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Topics covered:
 Models of communication systems
 Brief introduction to MIMO
 MIMO channel model
 Channel Matrix
 Fading and Coding
 MIMO Capacity
 Aspects of MIMO Design
 Space time coding
 General coding techniques
 Practical systems
 Applications in MIMO
 Conclusions
 References

Models of Communication systems:
1). SISO (Single Input Single Output):
Has only one receiver and one transmitter


2). SIMO (Single Input Multiple Output):

Has only one transmitter and multiple receiver


3). MISO (Multiple Input Single Output):

Has multiple transmitter and single receiver


4).MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output):

Has multiple transmitter and receiver


Why MIMO ?
 SISO, SIMO, MISO although having simple design and optimum
transmission rate it could not support multiple communication paths.
 On the other hand MIMO systems had a greater and also good spectral
efficiency and energy efficiency.
 There was a greater error reduction in MIMO when compared to other
forms of communication systems.

 Note: SISO, SIMO, MISO are degenerate cases of MIMO.

MIMO Channel model:
s1 y1
s2 . y2 User data stream
User data stream
. .
. .
. Channel
. .
sM Matrix H yM

s y
Transmitted vector Received vector

y = Hs + n
h11 h21 …….. hM1 hij is a Complex Gaussian
random variable that models
h12 h22 …….. hM2 fading gain between the ith
Where H = MR
. . …….. . transmit and jth receive antenna
h1M h2M ..…… hMM
Channel Matrix H:
 From mathematical description of MIMO the equation of a
 MIMO model is given by
 y = Hs + n
 Where H is the Channel Matrix

If we consider MIMO Channel with MT and MR receive antennas,
the impulse response of the channel between the j-th (j=1,2,…,MT)

transmit antenna and the i-th (i=1,2,…,MR) receive antenna is denoted

as hij(τ,t).The composite MIMO channel response is given by the

MR X MT matrix.

Channel Time-variance

Fading and coding:
 Fading refers to changes in signal amplitude and phase caused by the
channel as it makes its way to the receiver. Some common reasons
for fading are
 Presence of obstacles in communication paths
 Multipath channel communication
 Deterioration of signals during transmission
 Defects in transmitter and receiving antennas.

 These defects are over come by suitably modeling the

communication path by coding.

 Coding consists in moving from encoding information over one

 channel access to many channel accesses. It is done by space time
codes or STC.

 There are two types of Fading :
1).Frequency flat fading

2).Frequency selective fading.

 Frequency flat fading:

 This type of fading occurs in a narrow band signals.
 The channel matrix H is a function of time in here.

 Frequency selective fading:

 This type of fading occurs in a wide band signals.
 The channel matrix H is a function of frequency only.

MIMO Capacity:
Definition: A Capacity of a communication channel is the maximum error
free transmission rate supported by the channel.

 Given a unit of BW (Hz), the max error-free transmission rate is

 C = log2(1+SNR) bits/s/Hz
 Let us say that
 R: data rate (bits/symbol)
 RS: symbol rate (symbols/second)
 w: allotted BW (Hz)
 Spectral Efficiency is defined as the number of bits transmitted per second
per Hz
 R x RS bits/s/Hz
 W
 As a result of filtering/signal reconstruction requirements, RS ≤ W.
Hence Spectral Efficiency = R if RS = W

 If I transmit data at a rate of R ≤ C, low error is possible

Aspects of MIMO design:
 Spatial Multiplexing :
 In spatial multiplexing, a high rate signal is split into multiple lower rate
streams and each stream is transmitted from a different transmit antenna in
the same frequency channel.
 Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel
capacity at higher Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).
 The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser in the
number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver.

 Diversity Coding:
 In Diversity coding methods a single stream (unlike multiple streams in
spatial multiplexing) is transmitted, but the signal is coded using techniques
called space time coding.
 The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas using certain
principles orthogonal coding. Diversity exploits the independent fading in the
multiple antenna links to enhance signal diversity.
 Diversity coding provides control over error reduction that takes place
during transmission of signals.

Space-Time Coding:
 Space time codes are used with multiple transmitters to provide
spatial as well as temporal redundancy in the data received by an
array of antennas.
 There are two basic approaches to space-time coding. In the first
approach, the transmitter can be informed of the propagation channel
by the receiver and thus adjust its coding accordingly. This approach
offers the largest information- theoretic capacity but can be difficult to
accomplish in a dynamic environment.
 The second approach, uses fixed codes of various rates that offer
good performance on average(over all channels). These codes share
transmitted power equally among all spatial channels.

1). Block Orthogonal Codes, where information bits are encoded in

 matrices that are constrained to lie in a class.

2). Space-Time Trellis Codes, which introduces spatial as well as temporal

redundancy in the transmitted data.

General Coding techniques:
 Space-Time Diversity Coding:
 Objective: To extract the total available spatial diversity in the MIMO
channel through appropriate construction of code words.

 Alamouti Scheme:
Here two different data symbols s1 and s2 are

transmitted simultaneously from antennas 1 and 2,

respectively, during the first symbol period, following

which symbols -s2* and s1* are launched from

antennas 1 and 2, respectively.

 Delay Diversity:
Here spatial diversity is converted to frequency

diversity by transmitting data signal from first antenna

and a delayed replica from second one.

