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DNA AND PROTEIN

SYNTHESIS
CHAPTER 10
Nucleic acid

Deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
10.1 DNA as the Carrier
of Genetic Material
10.1.1 The Griffith experiment
(transformation process)
 Infected mice with 2 strain of
pneumonococcus bacteria
 S strain : smooth colonies, ability to cause
disease, often death to host,
 R strain : rough colonies, inability to
produce pathogenic effects
Mice Result Conclusion
Live non- Survived Survived
pathogenic (No living R (R strain does not
(R strain) strain in the cause pneumonia)
blood)
Live pathogenic Died Died
(S strain) (Living S strain (S strain cause
in the blood) pneumonia)
Heat killed Survived Survived
pathogenic strain (No living S (heat killed S Strain
(S strain) strain in the does not cause
blood) pneumonia)
Heat killed Died. Blood Died. Blood contains S
pathogenic (S contains living S strain (a substance
strain) + live non strain from heat-killed S
pathogenic (R strain transform the
strain) harmless R strain into
deadly S strain)
Mixture of heat-killed
Living S cells Living R cells Heat-killed S cells and living
(control) (control) S cells (control) R cells

RESULTS

Mouse dies Mouse healthy Mouse healthy Mouse dies

Living S cells
are found in
blood sample
R cells S cells R cells and
Heat-killed
injected injected heat-killed S cells
S cells
injected
injected

Mouse lives Mouse dies Mouse lives Mouse dies


 Griffith concluded that hereditary material
passed from the dead bacteria to the living
bacteria

 It changed non pathogenic strain to the


pathogenic strain

 The process is called transformation

 Conclusion : Hereditary information can pass


from dead cells to living ones, transforming
them.
10.1.2The Avery experiment: evidence
that DNA carried genetic
information for transformation
 prepares mixture of dead strain
streptococcus (S strain) and living strain (R
strain) that Griffith used.
 Lysed (split open) S cells and separated cell
content into several fractions (lipids,
proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids)
 Each fraction mix with R living cells to see
transformation activity
RESULTS
Fraction from S Transformation
strain tested for activity
transformation
Polysaccharides X

Nucleic acids (DNA √


and RNA)
lipids X

proteins X

Conclusion : DNA is the transforming principle


in bacteria
10.2 DNA replication
 Hypothesis 1- Conservative replication
parental double helix would remain intact and generate
DNA copies consisting of entirely new molecules
 Hypothesis 2 - Dispersive replication
parental DNA would become dispersed throughout the
new copy so that each strand of all the daughter
molecules would be a mixture of old and new DNA
 Hypothesis 3 -Semiconservative replication

 hydrogen bonds connecting base pairs are


disrupted
 2 polynucleotides chains unwind
 each chain acts as a template for the synthesis
of a new complementary polynucleotide chain
 new nucleotides bind with the complementary
bases in each exposed chain
 2 identical molecules of DNA were form from
the single parent molecule
10.2.1Meselsohn and Stahl experiment :
DNA replication is semiconservative

 Grew bacteria in a medium containing 15N


(heavy isotope of N). Bacteria incorporated 15N
into their DNA and made the DNA denser than
normal
 Bacteria in 15N were transferred to a 14N and
allowed them to undergo additional cell
divisions (first generation)
 Newly synthesized DNA strands less dense
because they incorporated bases containing
lighter 14N isotope.
 After another cycle cell division in the
medium containing 14N, 2 types of DNA
appeared. (exactly as predicted by the
semiconservative replication)
(d) Hypothesis testing

Bacteria are grown Some cells are Some cells


in 15 N (heavy) transferred to continue to
medium. All DNA 14
N (light) grow in 14 N
is heavy. medium. medium.

First generation Second generation

High Low
density density
Cesium
chloride
(CsCl)

DNA
The greater concentration of
CsCl at the bottom of the
DNA is mixed with CsCl
tube is due to sedimentation
solution, placed in an
under centrifugal force.
ultracentrifuge, and
centrifuged at very
high speed for about 48 hours. (cont’d next slide)
(cont’d)

14
N (light) N – 15 N
14 15
N (heavy)
DNA hybrid DNA DNA

DNA molecules move to positions


where their density equals that of
the CsCl solution.

