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Presented By: Tayyaba Latif

Literature produced in Restoration Period is also

known as:
 The Augustan Age
 The Neoclassical Period
 The Enlightenment
 The Age of Reason
 English literature written during the historical
period (1660–1689) commonly referred to as
the English Restoration.

 Some literary historians divide this literary movement

in three parts: 

1. The Restoration Age (1660-1700)

2. The Augustan Age (1700-1750)
3. The Age of Johnson (1750- 1798)
 The Restoration Age (1660-1700) introducing the
comedy of manner (a play about the manners and
conventions of a highly sophisticated aristocratic
 TheAugustan Age (1700-1750) introducing poetry of
personal exploration, and serious development of the
novel, melodrama, and satire.
 The Age of Johnson (1750- 1798) or the Age of
Sensibility was a transitional period between Neo-
Classicism and Romanticism introducing contrary to
Age of Reason (Neo-Classicism) emotional quality.
The period begins with the RESTORATION of the
monarchy in 1660
 Bringing Charles ii from his exile in France.
 He brings with him the indulgent and artistic ways of
Louis xiv’s court
 Two distinct political parties resulted, the Whigs and
the Tories
1. Whigs wanted to limit royal authority
2. Tories supported absolute royal authority
James II (brother of Charles II) takes the throne and is
voted out by Parliament due to his highly Catholic ways.

 The Glorious or Bloodless Revolution is a reference to

the lack of violence needed to change the throne from
Catholic James II to his protestant daughter Mary and
her husband William.

 Shortly after James II’s abdication of the throne:

 Bill of Rights limiting the power of the King.
 Parliament passed an act forbidding Catholics to rule.
George I of Hanover Germany took the throne in 1714:
1. George I and his son George II did NOT speak English and
relied heavily on their advisors establishing the role of
England’s first Prime Ministers. Richard Walpole for George I
and William Pitt for George II .
2. Under George I and George II and their Prime Ministers, the
British thrived winning the Seven Years War (aka The French
and Indian War) and adding French Canada and India to the
 In1760, George III became the first British
born Hanover monarch although he was less
effective than his father and grandfather.
Because his English was reliable, he used his
Prime Minister less and is held responsible for
the loss of the American Colonies
Similarities in Political History
 The title of The Augustan Period refers to
similarities between England at this time and
Rome during the reign of Caesar Augustus, also
known as Ocatvius (63 BC-14 AD).
 Octavius ruled in the time after Julius Caesar’s
 In a similar way, Charles II is taken from exile in
France and restored England.
Similarities in literary History
 Most educated people of the time are familiar with
the classical works as well as the works of their
own time and country and found enjoyment in
their connection.
 They enjoyed allusions to the political connections
of the time periods and references to the classical
characters and themes.
 Works emphasizing these similarities are labeled
“neoclassical” meaning “new classics.”
The Age of Reason and The Enlightenment
 The Industrial Revolution plus advances in science
research and mathematics
 People no longer believed in signs and vast
punishments from God
 The writing content, style, and order of scientists spill
over into all of literature as sentences are shortened
with the allusions and extended metaphors of their
 The philosophers claimed that humans have the ability
to perfect themselves and society and that the state has
the potential to be an instrument of that progress. The
philosophers lamented the social conditions of
contemporary England and France, but they remained
confident that its people could attain happiness and
improve living standards. Armed with these concepts
and fortified by science and reason, the philosophers
attacked Christian tradition and dogma, denouncing
religious persecution and championing the idea of
religious tolerance.
 Enlightenment reaction against traditional
authority, namely the Church and the ruling
class. The philosophers claimed that rather
than depend on these authorities for physical,
spiritual, and intellectual needs, individuals
could provide for themselves such needs. This
idea is evident in Rousseau’s The Social
Contract and in the Declaration of
 Rousseau asserts this in The Social Contract, as he
explains that despite individual differences and
priorities, people as a whole will make decisions for the
common good. In Emile, Rousseau applies this idea to
the education of a child, demonstrating that the purpose
of education is not to correct a child or mold the child to
exhibit a certain set of characteristics but rather to draw
out the child’s unique gifts and goodness. Not all
Enlightenment writers emphasized man’s inherent
goodness, however; in Candide, Voltaire provides
numerous examples of humanity’s cruelty and abuse of
 Deism is a religious belief system that emphasizes morality,
virtuous living, and the perception of a creative but uninvolved
God. Deists believe in God but reject the supernatural, including
the New Testament miracles and resurrection of Christ. They reject
the idea that God is active in people’s daily lives, instead claiming
that God created the world but is now distant.
 This view of God directly contradicts the view of Catholic and
Protestant religions. The philosophers were particularly incensed
by the Roman Catholic Church, which they perceived as too
restrictive and dominant.
 The period is marked by the rise of Deism, intellectual backlash
against earlier Puritanism and American’s revolution against
 As deists, the philosophers were uninterested in
life after death. They maintained that people
should spend their time and energy improving
this life, and they advocated pursuing worldly
happiness and contentment. Diderot addresses
these ideas in the Encyclopedia, and they are
implied in the Preamble to the Declaration of
Independence, which states that among a person’s
unalienable rights are ‘‘life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness.’’
 Enlightenment two clearly opposing schools:
1. The traditions of the Renaissance, largely influenced by the
works of Peter Ramus, held over into the early part of the
2. Ramus attacked Aristotle’s view that rhetoric and dialect
should be integrated, indicating that, though they may have
been used in conjunction in the past, they should be
disengaged. Ramus advocated a linear style, bereft of
embellishment, so that scientific and philosophical writings
might be better representations of truth. This rhetorical
convention was becoming less popular, another was quickly
gaining ground.
 Near the end of the Enlightenment, the
Belletristic Movement was in full swing.
 Works such as Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles
Lettres (1783), by Hugh Blair, and Philosophy
of Rhetoric (1776), by George Campbell, were
 Satire is an indirect way of commenting on social
or political issues.
 Satire allowed the philosophers to get some of
their writing past government censors despite its
harsh criticism of the status quo. The number of
censors increased in France during the
Enlightenment because of the radical new ideas
being put forth.
 When writers used satire, however, censors either
missed the point of the writing or were unable to
make a convincing case for suppressing it.
 Satire also served as a witty way to criticize.
Enlightenment writers were often clever and
sarcastic, and their work tended to attract an
intelligent readership.
 A common satirical technique was to create a
character that was a stranger to a country.
 In Neoclassical period, Each person was expected to do what was
“proper” and to show that he or she had good taste, the idea being
that, given the flawed nature of mankind, putting some limits on
what someone said or did was better than trying and failing at the
outrageous. It became very important to prove that someone had a
decent level of intelligence. Writers often used their works not only
to express rules about etiquette and decorum, but also to
demonstrate brilliant skills of wit. Other characteristics of the age
1. Imitation of classical form
2. Artificial and aristocratic society
3. Sophisticated behavior
4. Style is polite, urbane, and witty
5. Instructive and entertaining
6. Restraint in passion and personal expression
7. Ideals: order, logic, accuracy, "correctness," decorum
 Diaries, essays, letters and first person
narratives were extremely successful which
was in line with the Neoclassical idea of
analyzing and reforming a person’s social role.
 Novels in various styles developed rapidly,
becoming a main entertainment for women in
the home.
 One of the most influential Neoclassical writers
was John Milton (1608 - 1674), author of the epic
poem, Paradise Lost. Much of his work reflects
the political issues England and other countries
faced. John Drydon (1631 - 1700), also called
“Glorious John,” was also a major force during
Restoration, working on both plays and poetry to
such a degree that the entire first section of the
period sometimes is called “the Age of Drydon.”
Two of his most famous works are To My Lord
Chancellor and Marriage a la Mode.
 Alexander Pope (1688 - 1744) was an
Augustan poet. He made money translating
major works, such as The Iliad, but soon
established himself with his own pieces.
His Pastorals and An Essay on Criticism are
probably the best known of his writings, and
scholars recognize him for his command of
the heroic couplet.
 For satire,the champion of the period was
Johnathon Swift (1667 - 1745). Although he
wrote both poetry and prose, he is best known
for the latter. Many of his works were
originally published under pseudonyms,
including M.B. Dapier and Isaac Bickerstaff.
He is the author of the well-known
novel, Gulliver’s Travels.
 Along with Samuel Richardson, Daniel Defoe
(1660 - 1731) was one of the leading pioneers in
the development of the English novel. He is
notable not only for the content of his works, but
also because of the sheer number of them — some
experts say at least 500 different pamphlets, books
and other writings are Defoe’s. Perhaps the one
out of all of these that people still know well today
is Robinson Crusoe. His political writings brought
trouble at times, with Defoe even spending some
time in prison.
 Experts usually see Samuel Johnson (1709 -
1784) as the last great writer of the
Neoclassical period in literature. His major
contribution is A Dictionary of the English
Language, which people used for well over a
century. Although the Oxford English
Dictionary eventually replaced it, Johnson's
dictionary was a major accomplishment in the
development and standardization of English.
Thank you 