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Effective Communication

Skills
Presented by

Dr Hitesh D Raviya
Reader in English,
Department of English,
KSKV Kachchh University,
BHUJ (Dist: Kachchh, Gujarat).
Contact : hdraviya@rediffmail.com
Ground Rules
 Please switch off your mobiles.
 Make it an interactive session.
 Brainstorming session

 Lets agree to disagree


Index
 Effective Communication
 Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
 Facial Expression
 Body Language
 Listening Skills
 Dressing Sense
 Managing the conflict
 Positive interactivity
Communication

 Find Out what your Listener/s want/s


 Know what you want to say
 Control Fear
 Think before you speak
 Believe in your message and make others
believe
 Repeat Major Points
 Find Out what your Listener/s want/s
 Communication: A Definition

Communication is the process of


exchanging information by the use of
words, letters, symbols, or nonverbal
behavior.
Quicker
Improved Stronger
problem
stakeholder decision
solving
response making

Enhanced Effective Increased


productivity
professional Communication
image

Steadier
work
Dissolves
Stronger flow
differences
business
relationships
Types of
communication

Verbal Non - Verbal


Steps in the Communication Process

 Sender
 Message
 Channel
 Receiver
 Feedback
 Evaluation
Basics of Effective Communication

What matters in
communication is how you say
and not what you say.

 Your communication style is a set of various


behaviors and methods of relaying
information that impact all facets of life.
Basics of Effective Communication

 People are not difficult. They only seem difficult


to the extent that we do not have the skills to
deal with what they bring to the table. It is our
lack of knowledge, understanding and perception
that makes the situation difficult.
Passive, Aggressive, and
Assertive Communication

Understanding Verbal
Communication Styles
Passive Communication

 Allowing our own rights to be violated by failing to


express our honest feelings.
 The goal of being a passive communicator is to avoid
conflict.
 Little risk involved – very safe.
 Little eye contact, usually quiet tone, may suddenly
explode after being passive too long.
Examples of Passive Communication

 “I don’t know.”
 “Whatever you think.”
 “You have more experience than I. You decide.”
 “I’ll go with whatever the group decides.”
 “I don’t care. It doesn’t matter to me.”
 “Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes. . . NO!”
Aggressive Communication

 Protecting one’s own rights at the expense of


others’ rights.
 The goal of the aggressor is to win at all
costs; to be right.
 Does not consider actions a risk because this
person thinks they will always get their way.
It is risky in terms of relationships.
 Eye contact is angry, lots of energy; loud and
belittling; Often uses violence or verbal
abuse.
Examples of Aggressive Communication

 “I don’t know why you can’t see that


this is the right way to do it.”
 “It’s going to be my way or not at all.”
 “You’re just stupid if you think that will
work.”
 “Who cares what you feel. We’re
talking about making things work
here.”
Assertive Communication

 The goal of the assertive person is to communicate


with respect and to understand each other; to find a
solution to the problem.
 Takes a risk with others in the short run, but in the
long run relationships are much stronger.
 Eye contact maintained; listens and validates
others; confident and strong, yet also flexible;
objective and unemotional; presents wishes clearly
and respectfully.
Examples of Assertive
Communication

 “So what you’re saying is. . . .”


 “I can see that this is important to you, and
it is also important to me. Perhaps we can
talk more respectfully and try to solve the
problem.”
 “I think. . . I feel. . . I believe that. . . .”
 “I would appreciate it if you. . .”
 Let me understand your thoughts on this…
Which is the Best Style?
 All styles have their proper place and use.
 Assertive communication is the healthiest.
 Boundaries of all parties are respected.
 Easier to solve problems; fewer emotional outbursts.
 It requires skills and a philosophy to change, as well as lots of
practice and hard work.
 When both parties do it, no one is hurt in any way and both
parties win on some level.
NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
(Kinesics)

Nonverbal Communication in
Organizations
NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION

The study of non-verbal communication


examines how messages are communicated
through physical behaviour, vocal cues and
spatial relationships.
The total impact of a message breaks
down like this:

• 7 percent verbal (words) Hello!!

• 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc)

• 55 percent body movements


(mostly facial expressions)
Nonverbal Communication in
Organizations

 Environment
 Body placement
 Posture
 Gestures
 Facial expressions and movement
 Clothing, dress, appearance
• Effective communication is the harmony
of verbal and nonverbal actions.

• Nonverbal communication consists of


body movement, facial expressions and
eye movement.
Major areas of nonverbal behaviors are:

• Eye contact

• Facial expressions

• Gestures
• Posture and body orientation

• Proximity (Proxemics)

• Para linguistics

• Chronemics
EYE CONTACT
• The eyes can give clues to a person’s
thoughts.

• When someone is excited, his pupils


dilate to four times the normal size.

