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ASSIGNMENT ON

PHARMACOGNOSY
Name: Samiul Kabir Nebir
Id: 1812073649
Course code: PHR113
Sec: 03
Date:
Submitted to;
Zahidul Islam Zahid
North South University
Fats, Fixed oil and Waxes
• Fixed oils and fats are obtained from plants or animal. They are rich in calories and in plant
source, they are present mostly in the seeds, as reserve substances and in animals they are
present in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal tissues. They differ only according to their melting
point and chemically they belong to the same group. If a substance is liquid at 15.5–16.5°C it is
called fixed oil and solid or semisolid at the above temperature, it is called fat. They are made
from two kinds of molecules: glycerol (a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three
carbons) and three fatty acids joined by dehydration synthesis.
• Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols. Waxes are saponified only by alcoholic
alkali but the fats may be saponified either by alcoholic alkali or by aqueous alkali. WAXES. Waxes
are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols. Along with fatty acids it also contains
monohydroxy alcohols of high molecular weight especially cetyl alcohol, melissyl alcohol, and
myricyl alcohol. Some-times cholesterol or phytosterols are also present. As such they are not
suitable as food because hydrolysing enzymes of wax are not present in system. Waxes are widely
distributed in nature. The leaves and fruits of many plants have waxy coatings, which may protect
them from dehydration and small predators. The feathers of birds and the fur of some animals
have similar coatings which serve as a water repellent.
Sesame oil
• Family: Pedaliaceae
• Chemical constituents:
• Lipids (45-60%)
• i. Fixed oil-mixture of glycerides- the fatty acid constituents of which are oleic and linoleic acid
and a small percentage of Palmitic, stearic acid etc.
• ii. Sesamolin, a lignan of the unsaponifiable portion of oil.
• iii. Sisamolin on hydrolysis yields sesamol a phenolic constituent responsible for the excellent
stability of the oil.
• iv. Vitamin- A and E
• Uses:
1. Growing of hair
2. Lowering of blood pressure
3. Maintaining good skin
4. Helps in preventing diabetes
5. Helps to fight stress and digestion.
Sesame Oil
• Biological source:
Sesame oil is obtained by refining the expressed or extracted oil from the seeds of cultivated varieties of
Sesamum indicum belonging to family Pedaliaceae.
Linseed oil
• Family: Linaceae
• Chemical constituents:
The chief constituents of Linseed are the following: Fixed oil (30 to 40 percent), proteins. (25 percent), mucilage
(6 percent) and a small quantity of linamarin (a cyanogenetic glycoside).
• Uses:
1. Aids in weight loss
2. Controls cholesterol levels
3. Cancer prevention
4. Helps in constipation
5. Maintains hormonal balance.
Biological source:
Obtained from dried ripen seeds of linum uslitatissimum.
Cottonseed oil
• Family: Malvaceae
• Chemical constituents:
It contains palmitic acid 20–25%, stearic acid 2–7%, oleic acid 18–30%, and linoleic acid 40–55%. It also contains a
toxic yellow polyphenolic compound known as gossypol.
• Uses:
Cottonseed oil is commonly used in processed foods because of its ability to extend shelf life. Some of these
products include:
1. potato chips
2. cookies and crackers
3. Margarine
4. Mayonnaise
5. salad dressing
Cottonseed oil
• Uses:
1. Speeds up Healing
2. Improves Cognitive Health
3. Skin Care
4. Boosts Immune System
5. Reduces Inflammation.
• Biological source:
Cottonseed oil is a refined fixed oil obtained by expression of seeds of Gossypium harbaceum Linn, belonging
to family Malvaceae, in hydraulic or other presses.
It is obtained as a byproduct in rice mill during polishing of rice obtained after dehusking of paddy.
Lanolin
• Family: Bovidae
• Chemical constituents:
Chemically, lanolin consists of a complex mixture of esters and polyesters of high molecular weight alcohols and
fatty acids. Approximately 4% of lanolin is a mixture of free alcohols, and the remaining portion consists of traces
of free acids and hydrocarbons.
• Uses:
1. Used for face wrinkles
2. Used oil for hair
3. Used oil for dry lips.
• Biological source:
Lanolin is the fat-like purified secretion of the sebaceous glands which is deposited into the wool fibres of sheep,
Ovis aries Linn. belonging to family Bovidae.
Volatile Oil

• Volatile or essential oils, as their name implies, are volatile in steam.


