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VISUAL ARTS OF

KUTCH
PRESENTED BY :
Akshata Chaughule 02
Komal Amru 03
Srishty Chakraborty 08
Sonal Matal 18
Ruchita More 19
Sonia Noronha 20
Pooja Panigrahi 23
Kirti Jadhav 37
Kutch, Gujarat
 Kutch district (Kutchi; also spelled as Kachchh) is a 
district of Gujarat state in western India. Covering an
area of 45,674 km², it is the largest district of India. The
population of Kutch is about 2,092,371. It has 10 Talukas,
939 villages and 6 Municipalities. The Kutch district is
home to the Kutchi people who speak the 
Kutchi language.
 The district is also known for ecologically important 
Banni grasslands with their seasonal marshy wetlands
 which form the outer belt of the Rann of Kutch.
 Kutch district is inhabited by various groups and
communities. One can find various nomadic, semi
nomadic and artisan groups living in Kutch. Ahirs
 constitute a comparatively large group in Kutch.
 In the villages, staple foods include kadi-khichdi, bajra
 and milk ; bajara na rotla with curd and buttermilk is
very common food for all the Gujarati people.
VISUAL ARTS OF KUTCH
 The rich and diverse creative traditions of Kachchh (often written as
"Kutch") live at the intersection of cultures and communities.
 Once a destination by land and sea for people from Africa, the Middle
East, and the Swat Valley, Kachchh has a rich tradition of sea trade from
Mandvi and a global connection. A river system was shared between
Kachchh, Sindh and Rajasthan.
 As a border state, Kachchh is constantly absorbing cultures from the
north, west, and east. Kachchhi motifs can be traced to the ancient
Harappan civilization, yet craft is developing and growing with the
innovative and entrepreneurial drive of spirited artists.
 The arid climate has pushed communities here to evolve an ingenious
balance of meeting their needs by converting resources into products
for daily living.
 While embroidery has become a craft synonymous with Kachchh, other
textile crafts and hard materials crafts give this land color and identity.
Craft is inextricable from the numerous communities, connected by
trade, agriculture and pastoralism in Kachchh.
ROGAN ART
•Rogan Art, an ancient textile art, with its origins in Persia, came to Kutch around 300 years ago. Traditionally, the
craft was used to beautify bridal clothing of the regional tribes.
• Rogan artist usually makes tree of life and happiness concept on the cloth and Rogan art is very famous for its
tree of life and happiness concept.
• RAW MATERIALS USED :
•castor seed oil
•Pigments: These are used to mix with the Rogan gel to prepare color paste.
• Fabric Used: Basic raw materials used, on which the Rogan painting will be made. Fabric used during those days
were limited to thick cotton fabric called khaddar but now due to customer demand and availability of various
fabrics, craftsmen began to paint on cotton, silk, polyester.
• Frame: It is used to pin the cloth. Cloth is fixed to the wooden frame by pinning the cloth to the frame
• Pins: These are used to fix the fabric to the frame.                                                                      
• Stylus: The main equipment made of pencil size wooden stick used for painting which measures about 6-7
inches in length and had a pointed working end.
• Storage Bowl: Once the Rogan gel is formed, Rogan gel has to be stored in container filled with water to avoid
air exposure so as to prevent from drying.
•SOURCE OF MATERIALS :
•Earlier, colors were extracted from natural sources like flower, plant, soil, and rocks. But with the passage of time
and availability of color, artisan buys a readymade pigment color, which are cheaper and make the Rogan making
process simple and easier.
•Castor is a local crop grown in Kutch which artists used to originally source from local farmers.
• PROCESS AND MATERIALS :
• Rogan is the technique of painting on fabric, crafted from thick brightly colored paint made with castor seed oil.
•   Castor is a local crop grown in Kachchh which artists used to originally source from local farmers.
• Rogan art uses a rich, brightly colored paint made from castor oil and natural colors. The making of paste is done in the jungle where
artisans mix oil and natural color due to foul smell released during this process.
• Artisans place a small amount of this paste into their palm and at room temperature, the paint is carefully twisted into motifs and
patterns using a metal rod. This metal rod never comes in
• contact with the fabric. Afterwards the artisan folds the fabric, thereby printing its mirror image and also creating a symmetric design.
• In effect, it is a very basic form of printing but the designs are very intricate.

