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Conditioning for Soccer:

Scientific Basis

Adriano Vretaros
Strength and Conditioning Coach

2017
São Paulo – BRAZIL
avretaros@gmail.com
Conditioning for Soccer
Game Characteristics - I

● Open Motor Skills

● Collective and Individual Motor Actions

● Tactical Game System


Conditioning for Soccer
Game Characteristics - II

● Intermittent Character of Efforts


● Distance Traveled (~10,4 Km - raging: 8-13
Km)
● HR (~80% HRmax)
● Various Eccentric Contractions (jumps,
abrupt stops, change of direction)

(Reilly et al, 1988)


Conditioning for Soccer
Motor Skills

● Pass
● Dribble
● Kick
● Heading (offensive
(offensive or
or defensive)
defensive)
● Ball Control
● Disarm
Conditioning for Soccer
Tactical Systems - I

4-4-2 4-1-3-2

4-3-3 4-2-3-1

5-3-2 4-3-2-1

4-5-1 4-1-4-1

3-5-2 And Other

Marking: Individual, Area, and\or Mixed


Conditioning for Soccer
Tactical Systems - II

● Defensive Zone

● Offensive Zone
DZ CZ OZ

● Construction Zone

(Melo, 2000)
Conditioning for Soccer
Tactical Systems - III

● Teaching Styles of the Tactical Systems


DIRECT INDIRECT
What \ To \ When Freedom to the Athlete

Efficient, Objective Explore and Experience

Few Interpretation Failures Try, Make Mistakes, Question

Group Control Takes Time

Little Individuality Initial Phase of Teaching

Little Creativity Challenges

(Adapted from Luguetti, Tsukamoto & Dantas, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Total Distance Traveled

● Mildfielders: ~10,9Km
● Defenders: ~9,8Km
● Offensive: ~10,4Km
● Goalkeepers: ~4Km

(Gallo et al, 2010 ; Bloomfield et al, 2007)


Conditioning for Soccer
Type of Movement


Stationary
● Walking – 5Km\h
● Slow Running – 11Km\h
● Mean Running – 15Km\h
● Accelerate Running – 18Km\h

Sprint – 24Km\h
● Sprint Max – 27Km\h
● Back Running – 3-21km\h
● Side Running – 0-21Km\h
(D'Ortavio & Tranquilli, 1993)
Conditioning for Soccer
Distances Covered (First and Second Half)

SPEED FIRST HALF SECOND HALF SIGNIFICANCE


(m) (m)

0-11 Km\h 3496+\-148 3535+\-302 P<0,05

11,1-14 Km\h 851+\-188 803+\-187 P<0,0001

14,1-19 Km\h 894+\-251 865+\-255 P<0,05

19,1-23 Km\h 304+\-118 301+\-110 NS

>23 Km\h 165+\-95 172+\-94 NS

With the Ball 104+\-62 109+\-61 NS

TOTAL 5709+\-485 5684+\-663 NS

(Adapted from Di Salvo et al, 2007)


Conditioning for Soccer
Distances Covered (Work Intensities)
Positions 0-11 11,1-14 14,1-19 19,1-23 >23
Km\h Km\h Km\h Km\h Km\h
Central 7080+\- 1380+\- 1257+\- 397+\- 215+\-
Defender 420 232* 244* 114* 100*
External 7012+\- 1590+\- 1730+\- 652+\- 402+\-
Defender 377 257* 262* 179* 165*
Central 7061+\- 1965+\- 2116+\- 627+\- 248+\-
Midfield 272 288* 369** 184* 116*
External 6960+\- 1743+\- 1987+\- 738+\- 446+\-
Midfield 601 309* 412** 174* 161**
Forward 6958+\- 1562+\- 1683+\- 621+\- 404+\-
438 295* 413* 161* 140**

(Adapted from Di Salvo et al, 2007)


Conditioning for Soccer
Bioenergetic

POSITIONS ATP-CP Anaerobic Aerobic


Lactic
Midfielder 60% 20% 20%

Winger 80% 20% 0%

Attacker 80% 20% 0%

Goalkeeper 80% 20% 0%

(Adapted from Bompa & Haff, 2012)


Conditioning for Soccer
Anthropometric Profile - I

● U-20 (range
U15 – U17 – U-20 (range 12-19 years
years old)
old)
Variables GK ED CD CM EM F