• They differ entirely in both chemical and physical properties from fixed oils.
• They are secreted in oil cells, in secretion ducts or cavities or in glandular hairs.
• They are frequently associated with other substances such as gums and resins and themselves
tend to resinify on exposure to air.
Coriander
• Family: Umbelliferae
• Chemical constituents:
Limonene, Linolol, Pinene, Geraniol, Camphor and Cymene.
• Uses:
1. Cures diarrhoea.
2. Prevents from allergies
3. Makes bones healthy
4. Maintains blood pressure
5. Cure for mouth ulcers.
• Biological source:
Obtained from dried ripe fruits of Coriandrum sativum.
Anise
• Family: Apiaceae or Umbellifers
• Uses:
1. Aids in the faster healing of wounds
2. Give relief from arthritic pains
3. Boosts metabolism and stimulates nervous system
4. Provide relief from stress, anxiety, depression, anger
5. Provides relief from excess gas
• Biological source:
Anise consists of dried ripe fruits of Pimpinella anisum Linn. belonging to family Umbelliferae.
• Chemical constituents:
It consists of coumarins, flavonoid glycosides and phenylpropanoids. Other constituents of the fruit are lipids,
fatty acids, sterols, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Saffron
• Family: Iridaceae
• Uses:
Can fight cancer
Ideal for people with arthritis
Improves eyesight
Treats insomnia
Cures asthma
Promotes digestion
Heals wounds
• Biological source:
Dried stigmas and upper parts of styles of crocus sativus
Saffron
• Chemical constituents:
 Crocin and Crocetin- responsible for the colour

 Picrocrocin- responsible for the bitter taste

 Safranal- responsible for odour and aroma


Traces of volatile oil.

 Protocrocin- spilts during drying into two molecules of picrocrocin and 1 molecules of crocin

Crocin on hydrolyses gives crocetin and gentiobiose.


Picrocrocin gives glucose and safranal.
Nutmeg
• Family: Myristicaceae
• Chemical constituents:
The main chemical components of nutmeg oil are a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, a-
phellandrene, a-terpinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, safrole, methyl eugenol
and myristicin.
• Uses:
1. Can facilitate better digestion
2. Detoxify the body
3. Improving the functioning of the kedneys
4. Treat insomnia
5. Improve the blood circulation
6. Act as an antioxidant.
Nutmeg
• Biological source:
Obtained from kernel of dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans.
Garlic
• Family: Liliaceae
• Chemical constituents:
Garlic contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mucilage and essential oil. The volatile oil is the main active
constituent. It contains allicin, allyl propyl disulphide and alliin. Alliin is converted into allicin by action of
enzyme allinase. Ajoene is also one of the important constituents of garlic formed by self condensation of
allicin.
• Uses:
1. Blood clot activator
2. Boosts metabolism
3. Relieves stress and fatigue
4. Cures respiratory problems
5. Anti inflammatory property
6. Effective painkiller.
Garlic
• Biological source:
Garlic consists of ripe bulbs of Allium sativum, belonging to family Liliaceae.
Lemongrass oil
• Family: Graminae
• Uses:
1. Natural deodorizer
2. Skin health
3. Kills bacteria
4. Stress reducer
5. Fever reducer
6. Reduce inflammation
7. Detoxifying
8. Antioxidant effect
9. Lowers cholesterol.
Lemongrass oil
• Chemical constituents:
1. Methylheptenol
2. Nerol
3. Citral
4. Geraniol
• Biological source:
The volatile oil obtained from leaves and aerial parts of the plant Cymbopogon flexuosus.
Sandalwood oil
• Family: Santalaceae
• Chemical constituent:
Sandalwood oil contains more than 90% sesquiterpenic alcohols of which 50-60% is the tricyclic α-santalol. β-
Santalol comprises 20-25%. album oil, 41-55 % α-santalol and 16-24 % β–santalol.
• Uses:
1. Helps urinary system inflammation
2. It has a cooling effect
3. Reduce blood pressure
4. Used in cosmetics
5. Used as a sedative
6. Helps to improve digestion
7. Treating viral infection.
Sandalwood oil
• Biological source:
Sandalwood oil is an essential oil obtained from the steam distillation of chips and billets cut from the
heartwood of various species of sandalwood trees.
Black pepper
• Family: Piperaceae
• Uses:
1. Healthy skin
2. Reduce inflammation
3. Fighting depression
4. Promoting digestion
5. Treating ulcers
6. Helps in weight loss
7. Keeps the food fresh.
• Biological source:
It is obtained from the dried unripe fruit of Piper nigrum.
Black pepper
• Chemical constituents:
I. Alkaloids
Piperine (5-9%) and
Piperidine.
II. Volatile oil (1-2.5%)
III. Pungent resin (6.0%)
IV. Starch (about 30%)
V. Pepper volatile oil contains
1-phellandrene and
Caryophyllene.
Resins

