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Module 5
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u Mopulation
u Census
u Sample
u Sample survey
u Sampling unit
u Frame
u Sampling error
u Biased sample.
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## u Cheaper than census survey

u Quick execution
u Economy of effort
u More detailed information is possible
u Since the sample is small, there may be
better quality in results
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## u Joes not provide information on every

unit of population.
u Error prone
u Not easy to check omissions.
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## Ã. Jefine the population

2. Identify the sampling frame
3. Specify the sampling unit
4. Specify the sampling method
5. Jetermine the sample size
6. Specify the sampling plan
7. Select the sample.
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u Mrobability sampling
u Non
Non--probability sampling
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u 0andom sampling
u Systematic sampling
u Stratified random sampling
u Cluster sampling
u Multi--stage sampling
Multi
u Area sampling
u Multi--phase sampling
Multi
u Sequential sampling
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u Quota sampling
u Judgment sampling
u Manel samples
u Convenience sampling
u Snowball sampling.
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u Every element in the population has a chance
of being selected.
u It is free from human judgment.
u ³0andom sampling´ Vs. ³Unrestricted
sampling´
u Jefinition of randomness relates to the mode
of selection and not to the resultant sample
u 2 methods«
u The lottery method
u Use of random numbers method.
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u A sampling fraction is calculated.
u Based on the sampling fraction, a number is
chosen at random.
u If the fraction is Ã , then we choose, items from
the population as Ã , 2 , 3 , 4 , etc«.
u Selection of a unit is dependent on the
selection of a preceding unit in contrast to
simple random sampling.
u Also called quasi-
quasi-random sampling.
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## u The population is divided into mutually

exclusive and mutually exhaustive strata
or sub-
sub-groups and then a simple random
sample is selected within each of the
strata or sub-
sub-groups.
u Mroportionate random sample
u Jisproportionate random sample.
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-5 5 5 75

5 Ã-
Ã-Ã 4 4 2

Ã Ã-2
Ã- 3 3 2

2 Ã-3
Ã- 2 2 25

3  Ã Ã Ã

Ã5, Ã5 Ã5
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## u Instead of selecting individual units from

the population, entire groups or clusters
are selected at random.
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
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u Involves the selection of samples in more than
one stage.
u The population consists of a number of first
stage units, called primary sampling units.
(MSU¶s)
u MSU¶s consists of a number of second-
second-stage
units.
u Sample is taken of first stage, second stage
and so on till the selection of the final sampling
units.
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u Ãst stage
stage------
------districts
districts
u 2nd stage
stage------
------ cities
u 3rd stage
stage-------
------- wards or localities
u 4th stage
stage-------
------- households
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u It is a form of multi-
multi-stage sampling in
which maps, rather than lists or registers
are used as the sampling frame.
u The overall area to be covered in a
survey is divided into several smaller
areas within which a random sample is
selected.
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## u It involves a design where some

information is collected from the entire
collected from only a part of the original
sample.
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## Multi ± stage Multi ± phase

u Each stage has a u Unit of sample
different unit of remains unchanged
information is
obtained from a sub-
sub-
sample.
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u A number of samples nÃ, n2, n3, are randomly
drawn from the population.
u Generally, the first sample is the largest, the
second is smaller than the first, the third is
smaller than the second and so on«
u Mainly used to bring down the cost.
u It obviates the need for determining a fixed
sample size before the commencement of the
survey.
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## u It involves the fixation of certain quotas,

which are to be fulfilled by the
interviewers.
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## u Units or elements in the population are

proportionately selected.
u Also called purposive samples.
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u Manel samples
u The same units or elements are measured on
subsequent occasions.
u Convenience sampling
u Samples are chosen based on the convenience of
the researcher. Also called accidental sampling.
u Snowball sampling
u Samples are chosen based on references given by
the immediate preceding respondent. Sample size
is not predetermined.