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the ability to acquire and apply

knowledge and skills.

the collection of information of

military or political value.
One of the first recorded formalized intelligence efforts, with format,
can be found in the Holy Bible Numbers 13:17 (MOSES)
“ And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan and send
unto them, get you up this way southward, and go up into the
mountain; and see the lands, what it is; and the people that
dwell therein, or not. And be of good courage and bring of the
fruit of the land.” The scriptures also named the twelve
intelligence agents whom the Lord directed Moses to sent into
the land of Canaan and records that “all those men were heads
of the children of Israel.”
The names of the twelve spies were:
Shammua son of Zaccur, from the tribe of Reuben
Shaphat son of Hori, from the tribe of Simeon
Caleb son of Jephunneh, from the tribe of Judah
Igal son of Joseph, from the tribe of Issachar
Hoshea (Joshua) son of Nun, from the tribe of Ephraim
Palti son of Raphu, from the tribe of Benjamin
Gaddiel son of Sodi, from the tribe of Zebulin
Gaddi son of Susi, from the tribe of Manasseh
Ammiel son of Gemalli, from the tribe of Dan
Sethur son of Michael, from the tribe of Asher
Nahbi son of Vophsi, from the tribe of Naphtali
Geuel son of Maki, from the tribe of Gad
Two of the spies — Joshua and Caleb - only two of the twelve brought back a good report of the land. - the
spies brought back a cluster of grapes so large that it took two men to carry it  - THE GRAPES OF CANAAN
Delilah is a woman mentioned in
the sixteenth chapter of the Book
of Judges in the Hebrew Bible.
She is loved by Samson, a Nazirite
who possesses great strength and
serves as the final Judge of Israel.
Delilah is bribed by the lords of
the Philistines to discover the
source of his strength.

The Philistine used her when she allowed Philistine spies to hide in her
house (Judges 16). Delilah was an impromptu intelligence agent. Apart
from her tonsorial specialty, she also allowed sex to gain intelligence from
a powerful enemy. She achieved the largest effective force of her
employer’s adversaries and contriving the stroke which put that force out
of action”.
Sun – tzu
“If you know yourself and know your enemy,
you need not fear the result of a hundred
battles; if you know yourself but not the enemy
in every victory you will suffer a defeat; but if
you know neither yourself nor your enemy, you
are a fool who will meet defeat in every battle.”

When Alexander the Great was

marching to Asia, there were
rumors of disaffection growing
among his allies, he sought the
truth, and got it by simplest
expedient by devising the first
“letter sorting” and opening to
obtain information.
Frederick The Great
 He was known as the “ Father Of Organized Military
Espionage is defined as the act of spying or the use of
spies by a government or a company.

An example of espionage is when a spy infiltrates the

government of another country to learn valuable state
He has divided his agents into four classes:
Common Spies – those recruited among poor folk, glad
to earn a small sum or to accommodate as military
Double Spies – are unreliable renegades, chiefly
involved in the spreading false information to the
Spies of Consequence – Couriers and noblemen, staff
officers, and kindred conspirators, requiring a
substantial bribe or bait.
Persons who were forced to undertake espionage
against their own will.
Definition of Police Intelligence
It is the product resulting from the
collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration, and interpretation of all
available information which concerns
on or more aspects of criminal activity,
and which is immediately and
potentially significant to police
Intelligence investigate who is committing
crimes, how, when, where and why. They
then provide recommendations on how to
stop or curb the offenses.
These assessments and profiles are used to
both monitor and predict crime, aiming to
move policing from “reactionary”
investigation to “proactive” investigation.
Major Categories of Intelligence
1. Strategic Intelligence
These are all intelligence data that are not
of an immediate value. The bulk of strategic
intelligence is usually descriptive in nature. The
accumulation of physical descriptions of
personalities, their telephone numbers, and
known associates are virtually classic examples
of strategic intelligence.
2. Counter-Intelligence
Intelligence activity which is concerned
principally with the defending of the police
organization against penetration by individual
and various groups who are inimical to the best
interest and general harmony. It is concerned
principally with the neutralizing and destroying
attempts of individuals or groups that seek to
discredit law enforcement.
3. Line Intelligence
It involves both a process and an
immediate product. It can be said that line
intelligence is the end product of gathering and
processing of information. That part of the
product which is of an immediate nature, and
essential to more effective police planning and
Definition of Information
It is an evaluated material of
every description including those
derived from observation, reports,
rumors, imagery, and other sources
from which intelligence is derived.
Purpose of Intelligence Activity
Too often, police executives are required
to make major decisions based upon inadequate
information. Intelligence must fill the void often
existing in police decision making.
Fundamentally stated, the purpose of the
intelligence unit is to increase the probability of
accuracy, and reduced the probability of error in
operational staff decisions by gathering the
appropriate information. In other words, it can
be said that intelligence is the investigative arm
of the police planners.
Definition of Intelligence Cycle
It is a repetitive process used to
produce intelligence from information.
Phases of Intelligence Cycle
Thoroughly presented hereunder are the
different phases of intelligence cycle, to wit:
1. Collection of Intelligence & Information 
It is the systematic exploitation of sources
of information by collection agencies, and the
delivery of information obtained to the proper
intelligence agency. The collection phase is
costly, time-consuming and many times its
rewards or fruits will be strategic in nature—the
long range.
Sources of Information
Are persons, things, or actions
from which information about criminals
and/or subversives, weather, and terrain is
derived. Examples are maps, air photos,
enemy documents, enemy materials,
prisoners of war, and weather forecast.
Definition of Collection Agency
Is any person, unit, or activity
that collects and/or processed
information by research, surveillance,
or the exploitation of the source of
Criteria in the Selection
Hereunder are the criteria in the selection
of the collection agency:
1) Suitability