• Step 1 : Preparation of Rogan gel – boiling castor oil in an earthen pot for 12 hrs.
• Step 2 : Dye or pigments is mixed with oil and stored in a bowl containing water. This is done in the jungle.

Natural colors mixed with oil


PROCESS

Final printed cloth Designs printed on the cloth using stylus


CURRENT SITUATION
• Kutch's Rogan tradition is sustained by two families in Nirona Village. . The members of the
Khatri Muslim community were doing the Rogan art work on various costumes of local animal
herder and farming communities, but the craft ceased to exist when the community started
using other machine made textiles as a more cost effective alternative.
• The tradition of Rogan art is sustained by the last and Originally Abdul Gafur family in Nirona
village. It has evolved from being a decorative art to today a unique intricate fine art .
• The New Life of Rogan
The artisans successfully revived the craft as an art form by making wall pieces for display.
The main theme of the wall pieces revolve around the “Tree of Life”. The families practicing
Rogan, of Khatri Abdul Gaffar Doud and Khatri Siddik Hasan, have received various awards
and won national and international acclaim for the preservation of their art form. Traditional
Rogan Art is one of the most famous arts in the world.
• To increase the outreach of the craft, the family took initiative to train the local girls from
other communities who are closely working with them to make beautiful Rogan art pieces.
Since 2011 , The Abdul Gafur Khatri family have trained around 300 girls, primarily from
Nirona and Bhuj.
• While designed used to be more rustic, over time the craft has become more stylized and
now is almost a high art. Workshops are held for those who want to learn and develop their
skills of this exceptional art and also to have the experience of learning and working
alongside skilled master artisans.
• Gafoor bhai has been honoured with National award and seven state awards. His paintings
are often gifted to visiting dignitaries including former President of USA Mr. Barak Obama.
AJRAKH BLOCK
PRINITNG
• Ajrakh is a block-printed textile that is resist-
dyed using natural dyes. including indigo and
madder.
• It is made in Kutch, Gujarat and is distinguished
by its color- blue with red — and its complex
geometric & floral patterns
• It’s name is derived from ‘azarak’ , ‘blue’ in
Arabic & Persian. Ajrakh is a legacy of text. It
takes skill & patience to make Ajrakh.
• It take 14–21 days to complete. The resulting
cloth is soft against the skin and jewel-like in
appearance, pleasing to touch & appealing to
the eye.
• The printing blocks have to be very finely chiselled and by
experts in the field. A set of three blocks create a dovetailing
effect which finally results in the design.
• They are carved from the Acacia Arabica trees, indigenous
to the Sindh region.
• The repeat pattern, which gives the design its character, is
determined by a grid system.
TOOLS AND MATERIALS

FABR HAND CARVED COLOUR PINS


IC BLOCKS TRAY

Cotton cloth is used Fabric is pinned to


Wooden blocks are Color trays are used
mostly as the dye sits printing platform with
carved with design to dab the block.
firm. Silk is also the help of pins.         
patterns.
introduced lately.
PRINTING WATER TANK CONTAI NATURAL
TABLE NER DYES
Fabric is spread
on the printing It is used to wash
table to begin fabric
with printing.
Fabric is spread on the It is used to wash They are used to steam Jaggery, tamarind seeds,
printing table to begin fabric turmeric are some of the
fabric and dye.
natural ingredients that
with printing.
are used
• FABRIC IS SPREAD ON THE TABLE AND • MARKING IS DONE WITH CHALK POWDERED
FIXED WITH PINSSPACE NEEDED. THREAD & PASTE IS SPREAD EVENLY.

• BLOCK ARE PRESSED HARD ON THE FABRIC • THE CLOTH IS DYED IN NAPHTHOL AND
TO IMPRINT THE COLOUR & EACH COLOUR IS VAT.
PRINTED WITH DIFFERENT BLOCKS.

