Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

# RESEARCH PROPOSAL Poornima S Singh

RESEARCH PROPOSAL
“A document that is typically written by a scientist or academic which describes the
ideas for an investigation on a certain topic. The research proposal outlines the
process from beginning to end and may be used to request financing for the
project, certification for performing certain parts of research of the experiment, or
as a required task before beginning a college dissertation.”
ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH
PROPOSAL
1. Title
2. Background and rationale
3. Research question(s)
4. Research methodology
5. Plan of work, budget & time schedule
6. Bibliography
POINTS TO CONSIDER
WHILE DRAFTING
RESEARCH PROPOSAL
interesting, original and important
Context Show that you are familiar with the field, you
understand the current state of research on the
Approach Make a case for your methodology, showing that
you have carefully thought about the data, tools
and procedures you will need to conduct the
research
Feasibility Confirm that the project is possible within the
practical constraints of the programme, institution
or funding
DATA ANALYSIS
DATA PROCESSING
Editing
Coding
Tabulation
Verification
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Used to describe or reach conclusions about that same group only.
Descriptive Analysis are methods for organizing and summarizing data.
For example, tables or graphs are used to organize data, and descriptive values such
as the average score, mean, median, mode , Std. deviation are used to summarize
data.
A descriptive value for a population is called a parameter and a descriptive value for
a sample is called a statistic.
INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
Used to reach conclusions about the population from which the sample was taken.
Inferential statistics are methods for using sample data to make general conclusions
Example t test, ANOVA
There are two main areas of inferential statistics:
Estimating parameters. This means taking a statistic from your sample data (for example the
sample mean) and using it to say something about a population parameter (i.e. the
population mean).
Hypothesis tests This is where you can use sample data to answer research questions. For
example, you might be interested in knowing if a new cancer drug is effective. Or if
breakfast helps children perform better in schools.
KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Null hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis
Level of significance
Type I error
Type II errors
Power
One-tailed test
Two-tailed test
HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake
of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.
In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any
applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background
review.
A hypothesis is usually tentative; it's an assumption or suggestion
made strictly for the objective of being tested.
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
There are basically two types, namely, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
NULL HYPOTHESIS
The null hypothesis is a clear statement about the relationship between
two (or more) statistical objects. These objects may be measurements,
distributions, or categories. Typically, the null hypothesis, as the name
implies, states that there is no relationship.
In the case of two population means, the null hypothesis might state
that the means of the two populations are equal.
Ho
=
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
Once the null hypothesis has been stated, it is easy to construct
the alternative hypothesis.
Opposite of Ho
 In our example, the alternative hypothesis would be that the means of the
two populations are not equal.
Ha or H1
≠,<, >
TYPE- I AND TYPE– II ERRORS
LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
The significance level is a measure of the statistical strength of the hypothesis test.
It is often characterized as the probability of incorrectly concluding that the null
hypothesis is false.
The significance level is something that you should specify up front.
In applications, the significance level is typically one of three values: 10%, 5%, or
1%.
A 1% significance level represents the strongest test of the three. For this reason, 1%
is a higher significance level than 10%.
ONE TAILED / TWO TAILED
TESTING
PARAMETRIC VS NON
PARAMETRIC TESTING
THANK YOU