The collection task assigned to a unit

must be compatible with its primary mission.
Only the agencies best suited to furnish the
information are used.
2) Multiplicity

Evaluation of information
requires that it must be compared
with the information received from
other sources and agencies. Subject to
the consideration of suitability and
capability more than one agency is
used to obtain each item of required
3) Balance
Within the time limits
imposed by other considerations, the
collection workload must be balanced
from among the collection agencies.
Balance is a minor consideration when
compared with the importance of
other factors.
4) Capability
An agency must be physically
capable of providing the desired
information in a timely manner.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
First established in 1908 as an
investigative arm of the U.S. Department
of Justice and became what is known as
the F.B.I under it’s first director John Edgar
Hoover In 1924. On September 6, 1939 by
a presidential directive, it came to its
responsibility the task of domestic
Central Intelligence Agency
The Agency was created under
the U.S. National Security Act of 1947.
It the Central Intelligence group
established during the time of
President Truman in January 1946. The
CIA was under the National Security
Committee For State Security
Russia – the intelligence agency
known as the KGB – Komitet
Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB)
British Secret Service – Great Britain
Mossad – Israel
BND – West Germany
KCIA – Korean Central Intelligence
employed by the Russians for the
purposes of internal security and
political repression. Spying was always
the specialty of the Russians.
Uses of Police Intelligence
Police covert and overt intelligence operation
maybe used to:
1. check the condition of the community relating
to crime, vice,
juvenile delinquency and indications
subversion and insurgency.
2. determine through counter intelligence
applicant matters pertaining
to personnel security, physical security and
document security of the
police organization.
4. identify criminal elements and other law
breakers as well as their
5. assist in the arrest of wanted
criminals and those wanted
6. check on the quality of
effectiveness of the operation of the police

7. check on the security conditions of
police personnel, funds,
equipment, and materials.

8. help in crime control


9. serve as a tool of management

for planning and organizational
employment purposes
Means of Disseminating Information
Hereunder are the some of the means
of disseminating information:
1) Messages
This can be made by use of radio,
utilization of messengers or couriers, or by
rapid means of signal communication.
2) Personal Contact
It can be done by the use of
telephone, personal visits
3) Intelligence Documents
This is being accomplished
through the transmittal of documents in
the form of periodic intelligence reports,
intelligence summaries, watch list, wanted
list, operational orders and intelligence
annexes, terrain and weather studies, and
other special intelligence reports.
4. Direction of the Collection Effort

