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LECTURE- 10

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GAS CAP EXPANSION DRIVE
INTRODUCTION
PRESENCE OF FREE
GAS RETARD THE
DECLINE OF PRESSURE
OIL VISCOSITY WILL
BE LOWER THAN THE
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE
IN UNDER - SATURATED
OIL RESERVOIRS THE
ULTIMATE RECOVERY
FACTOR IS THE SUM OF
1. RECOVERY DUE TO
FLUID EXPANSION
2. RECOVERY IS DUE
TO THE RELEASE
OF SOLUTION GAS
1. SATURATED OIL RESERVOIRS
 EFFECT OF GAS CAP
 ELEMENTS OF RECOVERY
 INFLUENCE OF GAS CAP SIZE
 CONTINUOUS & UNIFORM FORMATIONS
 GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION
 PREFERRENCES
 PROPERTY INTERRELATIONS
 SUMMARY
 DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO
 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
 DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO
 EXAMPLE
2. GAS CAP GAS(GAS RESERVOIRS)
 GAS SCENARIOS OPTIONS
 RECOVERY OPTIONS
 RECOVERY FACTOR
 EXAMPLES
1 SATURATED RESERVOIRS & GAS CAP
(1) An artificial gas cap may be formed
because of:
(a) Gravitational segregation of oil
and free gas phases that has been
released below the bubble point, or
(b) Injection of gas which takes place
at the higher structural positions of
the reservoir
(2) Reservoirs with an initial gas cap, that
is oil is initially saturated.
2 EFFECT OF GAS CAP
Initial gas cap results in negligible liquid
expansion energy. Still, the recoveries in the gas
cap drives are high due to following facts.
1. Improved sweep of oil to wells resulting
from expansion of a gas cap that displaces oil
downward toward the wells.
An increase in GOR is evident in this case.
2. Gas cap retards the pressure decline and
therefore liberation of gas within the oil
zone. This will improve recovery by reducing
the producing gas oil ratios of the wells.
CROSS SECTION HIGH ANGLE OF
DIP

TOP VIEW

LOCATED
AT
LOWER SECTION
3 ELEMENTS OF RECOVERY
The recoveries from gas cap reservoirs
is dependent on :
(1) Size of the gas cap relative to the
oil zone,
(2) Continuity and uniformity of
formation, and
(3) Presence of good gravitational
segregation characteristics.
 INFLUENCE OF GAS CAP SIZE:
Influence of gas cap size may be given as:
Normally the larger the size of the gas cap the
larger the recovery.
Remarks:
However, if the size of oil zone is thin compared to
the gas cap size then, this configuration is a
disadvantage due to a high gas cusping possibility.
 CONTINUOUS &UNIFORM
FORMATIONS
Continuous uniform formations reduce
channeling of the expanding gas cap
ahead of the oil and bypassing of oil in
the less permeable formations.
 GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION
The basic reasons attributed to Gravity
Segregation are:
(a) Low oil viscosity
(b) High permeability and
(c) Low oil velocities.
4 PREFERRENCES
• Gas cap is neither blown nor produced
• The condition of pressure maintenance
are preferred.
• By definition oil must be saturated at
the oil gas contact,
• At higher pressure, free gas should be
controlled ( i.e. not produced directly
from producing wells,) better will be
productivities when producing gas oil
ratios can be maintained.
5 PROPERTY INTERRELATIONS
(1) Smaller the value of So / Bo greater will be
oil recovery.
(2) Higher is the abandonment pressure greater will be
oil recovery
(3) Similarly, ko / µo will be greater at any given
saturation( and so ko ) under pressure
maintenance conditions due to lower oil viscosity
thus resulting in better Economic Limit.*

Factors for Economic Limit


Rate of production required to pay for operating cost
and direct overheads. Flow rate depends on k o / µ o
6 SUMMARY
CHARACTERISTIS DESCRIPTION
RESERVOIR DECLINES SLOWLY
PRESSURE AND CONTINUOUSLY
SURFACE GOR RISE CONTINUOUSLY
WATER ABSENT OR
RODUCTION NEGLIGIBLE
WELL LONG LIFE
BEHAVIOUR DEPENDING ON SIZE
OF GAS CAP
EFFICIENCY VERY EFFICIENT
EXPECTED OIL 20 TO 40% OF OOIP
RECOVERY
SUMMARY
7  DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO

The wells may be spaced on a regular


pattern .
Completion should be made low for
maximum oil recovery and minimum gas
production.
In thin and high angle dip dipping beds,
if the wells are place in irregular pattern
 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

Recovery under gas cap drive reservoirs


may be given as:

(1 – Sw ) Sor
N = 7758 AhΦ ( - )
Boa Boa
Where Sor is residual oil saturation that
varies between 10 t0 20% and can be
determined by flood pot tests.
Residual gas saturation on
core plugs
• Following form of Material Equation can
successfully used as Performance Prediction tool
in GAS CAP EXPANSION DRIVE
MECHANISM (Havlena Odeh Modification)
F= N ( Eo + m Eg)
• The application/use of this equation ensures
greater degree of certainty and confidence due to
its applicability conditions with unknown
variables / parameters and their interrelations .
• The interpretation is based on straight line
concept of performance prediction
LET IT BE KNOWN