• An angry or negative mood causes the


pupils to contract.
EYE CONTACT
• Good eye contact helps the audience
develop the interest in the speaker.

• Eye-contact helps regulate the flow of


communication and reflects interest in
others.
EYE CONTACT
• Direct eye-contact conveys interest,
warmth, credibility and concern.

• Shifty eyes suggest dishonesty.

• Downward gaze may be a sign of


submissiveness or inferiority.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
• You have 80 muscles in the face that
can create more than 7,000 facial
expressions.
• The facial muscles produce the varying
facial expressions that
convey information about emotion, mood,
and ideas.
•Emotional expressions are one primary
result of activity by the facial muscles.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
There are six categories of facial expressions:
• Happiness
• Sadness
• Anger
• Disgust
• Surprise
• Fear
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
HAPPINESS

“Whoever is happy will make others happy too.”

-Mark Twain
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
SADNESS

“Sadness dulls the heart more than the


grossest sin”
-Unknown
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
ANGER

“Anger is one letter short of danger”


-Unknown
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
DISGUST

A disgusting expression
on the face is considered
negative and should be
avoided in formal
gatherings.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
SURPRISE

The eye-brows and the eyes


are most affected in an expression of
surprise.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

FEAR

There is nothing to fear, but fear itself.


GESTURES

•Recognizing attitudes conveyed through Body Language


•Right postures to adopt at the Work Place and postures to avoid
•Pick up non-verbal signals from a customers body language
•Facial expressions can enhance verbal communication
•Setting standards of Body Language to drive Customer Delight at
the Public Office
GESTURES
• Gestures communicate as effectively as
words, sometimes even better.

• Gestures support the verbal


communication.

• They sometimes detract from what you


say.
GESTURES
There are some negative gestures
which should be avoided:

• Pointing at people- It is perceived as


accusatory.
• Fiddling with your items-It gives the
impression that you are nervous.
• Dragging the feet-It implies lethargy.
• Head Down- It suggests timidity.
GESTURES
• Drooping shoulders- It implies
weariness and lethargy.
• Weak handshake-It implies meek and
ineffectual personality.
• Shifty eyes- It suggests nervousness.
• Arms crossed on the chest- It is a
defensive gesture.
GESTURES

• Hands in pockets- Shows disrespect,


and that you have something to hide.
• Covering your mouth- It suggests you
are lying.
• Shaking feet or legs- It shows
indifference and disinterest.
Avoid these hand gestures
Use these hand gestures
POSTURE AND
BODY ORIENTATION
POSTURE
• Body posture can be open or closed.

• Interested people pay attention and


lean forward.

• Leaning backwards demonstrates


aloofness or rejection.
POSTURE
• A head held straight up signals a
neutral attitude.

• A head down is negative and


judgmental.

• A head tilted to the side indicates


interest.
POSTURE
Some negative postures should be
avoided:

• Rigid Body Posture-Anxious/ Uptight


• Hunched Shoulders –Lacks interest/
Feeling inferior
• Crossed Arms-Protecting the body/
Negative Thoughts
What impression do the following people give
you?
What impression do the following people give
you?
PROXIMITY

Proximity is the distance people


maintain between themselves while
talking.
PROXIMITY
DISTANCE ZONES
• Intimate Zone- No more than18 inches
apart (mother and baby)
• Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet.
(Casual and personal conversations).
• Social Distance-4-12 feet (impersonal,
business, social gatherings)
• Public Distance-More than 12
feet( Public speaking)
PROXIMITY
• Space/Distance as an indicator of
intimacy-The more we get to know
each other the more we are permitted
into each other's personal space
• Space/Distance as an indicator of
status- Executives, presidents of
colleges, government officials have
large offices with big space...
secretaries have small space
PARALINGUISTICS
• Para linguistics are what accompany
your words to make up for its true
meaning.

• Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect


of communication.
PARALINGUISTICS
Components of Para linguistics are:

• Rate of speed- When a speaker


speaks too fast, he is seen as more
competent.

• Pitch-Pitch should be changed in


accordance with the context of spoken
words.
PARALINGUISTICS
• Volume- It refers to how loudly we
speak. People who speak loudly are
perceived as aggressive. Soft-spoken
voices are perceived as timid or polite.

• Fillers- Words like “umhh” “ah””aaa”


are used to gather thoughts.
Listening
TWO
AND
ONE

Nature has intended us to LISTEN twice

as much as we speak!
• Decide to be a better listener .

• Remember - hearing is only physical , listening is


intellectual.
There are four basic components
to effective listening

listening with empathy


listening with openness
listening with awareness
listening actively
Listening with Empathy

Sometimes we do not listen to others because

we are not interested in what the other person


is saying
we do not understand what the other person is
saying
we do not agree with the other person
Listening with Empathy

To listen with empathy, try to identify what needs the other


person is trying to meet

Ask yourself these questions:

What need is this person’s emotion(s) coming


from?