The collection effort should include a

systematic exploitation of all sources of
information. This exploitation must be
continuous, methodical, and carefully
controlled. The collection must also include a
complete delivery of all the information
obtained to the processing component.
Importance of Intelligence and Information
Hereunder are the some of the important uses of
intelligence and information:
1. To arrive at sound and timely decisions in
preparing plans and estimates for future operations, and in
conducting current operations.
2. To protect the police organization by avoiding
surprise, and denying the enemy information concerning it.
3. To assist in the processing of other information.
Immediate Area and Interest in Police
In a specific setting, the police organization is more
interested in the following immediate concerns:
1. Crime prone community relating to
vices, juvenile delinquency,
crime and indication of subversion and
2 . All matters pertaining to personnel
security, physical
security, and classified documents.
3. Cases under follow-up
4. Personalities directly or
indirectly involved in criminal
5. Personalities, places, events
involved in insurgency and subversion.
6. Police operation regarding its
effectiveness and quality
7. Police personnel, its equipment,
funds and materials
8. Aspect of crime prevention
and control
9. Aspect of management for
planning and organization
Improvement purposes.
10. and other as directed by
higher authorities
A. Strategic Intelligence – as defined
earlier, it is an intelligence data that are
not of an immediate value. It is usually
descriptive in nature, accumulation of
physical description of personalities,
modus operandi. It does not have
immediate operational value but rather
long range that may become relevant to
future police operations.
B. Line Intelligence – It is the kind of
intelligence required by the commander to
provide for planning and conduct tactical
and administrative operation in counter
insurgency. This pertains to knowledge of
People, Weather, Enemy and Terrain
(PWET) used in planning and conducting
tactical and administrative operation in a
counter insurgency.
Intelligence information to be determined in Line Intelligence are:
People - living condition of the people, sources of
income, education of the people, government
livelihood projects, extent of enemy influence to the
Weather – visibility, cloudy, temperature, precipitation
(rain), wind
Enemy - location of the enemy, strength of the enemy,
disposition, tactical capability, enemy vulnerability
Terrain - relief and drainage system, vegetation,
surface material, man made features. There are
military aspects of terrain which includes cover and
concealment, obstacle, critical key terrain features,
observation and fields of fire, and avenues of approach.
C. Counter Intelligence(CI) - this kind of
intelligence covers the activity devoted in
destroying the effectiveness of hostile
foreign activities and to the protection of
info against espionage, subversion and
sabotage. Hence, the three activities of CI
are: protection of information against
espionage; protection of personnel against
subversion; and protection of installations
and material against sabotage.
Information refers to all evaluated materials of
every description including those derived from
observation, reports, rumors, imagery, and
other sources from which intelligence in
produced. Information is a communicated
knowledge by others obtaining by personal
study, investigation, research, analysis,
Two General classifications of sources
of information:
Open Sources – 99% of the
information collected are coming from
open sources.
Close Sources – 1% of information are
collected from close sources.
Overt Intelligence – is the gathering of
information or documents procured openly
without regard as to whether the subject or
target become knowledgeable of the purpose
Open Sources: Includes information taken from
Enemy activity
Captured documents
Map - Weather, forecast, studies, report -
Covert Intelligence – is the secret
procurement of information, which is
obtained without the knowledge of
the person or persons safeguarding
vital intelligence interest.
Close Sources: Include information
which maybe taken through:
Casing and

Employment of technical means

(Bugging and Tapping device)
Tactical Interrogation - Observation
and Description (ODEX)
Informants are commonly referred to
Street sources
Stool pigeons
Informant Net – It is a controlled
group of people who worked through
the direction of the agent handler. The
informants, principal or cutouts supply
the agent handler directly or indirectly
with Intel information.
Informants (Asset) – people selected as
sources of information, which could be
voluntary, or in consideration of a price.
Informant – refers to a person who gives
information to the police voluntarily or
involuntarily with out any consideration
Informer – those who give information to
the police for price or reward
Types of Informants
Criminal Informant – an informant who give
information to the police pertaining to the
underworld about organized criminals with the
understanding that his identity will be protected

Confidential Informant – is similar to the former

but he gives information violate of the law to
includes crimes and criminals
Voluntary Informant – a type of informant who
give information freely and willfully as a witness
to a certain act
Special Informant – those who gives
information concerning specialized
cases only and it is regarded a special
treatment by the operatives (ex.
teachers, businessmen)
Anonymous Informant – those who
gives information through telephone
with the hope that the informant can
not be identified
Undercover Work – is an investigative
process in which disguises and pretext
cover and deception are used to gain
the confidence of criminal suspects for
the purpose of determining the nature
and extent of any criminal activities
that maybe contemplating or
is an investigative technique in which
agent conceal his official identity and
obtain information from that
organization .
Planning Undercover Assignment
Determine level on which investigation
is intended.
Develop appropriate cover
Selection of qualified personnel
Cover - the means by which an individual group
of organization conceals the true nature of its
acts and or existence from the observer.
Cover story – a biographical data through
fictional that will portray the personality of the
agent he assumed, a scenario to cover up the
Cover Support – an agent assigned in target
areas with the primary mission of supporting the
cover story.
Importance of Cover
Secrecy of operation against enemy
Secrecy of operation against friendly
intelligence who do not have the need
to know
Successful accomplishment of the
Surveillance is a form of clandestine
investigation which consists of keeping persons,
place or other targets under physical
observation in order to obtain evidence or
information pertinent to an investigation.
Surveillance of persons is called Tailing or
Shadowing, Surveillance of place is called
Casing or Reconnaissance, and Surveillance of
other things, events, and activities is called
General Objectives and purposes of
1. to confirm or deny allegations
2. To identify persons involved in a certain
3. provides background information for
undercover assignment
4. develops leads to vital information
5. To obtain needs upon which to conduct
additional investigation
6. to check on sources of information
7. locate addresses of places frequented by
subject as well as
8. to obtain detailed information about the
nature and scope of the
9. to secure basis to secure search warrant
10. to provide protection
Considerations in Surveillance Planning
Pre-Surveillance Conference – a conference
held among the team members, the police
intelligence unit before surveillance is
Surveillance Plan – a plan established the as
required according to type of personnel, and the
general and specific instructions for surveillance.
Area Target Study – refers to the area of
operation of surveillance activities.
Surveillant – a person who conducts surveillance with includes
only observations.