(e) Results

N (light)
14

DNA
N – 15 N
14
N – 15 N
14
hybrid DNA
hybrid DNA
N (heavy)
15

DNA

Before transfer One cell generation Two cell generations


to 14 N after transfer to 14 N after transfer to 14 N
Time Observation

Before transfer All dense. All strands


contain heavy DNA 15 N

First generation Density of DNA


decreased to a value
intermediate between
14
N-DNA and 15 N DNA
Second generation 2 density classes of
DNA observed. 1
intermediate and 1
equal to that of 14 N
DNA
Interpreting the results:

 1st generation : Hybrid daughter DNA (15N14N)


 2nd generation : Hybrid daughter DNA (15N14N) &
light daughter DNA (14N14N)
 3rd generation : Hybrid daughter DNA (15N14N) &
light daughter DNA (14N14N)

 Conclusion :
Replication is semiconservative.
(i) DNA Helicase Separates Parental DNA
Strands

 Replication begins at special sites called origins of


replication
 DNA helicase separates parental DNA, breaking H
bonds.
 DNA separates, unwinds, forming replication ‘bubble’
(has two replication forks)
 Replication fork is formed at junction of single and
double stranded region
 Single stranded binding proteins bind to single
stranded DNA-prevents reformation of double helix
Replication Bubble

Replication 3’
3’
Bubble 5’
5’
Parental (template) strand
Origin of replication 0.25 µm
Daughter (new) strand

Bubble Replication fork

Two daughter DNA molecules

In eukaryotes, DNA replication begins at many sites In this micrograph, three replication
along the giant DNA molecule of each chromosome. bubbles are visible along the DNA
of a cultured Chinese hamster cell
(TEM).
5’
Replication 3’ Single replication
“bubbles” bubble formed from
two merged
bubbles

3’
Replication fork
5’
(c)

Two replication forks

340 nm
(b)
DNA polymerase Origin of replication

3’ 3’
5’ 5’

Twist introduced into Single-stranded


the helix by unwinding binding proteins
DNA polymerase
DNA 3’ 3’
3’
3’ helicase 5’
5’

Direction of
RNA primer replication

3’ 3’
5’ 5’

3’ 3’
5’ 5’
(ii) DNA polymerase III synthesizes new
DNA strands

 Each parental strand now serves as a template for


new complementary strand
 DNA polymerase III synthesizes new strands at
replication fork
 Synthesis proceeds in a 5’ to 3’ direction
 DNA polymerase III only adds nucleotides to the 3’
end of an existing polynucleotide chain
 with bases that are complementary with template
nucleotides (Adenine (A) with Thymine (T), and
Guanine (G) with Cytosine (C)).
LE 16-13

New strand Template strand


5′ end 3′ end 5′ end 3′ end

Sugar
Base
Phosphate

DNA polymeraseIII
3′ end

3′ end
Pyrophosphate

Nucleoside
triphosphate 5′ end 5′ end
 Primase (RNA polymerase) synthesizes an RNA
primer at point where replication begins
 RNA primer – RNA with 5 to 14 nucleotides
 DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides to 3’end of
RNA primer
 DNA polymerase III catalayzes formation of
phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides in
daughter DNA
3’
Leading strand
5’
RNA primer DNA helix
3’
3’
DNA polymerase III 5’ 5’
Replication fork
3’ Lagging strand
(first Okazaki fragment) Direction of
5’
replication
RNA primer

3’ Leading strand
5’
DNA Polymerase III

3’

3’
5’

5’

Lagging strand (Okazaki


3’ fragment)
5’
(iii) DNA replication is continuous in one
strand and discontinuous in the other

 Leading strand
- nucleotides added continuously and strand grows
towards fork (same direction as helicase)
 Lagging strand
- nucleotides added in small segments called Okazaki
fragments and grows away from fork (opposite
direction of helicase)
 Each segment is initiated by a separate RNA primer
First Okazaki fragment
Third Okazaki fragment
3’
5’
Leading strand

3’
3’
RNA primer 5’
5’

3’
5’