• AGAIN THE CLOTH IS WASHED IN WATER AND LEFT TO DRY IN SUN


• THE CLOTH IS SUN DRIED.
BLOCK PRINTING PROCESS
CLIENT: DR. ISMAIL
MOHMED KHATRI
SITE AREA: 4,060 SQ.FT SPACE NEEDED
BUILDING AREA: 3,085 SQ.FT
LIPPAN ART

Mud and Mirror Work (also known as Lippan Kaam) is a traditional


mural craft of Kutch, Gujarat, India.
Lippan or mud-washing using materials locally available in the region
like mixture of clay and camel dung keeps the interiors of the houses
cool.
Though the work is limited mainly to the interior walls, it can be
found on the outer walls as well. These scintillating murals bring life,
gaiety, and beauty to generally harsh life of people of Kutch.
Mud and Mirror Work is mainly done by the women of the Rabari
community. The women are so experienced in this art form that they
usually don’t draw or trace a pattern before beginning work.
 Rabari is the pastoral community of Kutch, living in the outskirts of
its villages. They dwell in a few clusters of communal or family houses
known as Bhungas which are designed and built to take care of their
practical needs in the harsh climate of Kutch.
This art form has a hoary past as no records are available to trace its
origin. Various communities in Kutch do mud-washing in their own
distinct style.
Artisans of the Muslim community practicing this art form stick to
graphic and eye-catching geometric patterns of lippan kaam, as
depicting the human or animal form is considered deeply un-Islamic.
PROCESS
 The dung used is that of a camel or wild ass and acts as a binding
agent as it is rich in fibers. The clay used is mud which has been
passed through a sieve to obtain fine particles that mix more easily.
Equal proportion of dung and clay are mixed and kneaded to form the
dough used for lipan kaam. (In conversations with those who practice
lipan kaam, some have mentioned the use of husk of Bajri i.e. millet as
an alternative to the dung. While the dung attracts termites, the husk
does not.)
SPACE NEEDED

• Not much space is required as the art is done on the inner walls as
well as outer walls. Or on small boards for selling purposes.
• And as of raw
CURRENT SITUATION
material it is stored in cattle sheds.

• Now a days artists are trying to keep it alive by choosing the modern
route.
• Clay, adhesive and colours are used to make them more attractive
• The traditionally done lippan kaam wasn’t durable and would require
a lot of maintenance and touch-up’s annually. Now they are made to
be water-proof and durable.
COPPER BELLS

INTRODUCTION : The Lohar community


from Sindh ( which is now in Pakistan)
brought this craft to Kutch. Old timers refer
to bells by their original names of Chota
Paila , Paila Dingla , Do Dingla than the sizes.
It was once a major occupation of Kutch.
REGIONS PRACTISED IN : The villages of
NIRONA & ZURA in Kutch are well known for
art of bell.
RAW MATERIALS USED : Waste irons such as
from Damaged cars , Damaged Iron plates
etc.
Piece of Iron Carving Copper Thin copper sheet

Furnace Moulding bell


cap
SPACE NEEDED : A room where they make the bell and
Furnace is outside.
CURRENT SCENARIO : Today the tradition of making bells
runs in the family where they passionately learn from the
start within the household.

Mr. Husen Luhar.


Age : 70+
LEATHER EMBROIDERY

Introduction : The leather shoes of


Bhujodi are famous for its elegant styled
and embroidery work on it. The leathers
are completely hand stitched. Meghwal
community practices this unique craft
form.
Regions practised in: Hodka , Bhujodi ,
Nirona and Sumarsar.
Raw Materials: Tanned leather, thick
threads, chemical colours, decorative
beads and mirrors.
Source of materials: The materials they
usually use are cotton, silk, wool and
leather (camel mostly, but sometimes
lamb or goat).
PROCESS
PROCESS

FLATTENING OF THE LEATHER CUTTING AND STITCHING FINAL DESIRED PRODUCT


SPACE NEEDED
• These Kutchi villagers sit on their doorstep or in the courtyard
of their houses and create such kind of art form.
The chemical process takes place in an open area, whereas;
they store the products in the backyard of their houses or in
their workshops.

CURRENT SITUATION
• In the last few decades, these traditional crafts have
undergone tremendous change. As local villagers seek
cheaper mass produced functional wares, artisans are
compelled to find new markets. Fortunately, sophisticated
urban markets have welcomed the concept of traditional
crafts.
KUTCH WEAVING AND DYEING

• Kutch in India is well known for traditional woven shawl.