Stakeout or Plant – is the observation of places or areas from

a fixed point.

Tailing or Shadowing – it is the observation of a person’s


Undercover Man – it refers to a person trained to observe

and penetrate certain organization suspected of illegal
activities and later reports the observation and information’s
that proper operational action can be made

Safehouse – is a place, building, enclosed mobile, or an

apartment, where police undercover men meet for debriefing
or reporting purposes.
Drop – any person is a convenient, secure and unsuspecting
place where police undercover men meet his action agent for
debriefing or reporting purposes.

Convoy – an accomplice or associate of the subject used to

avoid or elude surveillant.

Decoy – a cover supporting the surveillant who can become a

convoy whenever surveillant is burned.

Contact – any persons whom the subject picks or deals with

while he is under observation and identifies the observer.
 Background Investigation – a check
made on an individual usually seeking
employment through subjects records
in the police files, educational
institutions, place of residence, and
former employers
Basic Preparations in Surveillance 
Study the Subject – name, address, description, family
and relatives, associates, character and temperament,
vice, hobbies, education, others
Knowledge of the area and terrain – maps, national
and religious backgrounds, transportation, public
Subversive Organization - history and background,
biography of the official, identity and background of
members and former members, method of
identification employed by the members, files and
records, nature, location and accessibility, meeting
Cover Story – the scenario must be appropriate to
cover up operation and avoidance of identification of
According to Intensity and Sensitivity

Discreet –subject person to be watch is

unaware that he is under observation
Close – subject is aware that he is under
observation varied on each occasions
Loose – applied frequently or infrequently,
period of observation varied on each
According to Methods
Stationary – this is observation of place usually
a bookie stall, a gambling, joint, a residence
where illegal activities are going on (fixed
Moving – surveillance follow the subject from
the place to place to maintain continuous watch
of his activities
Technical – this is a surveillance by the use of
communications and electronic hardware’s,
gadgets, system and equipment
Special Equipment (Technical Supports)

Camera with telephoto lens

Moving Picture camera
Tape recording apparatus
Wire taping device
Other instruments –
Essential Requirements and Appearance in
In the actual process of operation, the
agent is advised to be of general appearance,
has no noticeable peculiarities in appearance.
Agent should not wear inconspicuous jewelry or
clothing, nothing about him to attract attention.
He must have perseverance and able to wait for
hours. Alertness, resourcefulness, and being
versatile and quick-witted are his weapons.

National Security was defined as the

protection of the nation’s people and
territories from physical assault. In this
sense national security was properly
equated with national defense and the
threats of the nation’s security were
perceived to emanate solely from outside
the country.
In addition to national defense, it now
includes the protection of vital
economic and political interest, the
loss of which could threaten
fundamental values and the vitality of
the state itself.
When we speak of national security,
therefore, we refer to that state or
condition wherein the peoples way of
life and institutions, their territorial
integrity and sovereignty, as well as
their welfare and well-being, are
protected or advanced.
The CIA and the United States have
consistently played a role in political
and economic life of the Philippines.
The Filipino counterpart to the CIA is
the National Intelligence Coordinating
Agency (NICA)
The National Intelligence Coordinating
Agency (NICA) is the primary intelligence
gathering and analysis arm of the 
Philippine government, in charge of carrying out
overt, covert, and clandestine intelligence
programs. The NICA cooperates with friendly
countries and government agencies in and out
of the country by posting agents as liaison
The agency is led by a director-general and is
assisted by a deputy director general. The
former reports directly to the president. Its
headquarters is located in Quezon City.
Formed: 1949
Preceding agency: National Intelligence and Security
Jurisdiction: Government of the Philippines
Headquarters: Quezon City, Philippines
Motto: Kaalaman ay Kaligtasan 
(Intelligence is Security)
Agency executive: Alex Paul I. Monteagudo
Parent agency: Office of the President