Two Okazaki fragments


3’
5’ Direction of
replication
 DNA polymerase I replaces RNA primer with DNA
nucleotides
 Okazaki fragments are 100 to 2000 nucleotides in
length and are joined together by DNA ligase
 In eukaryotes, many replication bubbles form
simultinaeusly
 Bubbles grow during replication and finally meet
each other
 DNA strands synthesized at bubble are joined
together by DNA ligase
 Each “daughter” DNA molecule consists of one
parental strand and one new strand.
5’
3’ Figure 11-13 3’
5’

Page 231 DNA replication

5’ 3’
3’ 5’
+ RNA primer
RNA primer
5’ 3’
(a)
3’ 5’
Removal of primer

5’ 3’
3’ 5’
+
5’ 3’
3’ 5’

3’
(b)

5’
5’ 3’

T TGGGTTGGGGTTGGGGGTTGTTT TGGGGTT TTTGGGGGG


A A C C C A A C C C C A A C C C C C A A C A A A A C C C C A A A A AC C C C C C
5’
3’
The parent molecule has
two complementary
strands of DNA. Each base
is paired by hydrogen
bonding with its specific
partner, A with T and G
with C.
The parent molecule has The first step in replication
two complementary is separation of the two
strands of DNA. Each base DNA strands.
is paired by hydrogen
bonding with its specific
partner, A with T and G
with C.
The parent molecule has The first step in replication Each parental strand now
two complementary is separation of the two serves as a template that
strands of DNA. Each base DNA strands. determines the order of
is paired by hydrogen nucleotides along a new,
bonding with its specific complementary strand.
partner, A with T and G
with C.
The parent molecule has The first step in replication Each parental strand now The nucleotides are
two complementary is separation of the two serves as a template that connected to form the
strands of DNA. Each base DNA strands. determines the order of sugar-phosphate back-
is paired by hydrogen nucleotides along a new, bones of the new strands.
bonding with its specific complementary strand. Each “daughter” DNA
partner, A with T and G molecule consists of one
with C. parental strand and one
new strand.
10.3 The Concept of Gene and One-
Gene/One- Polypeptide Hypothesis
Beadle & Tatum:
Genes Specify Enzymes
 DNA (genes) contains information for synthesis of
specific enzymes
 If gene undergoes mutation  enzyme not
synthesized  molecules for growth not
synthesized
 Thus, organism (mutant) can’t grow unless
provided with the necessary molecules (for
growth)
 Beadle & Tatum used the bread mold,
Neurospora crassa because:

 Have enzymes to build vitamin B6 and each of 20


amino acids. Can grow on minimal medium
(contains only sugar, ammonia, salts, a few
vitamin, and water.
 Can be bred in large numbers.
 Very short life cycle (10 days)
 Has a haploid vegetative stage – 1 set of
chromosomes for most of its life cycle →
recessive genes not masked → effect of mutation
seen immediately.
 Wild type Neurospora spores exposed to X-ray.
 DNA in some spores damaged in region coding
for synthesis of compound (s) necessary for
growth
 Therefore , some mold (mutant) can’t
synthesize this compound(s)
 spores transferred to complete medium – all
grow. (Complete medium → contains all
necessary compounds for normal growth).
Isolating Growth-Deficient Mutants
 Individual cells of mold grown on minimal
medium.
 Wild type strain (growth) and mutant strain
(no growth) identified
Identifying the Deficiencies
 Mutant strains transferred to a series of
minimal medium.
 A single different compound added to each
medium
 medium in which growth occurred
contained compound that strain can’t
synthesize.
Expose Neurospora
spores to UV light or x-rays

Each irradiated spore is


used to establish culture on
complete growth medium
(minimal medium plus
amino acids, vitamins, etc.)

Transfer cells to Transfer cells to Transfer cells to


minimal medium minimal medium minimal medium
plus vitamins plus amino acids (control)

Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal


medium medium medium medium medium
plus plus plus plus plus other
arginine tryptophan lysine leucine amino acids
One Gene/One-Polypeptide

 synthesis of molecules involves series of


steps =biochemical pathways.
 Each step catalyzed by one enzyme.
 Beadle & Tatum:
 Genes encode enzymes.
 Each gene located on different site on
chromosome.
 Mutation in a specific gene  synthesis of
specific enzyme disrupted  no product.
 Example: Synthesis of arginine:
Gene A Gene B
↓ ↓
Ornithine → (Enzyme A) → Citrulline → (Enzyme B)
→ Arginine

 If mutant mold can grow on medium


containing citrulline or arginine, but not
with ornithine, mutation must have
occurred at gene A (resulting in a ruined
enzyme A).