Weight 67,48+\- 58,81+\- 70,03+\- 62,13+\- 58,04+\- 61,18+\-


(Kg) 11,57* 9,19 9,81* 10,27 10,76 12,08
Height 172,49+\- 167,32+\- 175,07+\- 168,25+\- 166,04+\- 168,41+\-
(cm) 8,43* 8,35 7,27* 8,39 9,52 9,68
BMI 22,53+\- 20,87+\- 22,76+\- 21,79+\- 20,87+\- 21,33+\-
(Kg.m) 2,44* 1,78 2,16* 2,18 2,41 2,36
Endo 2,91+\- 2,52+\- 2,92+\- 2,65+\- 2,36+\- 2,38+\-
0,70* 0,63 0,92* 0,66 0,63 0,64
Meso 4,11+\- 3,72+\- 4,01+\- 3,93+\- 3,75+\- 4,03+\-
0,99 0,90 1,12 0,96 0,86 1,29
Ecto 2,58+\- 3,01+\- 2,61+\- 2,64+\- 2,98+\- 2,90+\-
0,98 0,80 0,89* 0,95 1,08 0,90
(Adapted from Lago-Peñas et al, 2011)
Conditioning for Soccer
Anthropometric Profile - II

● First Division (n=57)


VARIABLES GK Forward Midfield Defender F P

Age 25,2 22,7 23,4 23,3 -- --


(years)

Playing 14,9 13,8 12,1 13,1 -- --


Experience (y)

Body Mass 80,1* 76,8 76,1 79,1 0,6008 0,6189


(Kg)

Body Height 182,1* 179,2 179,6 182,2 0,4477 0,7205


(cm)

Fat Tissue (%) 20,2* 15,0 14,4 13,9 5,1292 0,0049

(Adapted from Matkovic et al, 2003)


Conditioning for Soccer
Biomotor Capabilities


Endurance

Strength

Speed

Agility
● Coordination

Flexibility

(Campeiz & Maria, 2013)


Conditioning for Soccer
Endurance - I


ATP-CP (Resynthesis of Phosphocreatine Via)

● Anaerobic Lactic (Lactate: ~3-12 mmol\L)

● Aerobic (~70-75% VO2max)

(Bangsbo, 1994 ; Silva Neto, 2013 ; Stolen et al, 2005)


Conditioning for Soccer
Endurance - II


Acyclic and Complex Characteristics

Requirements of Technical Parameters, Tactical
and Psychological
● Anaerobic Power Alactic and Lactica

Distances: 5-30m
● Reduced Games ¨¨

(Toledo, 2013)
Conditioning for Soccer
Endurance - III

● DIFFERENCES: playing position and playing style

CATEGORY VO2max (ml\Kg\min)

U-17 56,95+\-3,60
U-20 58,13+\-3,21

Firts Division 56,58+\-5,03

Goalkeepers ~50-55

(Adapted from Stolen


Stolen et
et al, 2005 ; Da Silva, Bloomfield & Marins, 2008)
Conditioning for Soccer
Endurance - IV


Youth Soccer Players
TESTS Goalkeeper Defender Midfielder Forward P
(n=10) (n=20) (n=25) (n=15)
YYIER 1548+\-695 1932+\-740 2283+\-780 1971+\-935 NS
(m)
VO2max 55,1+\-8,5 53,2+\-6,8 57,9+\-5,1 56,5+\-4,9 NS
(ml\Kg\min)
HRmax 198+\-6 197+\-8 201+\-7 204+\-7 NS
(bpm)
Running 577+\-56 585+\-79 627+\-80 593+\-71 NS
Time (s)
Body Mass 54,6+\-7,3 56,2+\-6,2 52,2+\-9,6 43,9+\-9,5 0,001**
(Kg)

(Adapted from Wong et al, 2009)


Conditioning for Soccer
Endurance - V


Interval Training
WORKING PERIOD GOAL

Average Duration Increase Distance Traveled


(~4min) Increase Number of Sprints
Increase Engagement with the Ball
Ball
Short Duration Increase Anaerobic Power
(~30s) Increase VO2max

Ultra Short Duration Increase Speed


(<10s) Increase Endurance Speed

(Adapted from Moreira et al, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Endurance - VI


Game Based Conditioning Drills

REDUCED GAMES RAST Test


(pre-post)

GROUP 01: 886,27+\-228,79 Watts

1:1, 2:2, 3:3 and 4:4 850,82+\-145,02 Watts


GROUP 02: 877,69+\-240,09 Watts

5:5, 6:6, 7:7 and 8:8 791,39+\-141,42 Watts

(Adapted from Fernandes & Navarro, 2014)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - I

Anatomical
Adaptation METABOLIC
Adaptations
Hypertrophy

Maximum Force
NEURAL
Adaptations
Power
Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - II

TYPE OF STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS

RELATIVE Strength Carrying Bodyweight


Acceleration
Deceleration

ABSOLUTE Strength Moving an External Force


(Opponent and \ or Ball)

(Adapted from Stolen et al, 2005)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - III

Tactical Function Strength Manifestations

Attackers Explosive, Acceleration, Deceleration,


Fast Force Endurance, Jumping Force,
Sprints Force

Midfielders Acceleration, Deceleration, Fast Force


Endurance, Jumping Force, Sprints
Force, Stroke Force

Defenders Explosive, Acceleration, Deceleration,


Fast Force Endurance, Jumping Force,
Sprints Force, Stroke Force

Goalkeepers Reactive Force, Fast Force Endurance,


Explosive Force

(Adapted from Bompa, 2001 ; Pombo, 1998)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - IV

