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• What is Lexical?
in Free Morphemes there are two categories : Lexical Morphames
and Functional Morphames

Lexical Morphemes Functional Morphemes

Open class, we can create new words. Or grammatical morphemes. Closed
These are noun verb, adjectives, etc class, a free morpheme that is used as a
Ex: noun =girl function word like conjuction, preposition
verb =read etc.
adj =smart Ex: But, on, in, the etc
Lexical morphology : the study of the structure of the words(1)

Lexical Phonology : the study of how the word produce or

building process(2)

o Zero Derivation
The process of converting words without edding any
derivative element
a. Verb to noun (Nominalization)
e.g: to spy on someone I am a spy

Verb Noun
to guess something a guess
Underived lexical item :
level 1 phonology : stress [protest]V
Level 1 morphology :
zero derivation of noun { [protest] V 0 } N
Level 1 phonology : stress { [protest] V 0 } N
• Productivity and blocking
1. productivity = the extant to which a word formation rule can be
applied to new morphames, to form new words.
(-Ness and –ity)
- Both attach to adj
- Both attach
- Both form to adj
- Both form Noun
- Both mean : the quality of the adj
- Both mean : the quality of the adj
Example :
happiness validity
goodness complexity
2. Blocking
productivity can sometimes be limited by the existance of the
other words

- intelegent + ness = intelegentness

- “intelegence” gets in the way
- It Blocks intelegentness from existence
- True + ness = trueness (truth)
o the level- ordering hypothesis
There are 2 result verb to noun zero derivational:
1. Notice that verb are ending in Xing and Xink are irregular
e.g : Sing Sang Sung
bring brought brought
Sink stank stunk

In phonology sound ng or nk have a symbol (ŋ), the place of

articulation of this sound is velar and the process production is nasal
2. Concerns noun- verb pairs referring to an instrument and the
activity carry out with that instrument
Hammer, brush, string, paddle
- He hammered the nail with a rock
- He brushed the clothes with his hand
- He paddled the canoe with a copy
o Given the adjective-forming suffix –ian. And the noun- forming
siffix –ism.
1. -Ism attaches to nouns or adjective to form noun
e.g : modernism

2. –ian attaches to nouns to form adjectives

e.g : vegetarian