 Each gene contains instruction for the


synthesis of a single enzyme = One
Gene/One-Polypeptide (because enzymes
contain polypeptide units).
10.4 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
 Cells use information from DNA to
synthesize proteins
 Protein synthesized on ribosomes (RNA-
protein aggregates)
 Ribosome :
 Consists of large and small subunits
 Composed of RNA molecules & over 50 different
proteins
 3 sites for protein synthesis – P, A, & E sites
P site (Peptidyl-tRNA
binding site)
A site (Aminoacyl-
tRNA binding site)
E site
(Exit site)
E P A Large
subunit
mRNA
binding site Small
subunit
Schematic model showing binding sites
10.4.1 Kinds of RNA
 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
 In ribosomes
 Function: Provides site for assembly of
polypeptides

 Transfer RNA (tRNA)


 45 different types
 Functions:
 Transport amino acids to ribosomes for
polypeptide synthesis
 Positions each amino acid correctly on
polypeptide chain

 Messenger RNA (mRNA)


 RNA transcribed from DNA
 Function: Directs precise assembly of amino
acids into polypeptide
The Central Dogma
 DNA  Transcription  mRNA
 Translation  Protein

 2 steps of Central Dogma = gene


expression.
TRANSCRIPTION DNA

3′

RNA RNA
5′ polymerase
transcript

RNA PROCESSING Exon


RNA transcript
(pre-mRNA)
Intron

Aminoacyl-tRNA
synthetase

NUCLEUS

FORMATION OF Amino
INITIATION COMPLEX acid AMINO ACID ACTIVATION
CYTOPLASM
tRNA

mRNA Growing
polypeptide
Activated
amino acid 3′
A
P
E Ribosomal
subunits

5′
TRANSLATION

E A
Anticodon

Codon

Ribosome
10.4.2 Overview of Gene
Expression
 Transcription
 Transfer of information from DNA to RNA:
 RNA polymerase binds to promoter
 Enzyme moves along strand
 Adds ribonucleotide to growing mRNA strand
 mRNA nucleotides are complementary to DNA
nucleotides
 Example : DNA - 3’-ATTCGA-5’
mRNA - 5’-UAAGCU-3’
 mRNA grows in 5’→3’ direction
 Enzyme disengages from DNA at ‘stop’ signal
 mRNA separates from DNA
 Translation
 Information from mRNA directs polypeptide
synthesis by ribosomes
 rRNA recognizes and binds to ‘start’ sequence on
mRNA
 Ribosomes move along mRNA, three nucleotides at a
time → specify one amino acid
 tRNA adds amino acids to growing polypeptide chain
 Enzyme disengages from mRNA at ‘stop’ signal
 Polypeptide is released
Nontemplate strand

Transcription
DNA

Template strand

mRNA
(complementary
copy of template
DNA strand)

Codon 1 Codon 2 Codon 3 Codon 4 Codon 5 Codon 6

Polypeptide

Translation
10.4.3 The Genetic Code
 Code = 64 codons → language for protein synthesis
 Codon – sequence of 3 consecutive mRNA bases which
specifies an amino acid or signal to start/terminate the
polypeptide
 Code is read continuously without ‘gaps’ separating the
codons.
 Code is degenerate – most amino acids have more than
one codons
 Example: Leucine – CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG, UUA, &
UUG
 Certain codons are:
 ‘Start’ signal for initiation of polypeptide chain – AUG (also
codes for amino acid methionine)
 ‘Stop’ signal for termination of polypeptide chain – UAA,
UAG, & UGA = ‘nonsense codons’
 Code is universal – same in almost all organisms
 Importance of universality:
 Evidence of common evolutionary heritage of all living
things (except human)
 Genes transcribed from one organism can be translated in
another organism
 Genes can be transferred from one organism to another
and be transcribed and translated in new host
Second letter
U C A G
= Stop Codon
U
C
U = Start Codon
A
G

U
C

Third letter (3’ end)


First letter (5’ end)

C A
G

U
C
A A
G

U
C
G A
G
10.4.4 Transcription
 Transcribe only 1 of the 2 DNA strands : template
strand (antisense/- strand)
 DNA strand not transcribed : coding strand (sense/
+ strand)
 Synthesis in the 5’→3’ direction
 No primer needed