• Resins are solid or semi solid, amorphous products derived from natural living sources and are
mostly from the plant origin.
• Resins are secondary metabolites produced by higher plants and are nothing but oxidative
products of terpenes.
• Obtained as exudates from plants and considered as end product of metabolism.
• Solid or semi solid amorphous products of complex chemical nature.
Colophony
• Family: Pinaceae
• Chemical constituents:
Colophony contains resin acids (about 90%), resenes, and fatty acid esters. Of the resin acids about 90% are iso
meric α-, β-, and γ-abietic acids; the other 10% is a mixture of dihydroabietic acid and dehydroabietic acid
• Uses:
I. Pharmaceutical uses:
a) As a diuretic
b) Also some used of ointments.
2. Industrial uses:
c) Preparation of vernishes
d) Soaps, Printing inks.
Colophony
• Biological source:
Colophony is the solid residue obtained after distilling the oleo-resin from various species of pinus- pinus
longifolia, pinus palustris, pinus maritime.
Podophyllum
• Family: Berberidaceae
• Chemical constituents:
It contains Podophyllin resin is known as podophyllotoxin. α and β peltatins are present only in the American
podophyllum. It is also contains Quercetin, kaempferol, asiragalin, essential oil. Podophyllin is a lignin
compound.
• Uses:
1. Used in the treatment of small cell
2. Carcinoma of lung
3. Prostrate and testicular carcinomas
4. GIT irritant
• Biological source:
It consists of the dried rhizome and root of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle.
Male fern
• Family: Dryopteridaceae
• Chemical constituents:
The main active constituents of male fern are derivatives of phloroglucinol and butyric acid.
• Uses:
1. Used to treat nosebleeds
2. Treat heavy menstrual bleeding
3. Treat wounds and
4. Treat tumors.
It is also used to expel worms, typically tapeworms, from the intestines.
Some veterinarians use male fern to treat worms in animals.
• Biological source:
Male fern consists of the dried rhizomes and its surrounding frond bases of Dryopteris filix-mas (Linn.) Schoot,
belonging to family Polypodiaceae.
Myrrh
• Family: Burseraceae
• Chemical constituents:
Myrrh contains volatile oil (7-17%), resin (20-25%), gum (57-61%), and bitter principle (3 to 4%).
The volatile oil consists of eugenol, m-cresol and cuminal idehyde.
• Uses:
1. It inhibits microbial growth
2. It has astringent properties
3. It relieves infections
4. It promotes sweating
5. It has anti inflammatory properties
6. It has anti–catarrhal properties.
Myrrh
• Biological source:
It is an oleo-gum-resin obtained from Commiphora molmol.
Alkaloids
• Contains nitrogen-usually derived from amino acid.
• Bitter tasting, generally white solids.
• They give a precipitate with heavy metal iodides.
• Caffeine, a purine derivative, does not precipitate like most alkaloids.
• Alkaloids are basic-they form water soluble salts. Most alkaloids are well-defined crystalline
substances which unite with acids to form salts. In plants, they may exist
• In the free state,
• As salts or
• As N-oxides.
• Occur in a limited number of plants. Nucleic acid exists in all plants, whereas, morphine exists in
only one plant species.
Lobelia
• Family: Campanulaceae
• Chemical constituents:
The major compounds identified include acetophenone (26.37 %), caryophyllene (8.11 %),
borneol (7.46 %) and anethole (6.81 %). Other things like include Lobelidine, Lobelanidine,
Lobelanine and isolobelanine.
• Uses:
1. Treatment of asthma and as respiratory stimulant
2. Used for bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis
3. Previously the fumes of powered lobelia were used for inhalation
4. Also used as a smoking deterrent
5. In parenteral form, lobelin hydrochloride is given for resuscitation of new born infants,
through umbilical vein.
Lobelia
• Biological source:
1. It consists of the dried aerial parts of lobelia nicotianaefolia heyne, collected
in October-November and dried in the shades.
2. It belongs to family Campanulaceae
3. Lobelia should contain not less than 0.55 percent of total alkaloids,
calculated as lobeline
Hyoscyamus
• Family: Nightshade
• Chemical constituents:
Hyoscyamus leaves contain tropane alkaloids. Atropine is main active constituent of leaves. It also contains
scopolamine. In seeds the percentage of alkaloids is less than the leaf. It also contains apohyoscine, α and β
belladonine, ascorbic acid and other amino acid.
• Uses:
1. Used to counterect gripping due to purgatives
2. Used to relieves spasms of urinary tract
3. Also used as sedatives
4. Used as an anti inflammatory drug
5. It is an expectorant too.
