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Types Of Learners With Difficulty

In Basic Learning And Applying


Knowledge
(Difficulty In Reading, Writing And
Spelling, Counting And Calculating)
DIFFICULTY IN
READING (Dyslexia)
A specific difficulty in
basic learning and
applying knowledge that
is characterized with
precise and/or fluent
word recognition and by
poor spelling and
decoding abilities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF • Difficulty in learning
LEARNERS WITH DIFFICULTY
connections between letters
IN READING
and sounds
• Word and letters reversals
• Frequently adds and/or forgets • Difficulty in understanding
letters in a word rhyming words
• Recognize words that begin • Confusing small words, such
with the same sound as at and to
• Remembering simple sequences • Sit still for a reasonable period
of time
• Difficulty keeping place when • Poor spelling
reading
• Avoids reading aloud • Difficulty organizing ideas to
speak or write
• Avoids writing tasks • Left and right confusion
• Slow to memorize alphabets and • Trouble following oral
math facts instruction
• Poor sequencing of numbers
ACCOMMODATIONS TO TYPES OF ACCOMMODATION
SUPPORT LEARNERS WITH Setting Presentation
DIFFICULTY IN READING Study carrel Repeat directions
Small group Large print editions
Individualized Braille edition
Teaching learners with Timing Response
difficulty in reading across Extended time Mark test booklet
settings is challenging. The Frequent breaks Word processor
following accommodations Unlimited time Use references
appear reasonable and provide a
framework for helping learners Scheduling Other
Specific time of day Test preparation
with learning problems achieve in Subtest in different Out-of-level
general education and special order Motivational cues
education classrooms. Across multiple days
iffic
ulty
in Writ
ing
• It is a difficulty in automatically
remembering and mastering the order of
muscle motor movements needed in writing
letters and numbers
• Very poor or often unreadable writing or
writing that takes an unusually long time and
great effort to complete a note.
• People with difficulty in writing may have
illegible writing with inconsistent spacing
and capitalization, despite giving appropriate
time and attention to the task.
• They may have difficulty in thinking and
writing at the same time. (Dysgraphia)
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNERS WITH DIFFICULTY IN WRITING:

• Cramped fingers or unusual grip on writing tool

• Odd wrist, body and paper position

• Excessive erasures
• Inconsistencies: mixing
print/cursive and upper/lower
case letters, irregular shapes,
sizes or slant of letters
• Unfinished words or letters
• Inconsistent position on page
• Inconsistent spacing between
letters an words
• Slow or labored copying or
writing
• Misuse of line and margin
• General illegibility – despite training
• Inattentiveness about details when
writing
• Frequent need for verbal cues and use of
sub-vocalizing
• Heavy reliance on vision to monitor what
hand is doing during writing
• Slow implementation of verbal directions
that involve sequencing and planning
ACCOMMODATIONS TO SUPPORT LEARNERS WITH DIFFICULTY IN
WRITING
For Speed Writing
Give the learner extra time to take notes, copy material and take
tests
Provide typed copies of classroom notes
Allow the learner to record certain class sessions or use a laptop for
writing
Allow the learner to start writing projects and assignments early
Provide paper with name, date, title, etc., already filled in
For Amount of Writing
Provide a lesson outline for taking notes