What danger is the person experiencing?

What is he or she asking for?


Listening with Empathy

Sometimes we do not listen because

we do not want to hear what is being said


we feel threatened by the content
we fear being wrong
we cannot believe that an unlikable
person has something to say that is worth
considering
Listening with Openness

To listen with openness, imagine you are a


detective trying to get all the facts. You are
trying to find the truth.

View the information from the perspective of the other


person.

Consider the other person’s background, culture,


history, etc.
Listening with Awareness

There are two components to listening with


awareness:
being aware of conflicts between what is
being said and your own knowledge base
being aware of conflicts between the
content of the message and the body
language of the speaker (tone, voice
inflections, stance, etc.)
Recognizing that conflicts can be a tool for
making the verbalized message more
accurate.
Active Listening

Active listening means to be verbally


involved with the communication.

Active listening helps us to keep our


minds focused on the communication.
The three elements of active listening are
paraphrasing
clarifying
feedback
More types of Listening

Informative Listening
Relationship Listening
Appreciative Listening
Critical Listening
Discriminative Listening
Barriers to listening
 Hearing what you want to hear called
selective listening
 Thinking of what you are going to say next
 Distractions such as co-workers, noise, side
conversations etc.
 Stress
 Getting involved emotionally (instead of
logically)
 Thinking about personal issues
 Boredom
 Making assumptions rather than asking
questions
Managing Conflict in
Organizations
Management ?
What is Conflict?
 Many definitions, but several common
themes
 Parties must perceive conflict
 Opposition or incompatibility
 Some form of interaction
 Our definition: A process that begins when
one party perceives that another party has
negatively affected, or is about to
negatively affect, something that the first
party cares about. The process usually
involves one party or group working for its
own interests and in opposition to the
interests of the other group or individual.
Why Conflict Arises
Type “A” Personality

Vs.

Type “B Personality
Type ”A” Personality
 Highly Competitive
 Strong Personality
 Restless when
inactive
 Thrives on
deadlines
Type “B”
Personality
 Works methodically
 Rarely competitive
 Enjoys leisure time
 Does not anger easily
 Does job well but doesn’t
need recognition
 Easy-going
Aggressive People
 Body language
 Stiff and straight
 Points, bangs tables to emphasize
points
 Folds arms across body
 Verbal language
Aggressive people
 “I want you to…”
are basically
 “You must…” insecure….. Try to
 “Do what I tell you!” avoid them.
 “You’re stupid!”
Submissive people
 Body Language  Verbal Language
 Avoids eye contact  “I’m sorry”
 Stooped posture  “It’s all my fault”
 Speaks quietly  “Oh dear”
 Fidgets

Submissive people
have a great sense
of inferiority

Assertive
Body language
People
 Stands straight
 Appears composed
 Smiles
 Maintains eye contact
 Verbal language
 “Let’s”
 “How shall we do this?”
 “I think… What do you
think?”
 “I would like…”
What Are Some of the
Common Types of Conflict
Found in Organizations
Today?
Types of Conflict

 Within an individual
 Between two individuals
 Within a team of individuals
 Between two or more teams
within an organization
Causes of Conflict
 Conflict of aims- different goals
 Conflict of ideas- different
interpretations
 Conflict of attitudes - different
opinions
 Conflict of behavior- different
behaviors are unacceptable
Stages of Conflict
 Conflict arises
 Positions are stated and hardened
 Actions, putting into action their
chosen plan
 Resolution???
Preventing Conflict
 Assess positive and negative
personality traits of people involved
 Determine personality type
 Aggressive
 Submissive
 Assertive
 Assess if people are introvert or
extroverts...
Preventing Conflict
 Review past conflicts
 Assess communication skills of those
involved
 Read body language of participants
Preventing Conflict
 Try to reduce conflict
 Realize that communication is colored
by personal experience, beliefs, fear,
prejudices
 Try to be neutral
 Plan the timing and place of the
conversation
 Realize that outside stress may add to
confrontation
 Eliminate/reduce external
interruptions
Preventing Conflict
 Manage the language used
 Neutral vs. loaded words

 Reduce technical language

 Allow for cultural differences

in language
 Words may have different

meanings for different


people…ask them to
elaborate
Personalities who cause
conflict
 Aggressor
 Passive
 Absentee
 Error prone
 Negative
attitude
 Chatterbox
 Do nothing
Personalities who cause
conflict
 Unreliable
 Time waster
 Resentful person
Ways of Responding to Potential
Conflict
High
Compete Collaborate

Assertiveness of
Compromise
Response

Avoid Accommodate
Low
Low High
Similarity of Goals
Thank You