 Bacteria – 1 RNA polymerase

 Eukaryotes :

 RNA polymerase I synthesizes rRNA

 RNA polymerase II synthesizes mRNA

 RNA polymerase III synthesizes tRNA


Growing RNA Template
strand DNA strand
5' end 3' direction

Nucleotide
added to
growing
chain by
RNA polymerase
3' end 5' end
 Promoter
 Promoter = binding site on template strand - start of
transcription
 Short sequence of bases - not transcribed during transcription

 Bacteria:

 TTGACA (-35 sequence) → located 35 nucleotides upstream


(towards 5’ end) of start site
 TATAAT (-10 sequence) → 10 nucleotides upstream

 Eukaryotes:

 TATA box : similar to -10 sequence but located 25 nucleotides


upstream
Promoter
Stages in Transcription

INITIATION

 Transcription complex binds to


promoter, enabling binding of RNA
polymerase
 RNA polymerase unwinds DNA helix
forming “transcription bubble”
TRANSCRIPTION DNA
1 Eukaryotic promoters
RNA PROCESSING Pre-mRNA

mRNA

TRANSLATION Ribosome

Polypeptide

Promoter
5′ T A T A A AA 3′
A T A T T T T
3′ 5′
TATA box Start point Template
DNA strand
2 Several transcription
factors
Transcription
factors

5′ 3′
3′ 5′
3 Additional transcription
factors

RNA polymerase II
Transcription factors

5′ 3′
3′ 5′ 5′

RNA transcript
Figure 17.8 Transcription initiation complex
ELONGATION

 RNA polymerase moves along


template strand - add ribonucleotides
to 3’ end of RNA strand
 The first 12 bases of new RNA strand
temporarily forms helix with the
template strand
ELONGATION (cont.)

 This stabilizes positioning of the 3’ end of RNA


so that it can add an incoming ribonucleotide
 The RNA-DNA hybrid rotates each time a
ribonucleotide is added to 3’ end
 As RNA elongates, the earlier formed RNA
strand separates from template strand
 Template strand rewinds and reforms the
double helix
Elongation
Non-template
strand of DNA
RNA nucleotides

RNA
polymerase

3′
3′ end

5′

5′ Direction of transcription
(“downstream”)
Template
strand of DNA

Newly made
RNA
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Coding
Template strand
strand
A GC A T C G T A 39
59 GA G
T C T C A A
C A T C A T T
DNA G T A T 39 C G
GC A U C G U A GT 59
39 C T Unwinding
GT AGCA
Rewinding
mRNA
RNA polymerase
5'
RNA-DNA hybrid helix
TERMINATION
 RNA polymerase reaches ‘stop’ signal
 RNA transcript at stop region forms a CG hairpin
structure followed by 4 or more uracil (U)
ribonucleotides
 U’s allows RNA polymerase to release DNA template
 RNA-DNA hybrid within transcription bubble
separates
 DNA rewinds & transcription stops
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

C
G U
G U
C G

G C

C G

G C

G C

C G
59 C A U U U U OH 39
Promoter Transcription unit

5 3
3′ DNA 5′
Start point
RNA polymerase
Initiation

5′ 3′
3′ 5′
RNA Template strand
Unwound tran- of DNA
DNA script
Elongation

Rewound
DNA
5′ 3′ 3′
3′ 5′
5′

RNA
transcript Termination

5′ 3′
3′ 5′
5′ 3′
Completed RNA transcript
Postranscriptional
Modification
Before moving from nucleus to cytoplasm,
each end of pre-mRNA are modified:
 5’ caps:
 ATP or GTP forms 5’ end of RNA strand
 A 5’-5’ linkage is then formed with GTP,
forming a 5’ cap
 Protects 5’ end from nucleases &

phosphatases
A modified guanine nucleotide 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides
added to the 5′ end added to the 3′ end
TRANSCRIPTION DNA

RNA PROCESSING Pre-mRNA Protein-coding segment Polyadenylation signal


5′ 3′
mRNA
G P P P AAUAAA AAA…AAA
Ribosome
TRANSLATION
Start codon Stop codon
5′ Cap 5′ UTR 3′ UTR Poly-A tail
Polypeptide