Request a scribe so the learner can dictate on


tests and writing assignments
Grade based on what the learner knows, not
on handwriting or spelling
Hand out worksheets so there’s less to copy
from the board
Difficulty in
Counting and
Calculation
• It is a specific difficulty in basic learning and
applying knowledge which refers to learners
having troubles in understanding number related
concepts, or using symbols or functions needed
to success in mathematics.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNERS WITH DIFFICULTY IN COUNTING
AND CALCULATING
• Has trouble learning to count and skips over numbers long after
kids the same age can remember numbers in right order
• Struggles to recognize patterns, such as smallest to largest or
tallest to shortest
• Doesn’t seem to understand the meaning of counting (when
asked for five blocks, she just hands you an armful, rather than
counting them out)
• Has difficulty learning and recalling basic math facts, such as 2 +
4=6
• Struggles to identify +, - and to use them correctly
• May still use fingers to count instead of using more advanced
strategies, like mental math
• Struggles to understand words related to math, such as greater
than and less than
• Has trouble with visual-spatial representations of numbers, such
as number lines
• Has difficulty understanding place value
• Has trouble writing numerals clearly or putting them in the
correct column
• Has trouble with fractions and with measuring things, like
ingredients in a simple recipe
• Struggles to keep score in sports games
• Struggles to apply math concepts to money including estimating
the total cost, making exact change and figuring out a tip
• Has a hard time grasping information shown on graphs or charts
• Has difficulty measuring things like ingredients in a simple recipe
or liquids in a bottle
• Has trouble finding different approaches to the same math
problem
ACCOMMODATIONS TO SUPPORT LEARNERS WITH DIFFICULTY IN COUNTING
AND CALCULATING
For In-Class Learning
• Review what the learner already learned before teaching new skills
• Let the learner talk about how to solve problems
• Use graph paper to help line up numbers and problems
• Let the learner write our charts or draw sketches to solve problems
• Give the learner a list of the math formulas taught in the class
• Use manipulatives such as coins, blocks and puzzles
• Classwork and Taking Tests
• Allow extra time on tests
• Use a chart of math facts or multiplication tables
• Let the learner use a calculator when he’s not being tested on computation
• Give more space to write problems and solutions
• Break down worksheets into sections
• Use objects such as blocks or base ten sticks to teach math ideas
• Check often to see if the learner understands the work
For Homework
• Create separate worksheets for word problems and
number problems
• Highlight or circle key words and numbers on word
problems
Difficulty in
• It is a learning difficulty which refers to
learners having troubles in writing,
grammar and spelling.
• Slow speed in written words, reversal
of letters, syllables or omissions and
additions.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNERS WITH DIFFICULTY
IN SPELLING:
• Bizarre spelling and a disconnect between the letters
and the words they make., reversal of letter, syllables or
omission and additions
• Grammatical and spelling interruptions are severe.
• Timing issues. Slow in speed (e.i. most learners can
spell it in seconds, but for learners with might take it for
five to ten minutes.
ACCOMMODATIONS TO SUPPORT LEARNERS WITH
DIFFICULTY IN SPELLING
For Developing Phonemic Awareness
• Involve learners in lots of shared reading of poems,
chants, songs, and big books with repetitive refrains and
rhymes
• Select words learners know — from books, rhymes,
songs, and so on — and discover together how knowing
one word can help with the recognition or writing of
others, just by changing the beginning letter(s)
For Developing Phonemic Awareness

• Tell the learners that thinking about what a word looks like is a useful spelling
strategy, so you are going to explore some common spelling patterns together. Reread
a familiar big book, poem, or so on, selecting a particular spelling pattern to look for.
For example, look for and list words with ea, such as: bead, bread, dead, instead,
great, read, treat, break.
• Ask learners to identify and underline the ea spelling pattern in each word, say the
words, and group them according to their pronunciation, such as: bead, read, treat
bread, dead, instead, read great, break
• Select one of the words and show how knowing it can help with the spelling of other
words in that word family. For example, great: greater, greatest, greatly, or break:
breaking, breaks. Ask learners to try this with the other words you've found. Talk
about how thinking about spelling patterns and building on word families can help
with reading and writing.
For Exploring Sounds

Strategies to improve learners’ spelling have been reviewed by Gordon,


Vaughn and Schumm (1993). Some of the main findings indicated that
teachers should:

• Create opportunities for learners to engage in frequent writing


• Instruct learners in word analysis strategies
• Target no more than three words per lesson for learners with learning
difficulties
• Aim to develop learners’ self-monitoring and self-correction strategies
• Give clear and efficient feedback on errors
• Use multisensory methods (saying, hearing, seeing, tracing, writing,
and checking) to improve retention of difficult words
• Reread familiar books, rhymes, chants, and songs, asking
learners to listen for words with a particular sound. List
these on a chart; for example, words with a /k/ sound:
kite, cat, school, bike, Christine, truck, cake, back.
• Help learners to identify the letter(s) that represent this
sound. Underline these and ask learners to group the
words according to the different ways the sound is
represented. For example: kite, bike, cake cat, cake school,
Christine truck, back