● Muscle Biopsies (MHC) – Youth Soccer Players


GROUP AGE Years of Fibers Fibers CSA P NMF Satellite
(years) Training Type I Type IIA Cells

__ __ p<0,01* 482+\ 80+\-


A 11,2+\- 3,7+\- +18,1% -182 40
0,4 1,5
__ 508+\ 97+\-
B 13,1+\- 6,6+\- +18,4% ** ___ -203 40
0,5 1,6
__ 0,05** 527+\ 87+\-
C 15,2+\- 8,0+\- - ** <p<0,00 -312 40
0,6 1,1 21,3%* 1
(Adapted from Metaxas et al, 2014)
Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - V


Maximum Strength – 2 years – Youth Players –– Part 1
Maximum Strength 1
Cohort GROUP T1 Front Squat T2 Front Squat Changes T1-T2
(Kg) (Kg) (%)
A (U-19) STG 53,8+\-6,8 106,2+\-10 101,6+\-43*
CG 54,5+\-6,9 65+\-10 20,9+\-22,9

B (U-17) STG 46,2+\-7,4 97,8+\-13,3 115,1+\-34,4*


CG 35,6+\-7,5 51,5+\-10,1 49,8+\-39,6

C (U-15) STG 21,4+\-8,5 81,4+\-14,4 312,5+\-


118,6*
CG 25,7+\-13,3 36,1+\-6,6 62,3+\-53,8

(Adapted from Sander et al, 2012)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - VI


Maximum Strength – 2 years – Youth Players - Part 2
Cohort GROUP T1 Back Squat T2 Back Squat Changes T1-T2
(Kg) (Kg) (%)
A (U-19) STG 61,2+\-10 120,4+\-11,4 101,6+\-37*
CG 69,5+\-12,9 87,7+\-10,1 29,2+\-22,7

B (U-17) STG 52+\-10,7 113+\-15,2 123+\-38,5*


CG 41,7+\-11,6 65+\-11,2 67+\-51,4

C (U-15) STG 25+\-9,6 90+\-13,5 290,9+\-


107,8*
CG 32,9+\-16,1 46,8+\-10,9 59,7+\-43,4

(Adapted from Sander et al, 2012)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - VII


Two Teams – (n=29) - Norwegian Elite Division

TESTS ABSOLUTE RELATIVE


(Average Results) Strength Strength
1RM Squat 150 (17,2) 8,0 (0,9) Kg.mb
(Kg)
1RM Bench Press 79,9 (13,6) 4,4 (0,8) Kg.mb
(Kg)
Vertical Jump 54,9 (5,3) ____
(cm)

(Adapted from Wisloff et al, 1998)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - VIII

● Back Squats (2s\w – 6 weeks)


1RM Back weeks) –– Youth Players

TYPE OF BEFORE AFTER Effect Size (d)


STRENGTH

ABSOLUTE 125,4+\-13,78 149,3+\-16,62* 0,62


(Kg)

RELATIVE 1,66+\-0,24 1,96+\-0,29* 0,45


(Kg.Kg.-1)
*p<0,001

(Adapted from Styles et al, 2015)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - IX

TESTS First Second Amateur F P


Division Division Ratio
SJ 38,48 33,86 39,83 9,71 P<0,001
(cm) (3,80) (7,47) (5,15)
CMJ 41,56 39,71 43,93 5,59 P<0,01
(cm) (4,18) (5,17) (5,65)
Ball Speed 106,37 106,94 107,77 0,19 0,83
(Km\h) (12,89) (7,52) (5,71)

(Adapted from Cometti et al, 2001)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - X


Youth Soccer Players (n=70) - U-14

TESTS Goalkeeper Defender Midfielder Forward P


(n=10) (n=20) (n=25) (n=15)
Vertical 52,5+\- 54,3+\- 53,2+\- 53,9+\- NS
Jump 5,7 7,7 12,9 6,1
(cm)
Ball 73,4+\- 73,1+\- 76,3+\- 67,9+\- NS
Shooting 13,3 12,1 8,9 13,3
(Km\h)
Body 54,6+\- 56,2+\- 52,2+\- 43,9+\- 0,001**
Mass 7,3 6,2 9,6 9,5
(Kg)

(Adapted from Wong et al, 2009)


Conditioning for Soccer
Strength - XI

● Isocinetic Evaluation of Lower Limb Muscle Power


GROUP 60 degrees \ second 300 degrees \ second
Extension \ Flexion Extension \ Flexion