Essential Conditions
(1) Gas oil contact must be at saturation
or bubble point pressure.
(2) Reservoir can be described using
uniform PVT properties.
(3) Natural water influx is negligible
(4) Pore compressibility is negligible.
NS
TIO
DI
N
CO
(1) When m is uncertain

(2) When N is unknown and m


has greater degree of certainty

(3) When both m and N are


uncertain.
? (1) When m is unknown
For a gas cap reservoir the least certain
parameter is m, this may be attributed to the
fact:
The level of the oil gas contact is established
by exploratory well and these wells are not
usually drilled to know the extent of gas cap
i.e. there is uncertainty about the sealing
fault.
The value of N is fairly well defined from the
information obtained from the producing
wells and also has support of volumetric
calculations
Uncertainty in value of m
Putting all elements in material balance equation:
KNOWN USING LINEAR
NpBo + Np(Rp-Rs)Bg = N(Bo-Boi) + N(Rsi-Rs)Bg
FACT +[mN Boi( –1) ] + (We – Bg MBE EQUATION
+(1+m)N Boi ( Cw Sw +Cf) Δ P Bgi
(1-Swi)

Havlena and Odeh, MBE as Linear Equation:


F= NpBo + Np(Rp-Rs)Bg +Wp Bw
Eo = (Bo-Boi) + (Rsi-Rs)Bg
Bg
Eg = [Boi ( –1) ]
Bgi
Ef w = (1+m)N Boi ( Cw Sw +Cf) Δ P
(1-Swi)
We= C∆p Q ( ∆tD)

F = N Eo + N m BEg
ti +C∆p Q ( ∆t )
---
Bgi D
Method
1 Make a plot of F as a function of ( Eo + m Eg ) with
assume value of m
[F= N ( Eo + m Eg)]
POSSIBILITIES

A If the correct value m has been chosen, then the


resulting plot should be a straight line passing
through origin with slope as N.

B If the value of m is too small or too large, the plot


will deviate above or below the line respectively.
Determining correct value of m
ADVANTAGE OF THE METHOD IS THAT THE
STRAIGHT LINE MUST PASS THROUGH THE ORIGIN,
WHICH THEREFORE ACTS AS A CONTROL POINT

CONTROL POINT
(2) When N is unknown and m has
greater degree of certainty

If F versus (Eo + m Eg)


on a cartesian scale
makes a straight line
through the origin
with a slope of N,
then N can be
obtained as a slope
of the straight line
Confirmation

Conclusion: m = Slope
(3) When both m and N are
3
uncertain
• In this case the following equation has
been suggested for interpretation:
F Eg
=N+mN
Eo Eo
• A plot of F/Eo versus Eg / Eo is made.
• Intercept yield the value of N and slope
provide the value of m N when the
value of Eg / Eo is 0 (Zero)
A plot of F/ Eo versus Eg / Eo need to be linear with
N as intercept and slop will be represented by mN

Use the value of N obtained to calculate m


Example
A gas cap reservoir had an initial oil volume N as 115
x 106stb.The cumulative oil production -Np and
cumulative gas oil ratio- Rp are listed in the table as a
function of pressure along with necessary PVT data
under the assumption as Pi = Pb= 3330 psia.
Further, The size of the gas cap is uncertain with the
best estimate, based on geological formation, giving
the value of m = 0.4.(Ten.)

Is this figure m = 0.4 is confirmed by the production


and pressure history?
If not what is the correct value of m?
Provided Data
Pressure Np Rp Bo Rs Bg
psia MMstb Scf/stb Rb/stb scf/stb Rb/scf
3330 1.2511 510 .00087
(Pi = Pb)
3150 3.295 1050 1.2353 477 .00092

3000 5.903 1060 1.2222 450 .00096

2850 8.852 1160 1.2122 426 .00101

2700 11.503 1235 1.2022 401 .00107

2550 14.513 1265 1.1922 375 .00113

2400 17.730 1300 1.1822 352 .00120


SOLUTION
VITAL RELATIONS
F= N ( Eo + m Eg)
F = Np (Bo + ( Rp – Rs ) Bg +Wp Bw (rb)
Eo = ( Bo – Boi ) + (Rsi – Rs ) Bg (rb/stb)
Bg
Eg = Boi ( B gi - 1 ) (rb/stb)
Values for all the relations
The values of these parameters, based on the
production, pressure and PVT data (provided) are
calculated and tabulated again at m = 0.4, 0.5 & 0.6
Calculated
data
Pressure F Eo Eg Eo + m E g
psia MMrb rb/stb rb/stb (rb/stb)

m =.4 m =.5 m =.6


=pi

3330
3150 5.807 .01456 .07190 .0433 .0505 .0577
3000 10.671 .02870 .12942 .0805 .0934 .1064
2850 17.302 .04695 .20133 .1275 .1476 .1677
2700 24.094 .06773 .28761 .1828 .2115 .2403
2550 31.898 .09365 .37389 .2432 .2806 .3180
2400 41.130 .12070 .47456 .3105 .3580 .4054
STEP-1: Make a graph using equation -1 &
theoretical value with specified value of N
(1) The theoretical straight line for this problem can be
drawn in advance.(Blue Line Curve)
(2) This line should pass through origin and has a slope
of 115 x 106stb.(ref.fig.-blue line)