General Coding techniques:
 Spatial Multiplexing:
 Objective: Maximize the transmission rate

 Horizontal Encoding:
 Bit stream to be transmitted is first demultiplexed into separate data
streams. Each stream undergoes independent encoding, symbol mapping
and interleaving and then it is transmitted.

 Vertical Encoding:
 In this architecture the bit stream undergoes temporal encoding symbol
mapping and interleaving after which it is demultiplexed into MT streams
transmitted from the individual antennas. This form of encoding can achieve
full diversity gain.

Horizontal Encoding

Vertical Encoding
Practical System:
1 rs : number of different
R bits/symbol 2 symbols N transmitted in
T symbol periods
Channel Symbol .
coding mapping Time
Coding . rs = N/T

Redundancy in time
Space- time redundancy over
Coding rate = rc T symbol periods
Spatial multiplexing gain = rs portion of symbols
Spectral efficiency = (R*rc info bits/symbol)(rs)(Rs symbols/sec)
= Rrcrs bits/s/Hz assuming Rs = w
rs is the parameter that we are concerned about: 0 ≤ rs ≤ MT
** If rs = MT, we are in spatial multiplexing mode (max
transmission rate)
**If rs ≤ 1, we are in diversity mode
V-BLAST – Spatial Multiplexing
(Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space-Time Architecture)
 This is the only architecture that goes all out for maximum rate.

s1 y1

User data s2 y2 V-BLAST User data

. H . Processing
stream . . stream
. .
. sM yM .

s y
lSplit data into MT streams  maps to symbols  send
lAssume receiver knows H
lUses old technique of ordered successive cancellation
to recover signals
lSensitive to estimation errors in H
lrs = MT because in one symbol period, you are
sending MT different symbols
D-BLAST – a little of both
(Diagonal Bell Labs Layered Space-Time Architecture)

InD-BLAST, the input data stream is divided into sub streams which
are coded, each of which is transmitted on different antennas time
slots in a diagonal fashion
For example, in a (2,2) system

•receiver first estimates x2(1) and then

estimates x1(1) by treating x2(1) as
 interference and nulling it out

•The estimates of x2(1) and x1(1) are fed to a

MT ≤ M R joint decoder to decode the first substream

•After decoding the first substream, the receiver cancels

the contribution of this substream from the received signals
and starts to decode the next substream, etc.
•Here, an overhead is required to start the detection process;
corresponding to the 0 symbol in the above example
•Receiver complexity high
Alamouti’s Scheme - Diversity

Transmission/reception scheme easy to implement

Space diversity because of antenna transmission. Time diversity because of
transmission over 2 symbol periods
Consider (2, MR) system

lReceiver uses combining and ML detection

lr s =1
Comparisons of all schemes used:

Scheme Spectral Pe Implementation

Efficiency Complexity




Applications of MIMO:
 MIMO finds its application in communication technologies. A few to
mention as follows:

 Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM): SM techniques

makes the receivers very complex, so it is combined with OFDM,
where the problems created by multipath channels are handled

 Mobile Telephone standards such as 3G technology take MIMO into


 WiMAX implementations that use MIMO technology improves the

reception and allows for a better reach and rate of transmission.
Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing (OFDM)
 OFDM is multicarrier modulation and multiplexing technique.
 In the scheme available bandwidth is divided into several sub channels.
 Data is serial to parallel converted and mapped on to the constellation for each
sub carrier.
 It is tolerant to frequency selective fading as each sub carrier undergoes flat
 Data lost in deep fades can be recovered by decoding techniques such as
Viterbi decoding.
 Cyclic Prefix: To reduce ISI using OFDM, a cyclic prefix is added to the code.
That is a part of a code is appended at the end to reduce the effect of ISI.
The receiver simply ignores the overlapping part of the received signal
where the actual information is not present and prefix is present. This
makes the linear convolution and removes ISI from distorting the signal.

OFDM (contd)
 OFDM transmission in SISO performs N-IIFT operation (on blocks of N
data symbols) at the transmitter.
 Next a cyclic prefix operation is done and signals are thus transmitted.
 At receiving end Cyclic prefix is removed followed by a N-FFT operation to
obtain the received signal.
OFDM (Contd):
Below is a figure of OFDM architecture for Quadrature Amplitude modulation
where QAM bits need to be converted from serial to parallel before

transmitting. The IDFT is operated prior to adding cyclic prefix. In receiver the

cyclic prefix is removed and then DFT is applied to obtain bit stream.

 MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications,
since it offers significant increases in data throughput and link
range without additional bandwidth or transmit power. It achieves
this by higher spectral efficiency (more bits per second per hertz of
bandwidth) and link reliability or diversity (reduced fading).
Because of these properties, MIMO is a current theme of
international wireless research.
 OFDM gives good resistance to frequency selective fading. MIMO
combined with is a good technique for wireless transmission that
can give a high reliable communication at very high data rates
than existing schemes.
 “MIMO Wireless Communication “
 Daniel W. Bliss, Keith W. Forsythe, and Amanda M. Chan

 “An Overview of MIMO Communications – A Key to Gigabit Wireless”, A.J

Paulraj, Gore, Nabar and Bolcskei, IEEE Trans Comm, 2003

 “”

 “ division multiple access”

 “MIMO-OFDM Systems for High Data Rate Wireless Networks”, Whu