Defender 225+\-26,9 \ 181,2+\-181 \


Center Forward 132+\-22,7 Nm* 155,3+\-22,7 Nm

Midfielder 221,8+\-47,12 \ 185,6+\-76,5 \


139+\-29,3 Nm* 147+\-33,1 Nm

Full Back 214+\-19,72 \ 197,7+\-31,7 \


Winger 134+\-21,9 Nm 66,8+\-19,1 Nm*

(Adapted from Rinaldi


Rinaldi et
et al,
al, no
no date)
date)
Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - I

● Perception
● Anticipation
● Reaction
SPEED
Movement

Endurance
Acceleration

Displacement

Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - II

TESTS First Second Amateur F P


Division Division Ratio
10m 1,804 1,818 1,859 5,20 P<0,01
(s) (0,063) (0,058) (0,075)
30m 4,223 4,249 4,294 1,30 0,28
(s) (0,192) (0,147) (0,141)

(Adapted
(Adapted from Cometti et al, 2001)
2001)
Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - III


Youth Soccer Players (n=70) - U-14

TESTS Goalkeeper Defender Midfielder Forward P


(n=10) (n=20) (n=25) (n=15)

10m sprint 2,06+\- 2,09+\- 2,05+\- 2,07+\- NS


(s) 0,12 0,23 0,14 0,15
30m sprint 4,92+\- 4,81+\- 4,82+\- 4,96+\- NS
(s) 0,32 0,36 0,31 0,40
Body 54,6+\- 56,2+\- 52,2+\- 43,9+\- 0,001**
Mass 7,3 6,2 9,6 9,5
(Kg)

(Adapted
(Adapted from Wong et al, 2009)
2009)
Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - IV

● 1 RM BS+RD+NL in Short Sprints (2s\w per 6 weeks)


TESTS BEFORE AFTER Effect Size (d)
(d)

5-m sprint (s) 1,11+\-0,04 1,05+\-0,03* 0,55

10-m sprint (s) 1,83+\-0,05 1,78+\-0,05* 0,45

20-m sprint (s) 3,09+\-0,07 3,05+\-0,05* 0,31

*p<0,001
(Adapted from Styles et al, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - V


Normative Values Sprint Performance (U-10 to U15)
Category 20m sprint 0-10m split 10-20m split

U-10 4,82 4,33 5,46

U-11 4,85 4,22 5,62

U-12 5,14 4,59 5,88

U-13 5,24 4,44 6,25

U-14 5,71 4,98 6,80

U-15 5,80 5,03 6,94

(Adapted from Nikolaidis et al, 2016)


Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - VI


Normative Values Sprint Performance (U-16 to U-21)
Category 20m sprint 0-10m split 10-20m split

U-16 5,99 5,15 7,35

U-17 6,33 5,43 7,52

U-18 6,21 5,38 7,63

U-19 6,47 5,46 7,87

U-20 6,43 5,59 7,75

U-21 6,25 5,38 7,81

(Adapted from Nikolaidis et al, 2016)


Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - VII


Normative Values Sprint Performance (U-25 to U-35)

Category 20m sprint 0-10m split 10-20m split

U-25 6,43 5,46 7,81

U-30 6,23 5,35 7,63

U-35 6,29 5,35 7,58

(Adapted from Nikolaidis et al, 2016)


Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - VIII

● Anaerobic Speed
Anaerobic Speed Endurance
Endurance Training
Training (2
(2 s\w
s\w –– 44 weeks)
weeks)
TRAINING YYIR-2 RST P
Speed Endurance +50,0+\-8,0%* +2,1+\-0,3% <0,001
Production (SEP)
Speed Endurance +26,0+\-5,0% +1,3+\-0,4% 0,03*
Maintenance (SEM)

TRAINING RST Fatigue Peak and ___


Index Average Speed
Speed Endurance -4,4+\-0,8 to 24,5+\-0,3 vs <0,04**
Production (SEP) 3,4+\-0,5%** 19,2+\-0,3 Km\h-1
Speed Endurance ___ 15,5+\-0,1 vs ___
Maintenance (SEM) 9,4+\-0,1 Km\h-1

(Adapted from Mohr & Krustrup, 2016)


Conditioning for Soccer
Speed - IX

● Correlation of the Explosive Force of the Soccer Players


Lower Limbs with Sprint Speeds:

a) 10m (r=-0,74)
b)
b) 20m
20m (r=-0,73)
(r=-0,73)
c) 30m (r=-0,81)
d) 40m (r=-0,88)

(Pasquarelli et al, 2010)


Conditioning for Soccer
Agility - I


Multi-directional Nature:

a) Physiological Capacities
b) Biomechanical Abilities
c) Advanced Cognitive Strategies

(Wheeler,
(Wheeler, 2009)
Conditioning for Soccer
Agility - II

TYPES CHARACTERISTICS
SIMPLE Planned Movement
Planned Enviroment

TEMPORAL Planned Movement


Unplanned Enviroment

SPATIAL Unplanned Movement


Planned Enviroment

UNIVERSAL Unplanned Movement


Unplanned Enviroment

(Wheeler, 2009)
Conditioning for Soccer
Agility - III


Multi-directional Sprints Movements:
a) Stability
b) Balance


Sport-specific Movements:
1) Dynamic State (Deceleration)
2)
2) Static
Static State
State (Stopping
(Stopping to
to Change
Change Direction)
Direction)
3) Dynamic State (Reacceleration)