• Biological source:
Hyoscyamus consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of Hyoscyamus niger Linn., belonging to family
Solanaceae. It contains not less than 0.05% alkaloids, calculated as hyoscyamine.
Belladonna
• Family: Solanaceae
• Chemical constituents:
0.2 to 0.6 percent tropanc alkaloids, the principal one being hyoscyamine.
Small amount of some other tropane alkaloids and some volatile bases.
• Uses:
1. Used externally as a painkiller
2. Used internally to check excessive secretions, as a sedative and
antispasmodic.
3. It is a mydriatic drug
4. It also acts as a local aesthetic and anodyne.
• Biological source:
Belladonna herb consists of dried leaves and other aerial parts of Atropa
belladonna and Atropa acuminata. It belongs to family Solanaceae.
Stramonium
• Family: Solanaceae
• Chemical constituents:
The major tropane hyoscyamine and scopolamine and several minor tropane alkaloids have been identified in
Datura species. Typical examples of minor alkaloids in D-stramonium are tigloidin, aposcopolamine, apoatropin,
hyoscyamine N-oxide and scopolamine N-oxide. The plant also contains saponins, tannins, albumin and glycosides.
• Uses:
Datura seeds benefits
1. Datura leaves are used to treat pain.
2. It is used as herbal medicine, especially in the case of Ayurveda for asthma and bonesetting.
3. used to treat spasm of bronchitis in asthma.
4. Datura seeds and leaves are used as antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, hypnotic and narcotic.
5. Externally, the seeds are used in treating fistulas and abscesses
Stramonium
Datura leaves benefits
1. The leaves of the datura are good to relieve headaches.
2. The vapor of datura leaves infusion is used to relieve arthritis such as rheumatism and gout.
3. The burning leaf smoke of datura is good to treat asthma and bronchitis.
4. The ethanol extract from datura leaves is used as acaricidal, repellent and oviposition deterrent properties
against mites.
5. The ethanol extract of datura is used as a repellent against larva and mosquito.
6. The leaves of datura are used to treat heart problems like palpitations and hypertension.
7. Datura leaves juice is used to treat earache.
• Biological source:
It consist of dried leaves and flowering top of Datura stramonium or its variety of D.tatula.
Coca
• Family: Erythroxylaceae
• Chemical constituents:
0.7-1.5% total alkaloid, lesser alkaloids, higher cocaine, cinnamyl cocaine, alpha-
truxilline, tropocaine, benzoyl tropine, di hydroxytropine, benzoylecognine.
• Uses:
People chew coca leaves to relieve hunger and fatigue and to enhance physical
performance. Coca extracts are used for stimulating stomach function, causing
sedation, and treating asthma, colds, and other ailments. Coca tea is used for altitude
sickness in the Peruvian Andes and elsewhere.
• Biological source:
1. It is the dried leaves of Erythoxylum coca lamack (Huanuco coca) or E. truxillence
Rusby of Erythroxylaceae family.
2. The plant is a shrub or small tree attaining a height of about 2m.
Cinchona bark
• Family: Rubiaceae
• Chemical constituents:
1. Cinchona bark contains four important quinolone alkaloids, which are quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and
cinchonidine.
2. It also contains quinic acid, cinchotannic acid, cinchona red and many minor alkaloids.
• Uses:
1. Medicine used to treat malaria.
2. Used for increasing appetiote
3. Promoting the release of gastric juice
4. Also used for blood vessel disorders including hemorrhoids (piles).
5. Other uses are for cancer, mouth, and throat disease.

• Biological source:
The biological source of cinchona is the dried bark of the stem or root of it. Commonly it is known as Peruvian
or jesuit's bark. It belongs to the rubiaceae family.
Ipecac
• Family: Rubiaceae
• Chemical constituents:
1. Glycosidal resin (4-18%), known as jalap resin, and 90% soluble in ether. Main constituent of the resin is the
ether insoluble portion known as jalapin.
2. Coloring matter and phytosterol
3. Starch, sugars and calcium oxalate.
• Uses:
Ipecac is taken by mouth to cause vomiting after suspected poisoning. It is also used to treat bronchitis
associated with croup in children, a severe kind of diarrhea (amoebic dysentery), and cancer. Ipecac is also used
as an expectorant to thin mucous and make coughing easier. Small doses are used to improve appetite.
• Biological source:
The biological name of ipecac is Cephaelis ipecacuanha. The biological source of ipecac is the dried root or
rhizome of it. It is also known as Brazilian or johore ipecac. It belongs to rubiaceae family.
Thank You