UTR: Untranslated region


 3’ poly-A tails:
 At the 3’ end Poly-A polymerase
enzyme adds about 250 A
ribonucleotides at 3’ end, forming 3’
poly-A tail
 Protects from nucleases
10.4.5 RNA splicing

 Eukaryotic gene is made up of


 Exons – coding segments
 Introns – non-coding segments
 Transcription produces primary RNA
transcript of entire gene
 Enzyme-RNA complex called small nuclear
ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) recognize short
nucleotide sequences at end of Introns
 Several different snRNPs associate with proteins to
form splicesome
 Within splicesome, introns become folded into
loops, bringing the exons close together
 Splicesome cuts Introns and joins together the
exons, forming shorter mature mRNA transcript
Promoter Exon Intron

DNA

5’ cap TRANSCRIPTION 3’ poly-A tail

Primary
RNA
transcript

RNA SPLICING

Mature
mRNA
transcript
1st 1st 2nd 2nd 3rd mRNA termination
Promoter exon intron exon intron exon sequence

Template
DNA strand

Transcription, capping of 5’ end


7-methylguanosine cap

5’ end

Start codon Stop codon


10.4.6 Translation
 tRNA
 One end has an anticodon – sequence of 3 nucleotides
complementary to codon of mRNA
 At the opposite end, a specific amino acid is added by
activating enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
 Resulting complex = aminoacyl-tRNA
 No tRNA with anticodon complementary to ‘nonsense
codons’ – UAA, UAG, & UGA
Process of Translation
a) INITIATION
 The small ribosomal subunit binds to the mRNA at the AUG
start codon.
 The initiator tRNA or Methionine-tRNA (tRNAMet) with
anticodon UAC binds to the start codon (AUG codon) on
mRNA, and one of the initiation factors is released.
 The large ribosomal subunit binds to the small subunit, and
the remaining initiation factors are released.
 The initiation complex is complete.
 Methionine subunit at P site; A & E sites are empty.
b) ELONGATION

 2nd tRNA with complementary anticodon and


attached amino acid binds to A site with help of
elongation factors
 Peptidyl transferase breaks bond holding 1st
amino acid to 1st tRNA, and attaches it to 2nd
amino acid by peptide bond
 1st tRNA is empty; 2nd tRNA has 2 amino acids
TRANSLOCATION
 Ribosome moves one codon in 5’→3’ direction with help of
elongation factors
 1st tRNA is shifted to E site; 2nd tRNA shifted to P site; A
site is empty
 3rd tRNA binds to A site
 Peptidyl transferase breaks bond holding 2nd amino acid
to 2nd tRNA, and attaches it to 3rd amino acid
 2nd tRNA is empty; 3rd tRNA has 3 amino acids
 1st tRNA leaves the ribosome
 Ribosome moves one codon, and whole process is repeated
c) TERMINATION

 Ribosome reaches chain-terminating


(stop) codon
 Release factors signal ribosome to
release newly made polypeptide
 mRNA also released
 Large & small subunits separate
Amino
Polypeptide acids

tRNA with
amino acid
attached
Ribosome

tRNA

Anticodon

5′ Codons 3′

mRNA
Release
factor Free
polypeptide

5′
3′ 3′
3′
5′ 5′

Stop codon
(UAG, UAA, or UGA)
When a ribosome reaches a stop The release factor hydrolyzes the The two ribosomal subunits
codon on mRNA, the A site of the bond between the tRNA in the and the other components
ribosome accepts a protein called P site and the last amino acid of the of the assembly dissociate.
a release factor instead of tRNA. polypeptide chain. The polypeptide
is thus freed from the ribosome.
10.4.7Differences Between Bacterial and

Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis


EUKARYOTE BACTERIA
1. Most genes have introns 1. Most genes lack introns

2. mRNA rarely have transcripts 2. mRNA often have transcripts


of more than 1 gene of several genes

3. Translation begins after 3. Translation often begins


transcription is complete before transcription is
complete

4. mRNA undergoes post- 4. mRNA does not undergo post-


transcriptional modification – transcriptional modification
5’cap & 3’ poly-A tail added

5. mRNA modified before 5. mRNA not modified before


translated translated
6. Ribosomes larger 6. Ribosomes smaller