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# DESIGN OF

FOR SPECIFIED
C/N RATIO
SARABPREET SINGH CO17550
CONTENTS
• Considerations for specified
C/N ratio
• Reciprocal C/N Formula
• Design procedure for
satellite communication
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CONSIDERATIONS FOR
SPECIFIED C/N RATIO:-
• The s/n ratio in the baseband channel
of earth station receiver is determined
by the ratio of carrier to noise power in
the IF amplifier at the input to the
demodulator.
• In our analysis, we have considered
only the thermal noise and noise
engineered the noise in earth station
will consists of sky noise, receiving
antennas, other satellites, and
terrestrial transmitters that use the
same frequency band for transmission.
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RECIPROCAL FORMULA
• When more than one C/N ratio is present in the link, we can add the individual C/N
ratios reciprocally to obtain overall C/N ratio denoted as (C/N)o .
• The overall (C/N)o ratio is
(C/N)o = 1/ [1/(C/N)1 + 1/(C/N)2 +_ _ _ _ _]
• This sometimes referred as reciprocal C/N formula.
• The C/N values must be linear ratios, not decibel values.
• The above formula can also be written as,
(C/N)o = C/(N1 + N2 + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ )
because the carrier is same for all parts.
• In dB units :
(C/N)o = C dBW – 10log10 (N1 +N2 + _ _ _ _ _ ) dB
• C/N ratio at the receiver always yield (C/N)o , the combination of transponder and
earth station C/N ratios.
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• Most satellites are designed with link margins to allow for attenuation that may occur in
link or increases in noise power caused by interferences.
• The effect of change in uplink C/N ratio has a different impact on overall (C/N)0
depending on the operating mode and gain of the transponder.

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## • 3 Modes of Working of transponders:-

Linear:- Pout = Pin + Gxp
Non Linear :- Pout= Pin + Gxp - ΔG
Regenerative:- Pout = constant
where Pin = Power Delivered
Gxp = Gain of Transponder
ΔG = depends on Pin
• ΔG depends upon the Pin and accounts for the loss of gain caused by nonlinear
saturation characteristics of a transponder which is driven hard to obtain close to its
max. power output.

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• Maximum output from transponder is called saturated output power and is the
nominal transponder output rating. The transponder i/p- o/p characteristics are highly
nonlinear when operated in this level.
• In these power ranges, ISI is produced in digital waveforms and intermodulation
products are formed for FDMA applications.
• Therefore, transponders are operated with output backoff, to make characteristics
more linear.
• The exact amount of backoff required in any given application depends upon specific
characteristics of the transponders and the signal it carries.
• Typical values of backoff are 1 dB for a single FM or PSK to 3dB for FDMA.
• The corresponding backoff values might be 3 and 5 dB, individual transponder
characteristics must be known for exact assessment.

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Since the linear portion gives a 1:1 change in decibels, the relationship between
input and output BO is [BO]0 = [BO]I - 5 dB 8
•Rain affects uplink and downlink differently. It is assumed that rain is either affecting
downlink or uplink, but not on both at same time as the probability of rain for occurring
simultaneously is very less for geographic distribution of earth.
•There is effectively no increase in uplink noise power when heavy rain is present in the
•Rain’s attenuation reduces power at satellite receiver input and thus reducing (C/N)up
in direct proportion to the attenuation on the slant path.
•For Linear Transponder,
(C/N)o,Uplink Rain = (C/N)o, Clean Air - Aup dB
• For Non Linear Transponder,
(C/N)o,Uplink Rain = (C/N)o, Clean Air - Aup + ∆G dB
•For Regenerative Transponders,
(C/N)o,Uplink Rain = (C/N)o, Clean Air
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• The earth station receiver’s noise temperature can change very significantly when rain
• The result is that the received power level is reduced and noise power N, in receiver
increases. Hence
(C/N)dn,Rain = (C/N)dn, Clean Air - Arain - ∆NRain dB
• The overall C/N is given as
(C/N)0=1/(1/(C/N)Dn,Rain +1/(C/N)up)
• Unless we are making a loop-back test, we will assume that the values of (C/N)up is for
clear air, and remains constsnt, regardless of attenuation on downlink.

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DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION LINK:-

## Eshtablish an Find output

Determine the
Determine the uplink and a power of
Determine the parameters of
frequency transponder transponder
communicatio transmission
band for the noise power based on gain
n parameters and receiving
system budget to find or output
stations
(C/N)up. backoff.

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DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION LINK:-

Eshtablish a
Redesign the
power and results and
Calculate S/N Calculate system by
noise budget change the
or BER in outage times changing the
and calculate parameters for
channel and for uplinks and parameters if
(C/N)o from acceptable
station at edge (C/N)o or BER
of coverage or S/N
zone.

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THANK YOU!