(Lockie et al, 2016)


Conditioning for Soccer
Agility - IV
POSITIONS 0-10m 0-20m 0-40m T-test CODAT

Anterolateral 0,157 0,149 0,446 0,502* 0,804**

Lateral 0,103 0,181 0,394 0,679** 0,547*

Posterolateral 0,232 -0,131 0,050 0,218 0,597*

Posteromedial 0,682** 0,319 0,429 0,379 0,594*

Medial 0,065 0,000 0,135 -0,109 0,176

Anteromedial 0,201 0,171 0,233 0,313 0,112

P<0,05* P<0,01**

(Adapted from Lockie et al, 2016)


Conditioning for Soccer
Coordination

● Eye-foot
● Eye-hand
Orientation spatiotemporal

● Laterality
● Precision
Precision

Anticipatory
Anticipatory Timing
Timing
Conditioning for Soccer
Flexibility

● Mobility
● Elasticity

a) Plastic Components
b) Elastic Components

(Dantas,
(Dantas, 1999
1999 ;; Boyle, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Physical Conditioning

● General Physical Preparation

● Physical Preparation Specific:


a) Individualized Tactic by Function
b) Team Style of Play
Conditioning for Soccer
Training Types

● Technical
● Physical
● Technical-tactical
Technical-physical

Technical-tactical-physical

Conditioning for Soccer
Physical Assessment - I

1) FIELD TESTING
● Endurance (VO2max, Yo-Yo test, etc)
● Strength (SJ, CMJ, HJ, DJ, SBJ, BPT, 1RM Squat, Bench Press,
Deadlift, etc)

Agility (10m shuttle run, Zig-zag agility, T-test, Pro-agility, etc)
● Speed (5, 10, 15, 20, 30m sprint, etc)
● Position-specific drills
● FMS + Y-Balance Test + Global Postural Analysis
2) LABORATORY TESTING

Isokinetic evaluation, Wingate test, Medical Injury Evaluation,
Biochemical Tests, Endocrine Tests, Dental evaluation, etc
Conditioning for Soccer
Physical Assessment - II


Biochemical Tests
Hemoglobin Erythrocytes

Iron Glucose

Ferritin Parasitological Stool

Transferrin Urinalysis

Hematocrit Biological Markers

(Santos Silva et al, 1999)


Conditioning for Soccer
Physical Assessment - III


Periodicity

Forms of Analysis
Structural Resources


Staff Resources


QUESTIONS:
a) What to do?
b) How to make?
c) Why do?
d) It is efficient?
Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - I

● Periferic Fatigue **
a) Neuromuscular ***
b) Cardiovascular *
c) Metabolic **

● Central Fatigue

(Noakes, 2000
(Noakes, 2000 ;; Mohr et al, 2005 ; Bangsbo et al, 2007)
Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - II

VISIBLE Acute Non- Compensatory Risk of


Fatigue residual Overreaching
Non-functional

Non- Risk of
HIDDEN Chronic Residual compensatory Overtraining
Fatigue

(Adapted from Platonov apud Vretaros, 2015)


Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - III


SYMPTOMS:

1) Physiological
2) Biochemists
2)
3) Immunological
3)
4)
4) Psychological

(Checchi, 2013)
Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - IV


MEASURING the Physiological Stress of Fatigue:
Fatigue:

a) Ck
b) Testosterone\Cortisol Ratio
c) LDH
d) Neuromuscular Tests
e) Scales of Subjective Perception
Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - V

● Glycogen

● Dehydration

● Proprioception
Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - VI


GLYCOGEN:

a) Fast twitch fibers (287,4+\-41,2 mmol\glucose)

b) Slow-twitch fibers (182,2+\-34,5 mmol\glucose)

(Nicholas et al, 1999)


Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - VII


DEHYDRATION:

(n=156) Professional Soccer Players
a) 0,6% Hydrated
b) 9,0% Minimal Dehydration
c)
c) 76,9%
76,9% Significant
Significant Dehydration
Dehydration
d) 13,5% Serious Dehydration

(Castro-Sepúlveda
(Castro-Sepúlveda et al, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - VIII


DEHYDRATION:

a) CMJ (-2,6%)

b) 3 sets of sprints of 30 m (-8,2%)

(Mohr et al, 2010)


Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - IX


DEHYDRATION \ HYDRATION:
a) Pre, during and post Game
b) Water,
b) Water, Carbohydrate and Electrolytes
Electrolytes
c) Hyperhydration
d) Acclimatization
e) Clothing
f) Body Weight Control
g) Urine Control

(Vretaros, 1998 ; Monteiro et al, 2003)


Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - X


PROPRIOCEPTION:
● Muscle Responses in Extremely Fast Conditions

a) Joint Stability
b) Muscle Stability
c) Proprioceptive Feedback

d) INJURIES ¨¨

(Ergen & Ulkar, 2008 ; Santos Silva et al, 2006)


Conditioning for Soccer
Types of Fatigue - XI

● SPRINTS ABILITY
Muscle Excitability,
MUSCLE FACTORS Limitations on Energy Supply,
Accumulation of Metabolites

Neural Unit,
NEURAL FACTORS Muscle Recruitment Strategies

Regulation of Muscle Stiffness,


OTHERS Environmental Disturbances

(Adapted from Girard et al, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Biomechanics of the Kick - I

● Kinesiological Analysis: Sagittal Plane and Frontal Axis


a) Knee (sudden and rapid extension)
b) Hip Flexion
c) Contraction of the Core
c) Contraction of the Core
d) Ankle (plantar flexion)

1) Dominant Leg
2) Non-dominant Leg
2) Non-dominant Leg

(Adapted from Machado et al, 2014)


Conditioning for Soccer
Biomechanics of the Kick - II

● Consecutive Soccer Instep Kicks – Part 1

VARIABLES K-1 K-2 K-3 K-4 K-5

LAV 40,26+\- 40,06+\- 39,87+\- 39,50+\- 32,28+\-


0,43 0,53 0,50 0,51 0,46*
TAV 18,83+\ 18,80+\- 18,74+\- 18,60+\- 18,51+\-
-0,29 0,25 0,23 0,21 0,21
LM 92,13+\- 91,66+\- 91,23+\- 89,78+\- 89,26+\-
0,98 1,21 1,14 1,16* 1,05*
TM 20,58+\- 20,54+\- 20,48+\- 20,22+\- 20,12+\-
0,32 0,27 0,26 0,23 0,23
(Adapted from Amiri-Khorasani et al, 2011)
Conditioning for Soccer
Biomechanics of the Kick - III

● Consecutive Soccer Instep Kicks – Part 2


VARIABLES K-6 K-7 K-8 K-9 K-10

LAV 39,04+\- 39,02+\- 38,81+\- 38,09+\- 37,67+\-


0,35* 0,29* 0,31* 0,19* 0,41*
TAV 18,23+\- 18,17+\- 18,09+\- 17,87+\- 17,67+\-
0,19* 0,34* 0,21* 0,08* 0,18*
LM 88,74+\- 88,68+\- 86,82+\- 85,21+\- 84,27+\-
0,79* 0,65* 0,69* 0,43* 0,92*
TM 19,82+\- 19,65+\- 19,56+\- 19,32+\- 19,11+\-
0,21* 0,37* 0,22* 0,08* 0,19*

(Adapted from Amiri-Khorasani et al, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - I

Environment,
Playing Field,
EXTRINSIC Factors
Equipment,
Game Rules,
etc

Muscle Weakness,
Instability,
INTRINSIC Factors
Fatigue,
Lack of Flexibility

( Marujo, 2014)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - II

● In Training (54,54%)

● In Matches (45,45%)

(Nascimento
(Nascimento et
et al,
al, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - III

● Most Injuries in the Lower Limbs:

a) Knee
b) Thigh
c) Ankle
d) Fatigue Injuries

(Costa, 2011)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - IV

SLIGHT Injury 1 to 3 days of absence

MILD Injury 3 to 7 days of absence

MODERATE Injury 8 to 28 days of absence

SERIOUS Injury Above 28 days of absence

(Checchi,
(Checchi, 2013)
2013)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - V


Severity of Injury \ Duration of Absence Period:
1) Trauma
Trauma Severity
Severity
2) Nature of Injured Tissue
3) Intensity Cure
4) Age of Athlete
5) Treatment and Rehabilitation Particularities

6) Character the Training Activity

(Platonov,
(Platonov, 2008)
2008)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - VI

LINE PLAYERS AUTHOR


Incidence Pattern

2,42 per 1000 hours Pedrinelli et al, 2013

7,2 per 1000 hours Dias, 2011


Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - VII

GOALKEEPERS ENVIRONMENT
Incidence Pattern

27,9 per 1000 hours In Matches

23,6 per 1000 hours In Training

(Strand et al, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - VIII


Female Soccer Players
Ankle (16) Leg (02)
Shoulder (04) Ligament (10)
Hand (01) Fracture (04)
Finger (01) Dislocation (01)
Lumbar (01) Muscle (02)
Pelvis \ Sacro (01) Sprain (10)
Thigh (02) Other (03)
Knee (06) Without Diagnosis (04)
(Berredo & Malschik, 2010)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - IX

● Professional Male Soccer Players - One Season


Ankle Sprains Low Back Pain
(18.18%) (18.18%)
Thigh Distension Tendonitis
(18.18%) (9.09%)
Knee Dislocation Direct Mechanical Contact
(9.09%) (36.36%)
Knee Sprains Repetitive Overload
(18.18%) (27.27%)
Contusion Midfielders
(9,09%) (44.44%)
(Nascimento et al, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injuries - X