• Weaving is largely practised in Bhujodi village of Kutch. A 500 year old
village, q textile centre of Kutch, home of over 200 weavers.
MATERIALS

Washing the
Acid dyes are used for dyed yarn in
Dyeing threads water & dried in
Light dyed yarns are
room
Yarn of Woolen yarns are
added to container temperature
put in Dying
thread used solution for light
with acid dye
solution Stirred &
for Dyeing colour
heated for 15-20
mins
PROCESS

Yarns spun in spindle


Warping Process which are used for
weaving process
Ash Piecing Process
power
of
used
for
better
grip of
thread
SPACE NEEDED
An open space Dyeing & drying the yarn. A washer space for
washing the yarn. A room for the weavers to weave on their
looms. Also a storage space for storing the dyes and yarns.

CURRENT SITUATION
After the Earthquake of 2001, there was decline in handloom,
but some weavers from Bhujodi took it up on themselves for
the revival of art. After the establishment of National Institute
Of Design, Ahmedabad, they got even more exposure.
Participation in international exhibition also helped attract
international markets. Today foreigners frequently visit
Bhujodi during season of November to March.
TERRACOTTA

Terracotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-


based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the
fired body is porous.
It is sculpture made in earthenware, and also
for various practical uses.
Uses-
Vessels(notably flower pots)
Water and waste pipes
Roofing tiles
Bricks
Surface embellishment in building
construction.
PROCESS
RAW MATERIALS
• Terracotta Clay- It is an essential raw material required to make this craft.
• Solder wire- They are used in making ‘u’ pin to hook the articles.
• Paint brush and paints.
• Potter’s wheel
• Wooden clay modeling tools.
• Cow-dung pottery kiln- It is used for baking the clay article

CURRENT SITUATION
• The dying art of terracotta pottery making has got a new lease of life here
with the Gujarat government training artisans to fine tune their art with
modern needs.

SPACE NEEDED
• A small room or in the backyard of the house.
BANDHANI

Introduction :
The word “Bandhani” is derived from a Hindi word
Bandhana which means tying up practised mainly in
Gujarat in India. The Malay-Indonesian name for
BANDHANI is 'Plangi‘. In Japan it is called as Shibori.
Regions practised in-
Marwar, Mewar, Shekhawati, Jhunjhunu, Churu,
Jamnagar Bhuj Mandavi.
Raw Materials :
Fabrics : muslin, handloom, silk, voile
Tying : cotton thread, synthetic thread
Dominant colors : yellow, red, green, pink, maroon
Source Of Materials :
Natural elements such as flowers, roots, leaves, bark,
and berries are used to make the dyes. Natural and
man-made elements are also used.
Required pattern on
White malmal on lehriya fabric A plastic design trace
white malmal fabric

Tying knots Initial tying being completed A ready Bandhini cloth

PROCESS
PROCESS
SPACE NEEDED
•The villagers require space in courtyard to store the material, work, dry the
cloth, mix dyes and other activities.
• They prefer not to carry out these activities inside the house because of
space constraints.
•In case the house does not have a courtyard storage lofts are provided in
the houses.

CURRENT SITUATION
Passed down across generations of artisan communities, handloom
industry, today, is struggling for survival, competing against the cheap,
rapidly produced products of the modern age. This is where designers &
art lovers have stepped in to help these artisans claim their rightful share
of the global market & revive the old Indian culture in its true colors. Here
are the reasons behind rising popularity of the handloom industry.
KUTCH EMBROIDERY

Aari Embroidery Rabari


Ahir Embroidery Embroidery
WEAVING MATERIALS

Recycled Plastic Weaving

Mashru
Weaving
Cotton &
Stain
Weaving
Camel Wool Weaving Kala Cotton
Weaving
SILVER PITHORA
ENGRAVING PAINTING
Article to be engraved is moulded into required size When Rathva homes were made of
& shape. Engraving is done with hammer & other bamboo & grass the Pithora used to be
tools. Later washed with acid to get brilliant painted using natural colours mixed
glittering piece with alcohol & cow’s milk.
Trays, Pots, cup, shield,
The wall would be tempered with white
photo frames, gulabdana
clay. Pithora is traditionally painted on 3
are produced in Kutch.
walls of Osari i.e porch of main house.
THANK YOU