity
• Authenticity and
• Collaboration
valued and promoted in the organization.
HRD Climate
• Openness is there when employees feel free to discuss their ideas,
activities and feelings with each other.
• Confrontation is bringing out problems and issues in open with a
view to solving them rather than hiding them for fear of hurting or
getting hurt.
• Trust is taking people at their face value and believing what they say.
• Autonomy is giving freedom to let people work independently with
responsibility.
• Pro-activity is encouraging employees to take an initiative and risks.
• Authenticity is the tendency on the part of people to do what they
say.
• Collaboration is to accept interdependencies to be helpful to each
other and work as teams
HRD Climate
HRD climate is characterised by the tendencies such as
• Treating employees as the most important resources
• Perceiving that developing employees is the job of every manager
• Believing in the capability of employees
• Communicating openly
• Encouraging risk taking and Experimentation
• Making efforts to help employees recognize their strengths and
weaknesses
• Creating a general climate of trust
• Collaboration and autonomy
• Supportive personnel policies, and Supportive HRD practices

An optimal level of development climate is essential for facilitating


HRD activities
HRD Climate
Organizations with
• Better learning
• Training and Development Systems
• Reward and Recognition and
• Information Systems
promotes a favorable HRD climate.
Influences of Employee Behaviour
Employee Behaviour
Employee behaviour, also called organizational
behaviour, is a result of factors that influence
the ways employees respond to their work,
leadership and customers. Identifying the
internal and external factors that affect their
behaviour can help the company understand
why employees are committed and motivated.
Influencing Factors of Employee Behaviour

Internal Factors
1) Perception of oneself
2) Self-esteem
3) Personal Expectations
4) Salary
5) Interest
6) Job satisfaction
7) The achievement of the work produced
External Factors
1)organization where people work
2) working group where someone joins
3) The type and nature of work
4) The situation of the working environment.
Model of Employee Behaviour
Influences of Employee Behaviour
Performance Expectations
Pygmalion Effect
The Pygmalion Effect explains that people tend to perform up to the level that
others expect of them. The concept of the Pygmalion Effect is that having high
expectations of people will produce better results
Golem Effect
When people have low expectations for a person, that person tends to
perform poorly, thus meeting the low expectations others have. This is the
Golem Effect and is the opposite of the Pygmalion Effect, in which someone
performs to a high level when others have high expectations. 

Outcomes
Personal outcomes – are valuable to the individual such as pay, promotion,
rewards, recognition, motivation etc.
Organisational outcomes – are valuable to the organisation such as
productivity, product quality, team work, satisfaction, customer delight etc..
Need Activation-Need Satisfaction Process
Attitude & Behaviour
Learning
Learning
• Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying
existing, knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, or preferences
• Learning is Measurable and relatively permanent change in
behaviour through experience, instruction, or study. Whereas
individual learning is selective, group learning is essentially
political its outcomes depend largely on power playing in the
group. Learning itself cannot be measured, but its results can
be. 
• In the words of Harvard Business School psychologist Chris
Argyris, learning is "detection and correction of error” where
an error means "any mismatch between our intentions and
what actually happens.“
General Principles of Learning
General Principles of Learning
• Readiness
• Exercise
• Effect
• Primacy
• Recency
• Intensity
• Requirement
• Freedom
General Principles Of Learning
Readiness
Readiness implies a degree of concentration and eagerness.
Individuals learn best when they are physically, mentally, and
emotionally ready to learn, and do not learn well if they see no
reason for learning. Getting students ready to learn, creating
interest by showing the value of the subject matter, and providing
continuous mental or physical challenge, is usually the instructor’s
responsibility.
Exercise
The principle of exercise states that those things most often
repeated are best remembered. It is the basis of drill and practice.
It has been proven that students learn best and retain information
longer when they have meaningful practice and repetition. The key
here is that the practice must be meaningful. It is clear that practice
leads to improvement only when it is followed by positive feedback.
General Principles Of Learning
Effect
The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the
student. It has a direct relationship to motivation. The principle of
effect is that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a
pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that learning is weakened when
associated with an unpleasant feeling. Every learning experience
should contain elements that leave the student with some good
feelings.
Primacy
The state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable,
impression. Things learned first create a strong impression in the
mind that is difficult to erase.
Recency
The principle of recency states that things most recently learned
are best remembered.
General Principles Of Learning
Intensity
The principle of intensity implies that a student will learn more from
the real thing than from a substitute.
Requirement
The law of requirement states that "we must have something to
obtain or do something." It can be ability, skill, instrument or
anything that may help us to learn or gain something. A starting
point or root is needed.
Freedom
The principle of freedom states that things freely learned are best
learned. Since learning is an active process, students must have
freedom: freedom of choice, freedom of action, freedom to bear
the results of action — these are the three great freedoms that
constitute personal responsibility. If no freedom is granted, students
may have little interest in learning.
General Principles Of Learning
Principles of Learning
(1) Learning needs a purposeful activity.
(2) Knowledge of results facilitates learning.
(3) Reinforcement principle helps in learning effectively to achieve
improvement in performance.
(4) Problems can be solved through learning. Challenges stimulate
learning.
(5) Competition stimulates learning.
(6) Logical and orderly teaching is a must for learning.
(7) Effective learning needs continuous evaluation.
(8) Transfer of application of knowledge stimulates learning.
(9) Appreciation and credit provide strong base for learning.
(10) Learning is a process. So knowledge can be acquired gradually
and the rate of learning can be plotted graphically. Learning curve
reveals the pace of process of learning.
Principles of Learning
(11) In learning of manual skills, distributed practice is more
effective than massed practice.
(12) Usually people forget after learning. To offset the effect of
forgetting, the principle of over learning to consolidate learning
is used.
(13) “Practice makes perfect” is another important principle of
learning.
(14) Learning brings about modification in behaviour.
(15) Learning is effective when learner possess the knowledge of
the standards required.
(16) Learning is affected by the feelings of teacher and student.
(17) Difficult and complex tasks lead to greater chance of
remembering.
(18) Learning is facilitated by external incentives and internal
satisfaction.
Individual Differences
According to the Dictionary of Education
• Individual differences stand for the variation or
deviations among individuals in regard to a single
characteristic or number of characteristics.
• It stands for those differences which in their totality
distinguish one individual from another. So, we can
say that individual differences is the differences among
humans that distinguish or separate them from one
another and makes one as a single unique individual.
Individual Differences

Types of Individual Differences


Broadly individual difference may be classified
into two categories such as inherited traits
and acquired traits
Types of Individual Differences
Types of Individual Differences
•  Average Intelligence
• Attitude
• Values
• Self Concept
• Special Abilities
• Differences of Background
• Differences Relating of Learning
• Alacrity in Learning
• Mental Age
• Motor Ability- Includes manual dexterity, rate of muscular movement and resistance
to fatigue
• Gender Differences
• Nationality
• Economic Situation
• Difference of Interests
• Personality