Male Amateur Soccer Players - 01 Championship
43% Minor Injuries 10% Knee

33% Moderate Injury 10% Leg

24% Serious Injuries 10% Upper Extremities

38% Thigh 5% Foot

24% Ankle 5% Trunk

(Adapted from Zanuto et al, 2010)


Conditioning for Soccer
Knee Injuries


LCA in Soccer Players
Level of Competition
Number of Matches in the
EXTERNAL Factors Season
Sports Shoes

Age, Sex
Anatomical Changes
INTERNAL Factors Joint Stability
Strength, Agility, Coordination
History of Injuries

(Fernandes, 2007)
Conditioning for Soccer
Ankle Injuries - I

● Young Soccer Players (15-17 years old)


INCIDENCE CAUSE
36% Direct Trauma
43% Field of Play
7% Obstacles (stepping on the
ball, on the foot, etc.)
14% Body Imbalance
86% Inversion Sprains
14% Eversion Sprains
(Beirão & Marques, 2008)
Conditioning for Soccer
Ankle Injuries - II

FUNCTION INCIDENCE

Defenders 21%

Left Lateral 7%

Midfielders 36%

Attackers 36%

(Beirão & Marques, 2008)


Conditioning for Soccer
Hip Injuries - I


Pubalgia
MECHANISM CAUSE

Hip Rotators Compensatory Movements


(internal and\or external)
Shear
Hamstrings and\or Iliopsoas Shortening

Sacroiliac Joint Instability


Reduced Mobility

(Azevedo et al, 1999 ; Oliveira, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Hip Injuries - II

● MUSCLES in PUBALGIA:

a) Rectus Abdominis
b) Long Adductor
c)
c) Gluteus
Gluteus Medius
Medius

(Silva et al, 2011)


Conditioning for Soccer
Hamstring Injuries - I

● HAMSTRING:

a) Femoral Biceps
b) Semitendinous
c)
c) Semimembranous
Semimembranous

(Kamel, 2004)
Conditioning for Soccer
Hamstring Injuries - II

● Predominant Injury Mechanism: High-speed Running



Accelerations
● Decelerations


Eccentric Actions:
a) Hip (flexion)
b) Knee (reduction of flexion)

(Duhig et al, 2016 ; Rodrigues et al, 2007 ; Carlson, 2008)


Conditioning for Soccer
Hamstring Injuries - III

● Balance of Musculature Index:


Index:
a) Quadriceps
b) Hamstring

● Deficit of 10%

(Gonçalves, 2000)
Conditioning for Soccer
Hamstring Injuries - IV


Type of Evaluation Employed

Deficit of Eccentric Strength

Unilateral or Bilateral Deficit in quadriceps \ hamstring
ratio

Fatigue
Performance Level

(Navarro et al, 2015)


Conditioning for Soccer
Loads versus Injuries

● SOFT TISSUE INJURIES (non-contact):


(non-contact):
1) Dose-response Relationship
2) >> 10%
2) 10% - Week-to-week
Week-to-week Change
Change
3) ACUTE Training Load
4) CHRONIC Training Load
5) PEAK Loads
6)
6) Adaptation
Adaptation to the Demands
Demands of
of Game

(Gabbett, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - I


Injury Problems (number, incidence, time trends,
severity, consequences, impairments, disabilities and
costs)
costs)
● Etiology, Risks Factors, and Mechanisms of Injuries

Preventive Measure or Programme

Assessing
Assessing the
the Effectiveness
Effectivenessand
and
Cost
Cost Effectiveness
Effectiveness of
of the
the Preventive
Preventive Action
Action

(Adapted
(Adapted from
from Parkkari, Kujala & Kannus,
Kannus, 2001)
2001)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - II

Injured
Soccer Player

Examinations,
Sports Diagnostic Evaluation,
Medicine Physician Treatment Indication

Rehabilitation,
Sports Functional Reevaluation
Physiotherapist of the Injured Limb

Muscle-functional
Physical Adaptation for Sport,
Preparation Coach Specific Physical Conditioning

(Adapted from Vretaros, 2002


2002 ;; Vretaros, 2015)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - III

● Anamnesis
● Injury History
Mapping of the Most Common Injuries

● Tests
Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - IV

● Inspection
● Physical Exam
Diagnostic Testing

(De Francesco & Inesta, 2012)


Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - V

● FIFA 11+ :

a) Strength Exercises
b) Plyometrics
c) Core
d) Stability

(Costa, 2012)
Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - VI

Warm up Movement
Learning
Proprioception
Mobility

CORE
Stability

Strength

Power
Conditioning for Soccer
Injury Prevention - VII


ADDITIONAL THERAPIES:

a) Pilates
b) Yoga
c) Chiropractic
d)
d) Global
Global Posture
Posture Reeducation
Reeducation
e) Rolfing
f) And others
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - I