1
F
(MMstb)

Eo + m Eg (rb/stb)
STEP-2: Make a graph using equation -1 &
calculated data value with specified value of N
(3) Then the plot is made of calculated data (in the
table) for the value m =0.4
(4) The points lie above the required line (red color) –
indicating this value is too small.

2
F Eo + m Eg (rb/stb)
(MMstb)
STEP-3:
Repeat the process for other values of m
• This procedure has been repeated for values of m= 0.5 and
0.6
• It can be observed that the plot for m-0.5 coincides with
the required straight line.

3
F
(MMstb)

Eo + m Eg (rb/stb)
Remarks: Still N is uncertain
• Application of technique relies critically
upon the fact that N is known.
• Otherwise all the three lines could be
interpreted as straight lines (with slight
variations) giving the following values:
m=0.4 N= 132 x106
m=0.5 N= 114 x106
m=0.6 N= 101 x106
4
Method : when N and m –both are uncertain
Data in the fore given Slide-31(tables) is used to
calculate F / Eo & Eg / Eo and same is tabulated as:

Pressure. psia F/E o, stb Eg / Eo


3330(pi)
3150 398.8 x 106 4.938
3000 371.8 4.509
2850 368.5 4.288
2700 355.7 4.246
2550 340.6 3.992
2400 340.8 3.932
Method :
when N and m –both are are uncertain

F/E o, stb

Eg / Eo
Interpretation

• The plot of F/Eo and Eo + m Eg is drawn over a limited


range of each variable.
• Best fit for the data presented in the table
is represented by the solid line .(graph)
• It yield the value of desired parameters as:
N=108 x 106 stb
m= 0.54
GAS CAP GAS(GAS
RESERVOIRS)
• The standard cubic feet (scf) of gas initially in place (G)
is simply a product of three factors:
• The reservoir pore volume
• Initial gas saturation
• A volume ratio (initial gas formation volume factor)
1
G = 7758 AhΦ(1 – Swi ) -------- Bgi= ps Ti Zi /pi Ts Zs
Bgi
At any subsequent pressure x,the standard cubic feet of
gas is given as:
G = 7758 AhΦ(1 – Sw ) 1 Bg= psT Z /p Ts Zs
----
Bg =0.0283(460 + T ) z/p
Remarks: all notations are pre defined.
 Gas Scenarios Options

1. Volumetric equation is useful for estimating gas at


any stage of depletion.
2. During the development period, it provides best
estimate for lease.
3. Later in when the reservoir is defined, it provides
checks on MBE estimates
 RECOVERY OPTIONS

For natural gas reservoirs under volumetric control (no


water influx or water production), the cumulative gas
produced (Gp) at any pressure-between the volumetric
estimates of gas in place at the initial and subsequent
pressure conditions is given as:
1 1
Gp = 43,560 AhΦ(1 – Swi )(---- )- ---
Bgi Bg

If the gas formation volume factor Bga at assumed


abandonment is substituted for Bg, one gets the
cumulative gas recovery at abandonment pressure.
 RECOVERY FACTOR
• Recovery factor of gas reservoir is a function of abandonment
pressure.
• Lowering of abandonment pressure increases the gas recovery.
• The factors affecting abandonment pressure are:
price of the gas
productive indices of well
size of the field
Its location with respect to market.*
• Generally abandonment pressure is considered as 100 psi/ft
1000ft of depth Lowering of abandonment pressure increases
the gas recovery.

* If the market is transmission pipe line, the operating pressure of the line is
controlling factor in the ultimate determination of abandonment pressure.
Recovery Factor

• If abandonment pressure is known, recovery factor can be calculated.


• Expressed in percent of initial gas in place, the Recovery Factor is
ER =100(Bga - Bgi ) / Bga
= 100 ( 1 - Bgi/ Bga )
= 100 ( 1 – pa zi / piza)

Remarks: all notations are pre defined.


 EXAMPLES
Find the pore volume occupied by gas in a gas cap
where gas cap volume to oil zone volume ratio is
4.Initial oil in place is 850STB and Oil formation
volume factor is 1.28.
Gas Cap vol.= mN Boi=4x850x1.28 =4352
Find the volume occupied by remaining oil where
original oil in place was 1800STB and cumulative
production was 987STB.oil formation volume factor
was 1.758.
Vol. of remaining oil= (N – Np) Boi = (1800-987)x1.758=1430
THANKS