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Cables

Theory of Structure - I

CED, UET, Taxila 1


Contents
 Introduction to Cables

 Cables subjected to concentrated loads

 Cables subjected to uniformly distributed


loads

CED, UET, Taxila 2


Introduction
 Cables are pure tension members.
 Used as
 Supports to suspension roofs
 Suspension bridges
 Trolley wheels
 Self weight of cable is neglected in analysis
of above structures
 When used as guys for antennas or
transmission lines, weight is considered.
CED, UET, Taxila 3
Cable Subjected to Concentrated Loads
Ay

A Ax
  TCD
D D
yC yC
yD yD
B B
C C
P1 P1
P2 P2
L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3
L L

+ MA= 0: y
y
Obtain TCD
TBA
TCD
B
TCB C x
x
+ F = 0: TBC
x
P2 P1
CED, UET, Taxila + Fy = 0: 4
Example 5-1

Determine the tension in each segment of the cable shown in the figure below.
Also, what is the dimension h ?

2m
h D
B
C 2m

3 kN
8 kN
2m 2m 1.5 m

CED, UET, Taxila 5


SOLUTION Ay
Ax A
TCD
2m
h D5 4
B 3
C

3 kN
8 kN
2m 2m 1.5 m

+ MA = 0:

TCD(3/5)(2 m) + TCD(4/5)(5.5 m) - 3kN(2 m) - 8 kN(4 m) = 0

TCD = 6.79 kN

CED, UET, Taxila 6


y
Joint C
TCD = 6.79 kN + F = 0: 6.79(3/5) - T cos  = 0
x CB BC
TCB C 5 4
x + Fy = 0: 6.79(4/5) - 8 + TCB sin CB = 0
BC 3
8 kN BC = 32.3o TCB = 4.82 kN

y
Joint B
TBA
B 32.3o + F = 0: - TBA cos BA + 4.82cos 32.3o = 0
BA x
x
TBC = 4.82 kN + Fy = 0: TBA sin BA - 4.82sin 32.3o -3 = 0
3 kN
BA = 53.8o TBA = 6.90 kN

h = 2tanBA = 2tan53.8o = 2.74 m

CED, UET, Taxila 7


Cable Subjected to Distributed Load

y T


T
W

To x To
W
x=L
T cos  = To = FH = Constant

T sin  = W
dy W
 tan  
dx To

CED, UET, Taxila 8


Parabolic Cable: Subjected to Linear Uniform distributed Load
wo = force / horizontal distance T wo x
x
y To
B
dy wx
 tan   o
A dx To

wo x
x y dx
To
L
2
0
x wo x
y  C1
y wo x 2To
x
2 wo x 2
To 
2y
T
x at x = L , T = TB = Tmax Tmax wo L
To x
2 
x Tmax  To  ( wo L) 2

CED, UET, Taxila To 9


wo(x) x
2
y
T + T
wo O 
h y
 s
x T x
x
x
L

+ Fx = 0: -Tcos + (T + T) cos ( + ) = 0

+ Fy = 0: -Tsin + wo(x) + (T + T)sin ( + ) = 0

+ MO = 0: wo(x)(x/2) - T cos y - T sin(x) = 0

CED, UET, Taxila 10


Dividing each of these equations by x and taking the limit as x 0, and hence
y 0,  0, and T 0, we obtain

d (T cos )
0 ----------(5-1)
dx
d (T sin  )
 wo ----------(5-2)
dx
dy
 tan  ----------(5-3)
dx

Integrating Eq. 5-1, where T = FH at x = 0, we have:

T cos  FH ----------(5-4)

Integrating Eq. 5-2, where T sin  = 0 at x = 0, gives

T sin   wo x ----------(5-5)

Dividing Eq. 5-5 Eq. 5-4 eliminates T. Then using Eq. 5-3, we can obtain the slope
at any point,

dy wo x
CED, UET, Taxila tan    ----------(5-6) 11
dx FH
Performing a second integration with y = 0 at x = 0 yields
wo 2
y x ----------(5-7)
2 FH

This is the equation of a parabola. The constant FH may be obtained by using the
boundary condition y = h at x = L. Thus,
wo L2
FH  ----------(5-8)
2h

Finally, substituting into Eq. 5-7 yeilds


h 2
y 2
x ----------(5-9)
L

From Eq. 5-4, the maximum tension in the cable occurs when  is maximum; i.e., at
x = L. Hence, from Eqs. 5-4 and 5-5,

Tmax  FH 2  ( wo L) 2 ----------(5-10)

Or, using Eq. 5-8, we can express Tmax in terms of wo, i.e.,

CED, UET, Taxila Tmax  wo L 1  ( L / 2h) 2 ----------(5-11) 12


Example 5-2

The cable shown supports a girder which weighs 12kN/m. Determine the tension
in the cable at points A, B, and C.

30 m

C
12 m
6m
B

CED, UET, Taxila 13


SOLUTION

TA
30 m
A
A y TC
C
C
12 m
6m
B
x
wo = 12 kN/m

30 - L´ L´

x2 x1

CED, UET, Taxila 14


y TC
C
C dy1 12 x1
 tan  
6m dx1 To
B
To x 12 x1
y1   dx1
wo = 12 kN/m To
L'
12 x1
12 L´ 6 dx1
0
To
L´ L´ 0
2
12 x1
6 + C1
x1 2To
0

12 L'2
6
2To

T 12x1 To  L'2 ----------(1)


To
CED, UET, Taxila 15
TA

A y
A dy2 12 x2
 tan  
dx2 To
12 m
12 x2
y2   dx2
B To To
x
( 30  L ')
wo = 12 kN/m 12 x2
12  
0
To
dx2

12 (30 - L´) 2
(30 - L´) 0
12 x2
12  + C2
30 - L´ 2To
0

x2 12(30  L' ) 2
12 
2To
12 x2 T
(30  L' ) 2 ----------(2)
1
 2To
To
CED, UET, Taxila 16
T

 y

y2
B To x
wo = 12 kN/m

12 x2
x2

x2

12 x2 T


CED, UET, Taxila 17
To
To  L'2 ----------(1)

(30  L' ) 2 ----------(2)


1
2To

From (1) and (2), L´ = 12.43 m, To = 154.50 kN

TB = To = 154.50 kN

TC 12 L´ 12 (30 - L´ ) TA

C A
To To
2
TC  To  (12 L' ) 2 2
TA  To  [12(30  L' )]2
 (154.50) 2  (12 12.43) 2
 (154.50) 2  [12(30  12.43)]2
= 214.75 kN
CED, UET, Taxila = 261.39 kN 18
Practice Problems
 Chapter 5

 Structural Analysis by R. C. Hibbeler

 Examples and Exercise

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CED, UET, Taxila 20