MODELS CHARACTERISTICS

Classic Linear, Multifaceted, Long Periods


Undulatory Variations
PEAK: competitive period
Conjugated Phase 1: Accumulation
Phase 2: Transmutation
Phase 3: Realization
Tactic Technical and Tactical Situations
Transfer of Fractual Organization
Game Model: Ensure Complexity

(Pivetti, 2012 ; Borges, 2014 ; Haff & Haff, 2015)


Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - II

MACROCYCLE

MESOCYCLE

MICROCYCLE

TRAINING
UNIT
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - III


MICROCYCLE:

~ 1 week – Types:
a) Incorporation
b) Ordinary
c) Shock
d) Precompetitive
e) Competitive
f) Recuperative
g) Control (Dantas, 2014)
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - IV


LOAD CONTROL:

1) Volume
2) Intensity

3) Density
4) Complexity

(Bompa & Haff, 2012)


Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - V

Five Championships in the Season

ANNUAL SEASON REGENERATIVE PHYSICAL Technical-Tactical-


TRAINING TRAINING Training

1 game per week at 17 training units 17 training units 85 training units


17 weeks

2 games per week 50 training units ____ 75 training units


at 25 weeks

TOTAL: 42 weeks Total: 67 training Total: 17 training Total: 160 training


Mean of 67 games units units units

(Carravetta, 2012)
2012)
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - VI

Three Championships in the Season

ANNUAL SEASON REGENERATIVE PHYSICAL Technical-Tactical-


TRAINING TRAINING Training

1 game per week at 28 training units 56 training units 112 trainng units
28 weeks

2 games per week 28 training units ___ 70 training units


at 14 weeks

TOTAL: 42 weeks TOTAL: 56 training TOTAL: 56 training TOTAL: 182


and 56 games units units training units

(Carravetta, 2012)
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - VII

● U-15 – Traditional Periodization


P1 P2 P3 P4

PHYSICAL 54% 31% 43% 18%

TECHNIQUE 28% 37% 30% 38%

TACTIC 18% 32% 27% 44%

Total Hours 59,4 45,7 41,6 65,1

Number of 7 6 5 9
Microcycles
Mean Hours \ 8,5 7,6 8,3 7,3
Microcycle
Mean Hours \ 1,7 1,5 1,7 1,5
Session

(Alves et al, 2009)


Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - VIII
MONTHS DURATION Intensity % HR max
(minutes) Training Sessions
● Professional Soccer Players
January 3287 76,89
February 1829 80,05
March 1062 73.01
April 1761 82,26
May 2575 80,24
June 2100 80,98
July 1680 81,32
August 2175 78,04
September 1425 71,31
October 2085 79,86
November 1955 81,39
Mean 1994+\-586,15 79,40+\-2,62

(Oaks & Simali-Garcia, 2013)


Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - IX

● Professional Soccer Players


Type of Session Weekly Frequency WF -
Training Length Variation
T1 - T2 T2 - T3 T1-T2 to T2-T3
Recovery 30 min 4 2 -50%
Aerobic 60 min 4 2 -50%
Specific Soccer 30 min 2 4 +100%
Specific Speed 40 min 2 4 +100%
Tactical 30 min 2 4 +100%
Technique 40 min 2 4 +100%
Friendly Match 60 min 3 3 0%
Recreative 60 min 1 1 0%
(Ramos da Silva et al, 2006)
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - X

PERIODIZATION
TACTIC

Game
Model

Tactical = Physical +
Central Technique =
Component Subordinate

(Adapted from Pivetti, 2012 ; Silva et al, 2009)


Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - XI

PERIODIZATION TACTIC
FORMAL GAME
Open System
Dynamic
Complex
Not Linear

(Adapted from Pivetti, 2012)


Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - XII

GAME MODEL
+
Great Principles
Subprinciples
Sub-principles of Sub-principles

Morphocycle of Preparation
Structure + Function + Evolution
(Adapted from Martins, 2003 ; Pivetti, 2012)
Conditioning for Soccer
Periodization - XIII

PERIODIZATION TACTIC
Organizational Pattern
Producing Diversity of Responses

Transfer Emergencies to Complex Units


+
Technique + Tactics + Physical +
Psychological

(Adapted from Scaglia, 2011 ; Silva et al, 2009)


Conditioning for Soccer
Recovery & Regeneration - I

● ACTIVE Recovery

● PASSIVE Recovery
Conditioning for Soccer
Recovery & Regeneration - II

Cryotherapy Slowdown Active

Magnetotherapy Acupuncture

Thermotherapy Sleep

Compression Garment Cupping Therapy

Hyperoxia Therapy Nutrition

Electrostimulation And Others

(Gill et al, 2006 ; Bompa & Haff, 2012 ; Vretaros, 2015)