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Branding

Definition

• A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or


design, or a combination of these, that
identifies that maker or seller of a product
or service.
• It is essentially a seller’s promise to deliver
a specific set of features, benefits and
services, consistently to the buyers.
Brand Name Selection
1. Should suggest something about the product’s
benefits & qualities-e.g Fairglow, Kurkure
2. Should be easy to pronounce, recognise and
remember. E.g. Tide, Surf.
3. Name should be distinctive. E.g. Kodak, Xerox.
4. Name should transfer easily into foreign
languages.
5. Should be capable of registration or legal
protection.
Brand strategy: Four Choices

• Line Extension
• Brand Extension
• Multibrand
• New Brands
Brand Strategies
Existing
Existing New
New
Products
Products Products
Products

Existing
Existing Line
Line Brand
Brand
Brand
Brand Extension
Extension Extension
Extension

New
New Multi-
Multi-
Brands
New
New Brands
Brands
Brand
Brand Brands

Source: H. Igor Ansoff, “Strategic Diversification” , Harvard 6


Figure 2.4 Business Review, September-October 1957, pp.113-24
Line Extension

• It occurs when a company introduces additional items in a given


product category under the same brand name such as new flavours,
forms, colours, ingredients, or size.
• E.g. Maggie Atta noodles, Maggie multi-grain
• Advantage:
• Low cost, low risky way to introduce variety
• To utilise excess capacity
• To command more shelf space.
• Disadvantage:
• Overextended brand may lose significance.
• Can cause consumer confusion or frustration.
Brand extension

• Use of successful brand name to launch new or modified


products.
• Honda automobiles, bikes & generators
• J & J, Wipro, Godrej
• Advantage:
• Gives new product, instant recognition and faster
acceptance.
• Saves heavy advertising to build a new brand.
• Disadvantage:
• Extension may confuse the image of the main brand.
Multibrands

• Companies introduce additional brands in the


same category.
• HUL : Close up, Pepsodent
• Lux, Lifebouy, Breeze
• Taaza, Red Label
New brands

• A company may create a new brand name when


it enters a new product category for which none
of the company’s current brand name may be
appropriate.
• E.g J & J used new brand name, Clean & Clear
for its new product range of face wash and
moisturisers for teen agers.
• Pepsi named its mineral water as aquafina and
Coke as Kinley.
Packaging
• Packaging involves designing and producing the container or
wrapper for a product..
• The package includes the primary container (the tube holding the
Colgate toothpaste), secondary package (cardboard box containing
tube) and a shipping package necessary to store, identify , and ship
the product.
• Packaging is assuming a lot of importance as it acts as a silent
salesperson.
• Innovative packaging can give a company an advantage over
competition.
• These days environmentally responsible packaging is required.
• Has become the 5th P of marketing.
The Colour wheel of Branding &
Packaging
• Red: a powerful colour symbolising energy
or even danger. Associated with speed or
power or dominant or iconic brands.
• Orange: connotes adventure & Fun
• Yellow: is equated with sunny warm &
cheeriness. Works well for sports products.
Green: stands for cleanliness, freshness and
renewal
• Blue associated with security, efficiency,
productivity and clearness of mind and
also relaxation. Works well for cleaning
and personal care products, to spas &
vacations.
• Pink: a stereotypically girly colour,
considered to have soft, peaceful and
comforting qualities.