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Identifying and

Stating the Problem


Chapter 2
Research Topic
or Problem
A n intellectual
stimulus calling for
an answer in the
f o r m of scientific
inquiry.
Sources of Research Topics or Problems:
• Prevailing theories or philosophy
• Observations, intuitions or a combination of both
• Different subjects taken and f r o m t h e m identify a problem
t h a t interests a student-researcher most
• Fields of interest or specialization or event f r o m related
fields
• Existing problems in the classroom/school/campus/university
which one m a y w a n t t o solve are good sources of research
problems
Sources of Research Topics or Problems:
• Existing needs of the c om m un it y or society
• Repetition or extension of investigations already conducted
or m a y be an offshoot of studies underway
• Related studies and literatures
• Advice of authorities or experts f r o m funding agencies
• Offshoots of friendly conversations
• Incidental f r o m interesting topics of professors during the
course meeting/session
Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem:
• I t should be something new or different f r o m w h a t has
already been w r i t t e n about.
• I t must be original.
• I t should be significant t o the field of study or discipline.
• I t must necessarily arouse intellectual curiosity.
• I t should be of researcher’s interest and researcher must be
w i t h the topic.
• I t should be modest one for a beginner t o be carried on
w i t h i n a limited period of time.
Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem:
• I t should be clear, not ambiguous.
• I t should be specific, no t general.
• I t should consider the training and personal qualifications of
the researcher.
• I t should consider the availability of data involved in
the study and the methods and techniques t o be
employed in gathering them.
• I t should consider the availability of effective
instruments for
gathering the data and their treat ment.
Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem:
• I t should consider the financial capacity of the researcher t o
support the project.
• I t should consider the t i m e factor involved in the
undertaking.
Basis for Selecting the Problem:

TECHNICAL PERSONAL
• Significant to chosen field/advancement
of science or specialization • Interest
• Pioneering or novel • Training
• Originality
• Expertise
• Arouse intellectual curiosity
• Financial capacity
• Relevance to degree
• Availability or manageability of data • Time factor involved in the
project
• Availability of instruments
Guidelines in the Formulation of a
Research Title:
1.The t it le must contain the following elements:
a. The subject m a t t e r of research problem
b. The setting or locale of the study
c. The respondents or participants involved in the study
d. The t i me or period when the study was conducted
2. The t it le must be broad enough t o include all aspects of the
study but should be brief and concise as possible.
Guidelines in the Formulation of a
Research Title:
3.The use of terms as “Analysis of”, “ A Study of”, “ A n Investigation
o f ” and the like should be avoided.
4.If the titl e contains more than one line, i t should be w r i t t e n in
inverted pyramid.
5. When typed or encoded in the ti tl e page, all words in the ti tle
should be in capital letters.
6. If possible, the ti tle should not be longer than 1 5 substantive
words.
7. Avoid a long, detailed ti tle t h a t gives too much information.
8. To shorten the title, delete the terms “assessment” or
“evaluation” if these are already emphasized in the text.
Characteristics of a Good Title:
• A t it le should give readers information about the contents of
the research and is preferable t o one t h a t is vague or general.
• Titles do n ot need t o be stuffy or dull but they should
generally give readers some idea a t the outset of w h a t the
research paper will contain.
• Choose a t it le t h a t is a phrase rat her than a complete
sentence.
• Select a straightforward t it le over other kinds.
Characteristics of a Good Title:
• Use no punctuation a t the end of the title.
• Do n ot underline the t itle of research or enclose i t in
quotation marks, instead, use a w o r d processing program or
p r i n t e r t h a t permits italics. Use t h e m in place of underlining.
Examples:
• Higher Order Thinking Skills in Reading of Freshmen in
University of Northern Philippines, Academic Year 2 0 1 5 -
2016
• Pinay Single Mom: Paghanga o Pagkutya? A Multi Case
Study on the Lives and Experiences of the Solo Parents in
Zamboanga City
• Abakada o Aba! Kita…: A Multi Case Study on Child Labor in
the Selected Towns of the Province of Laguna
• Magkapatid na Parang Aso’t Pusa: Magkasundo pa Kaya? A
Multi Case Study on Siblings w i t h Rivalry in San Jose,
Mindoro Occidental
Examples:
• Establishment of Jackfruit Tea Processing Plant in Barangay
Bantayan, Tabaco, Albay
• Level of Acceptability of Worksheets for Film-Clippings by
the Teachers of English in University of Antique, Academic
Year 2 0 1 5 - 2 0 1 6
• Life’s Adjustment of Yolanda Victims in Tacloban City
• Awareness on Traffic Rules and Regulations of Tricycle
Operators and Drivers Association in Brgy. Culiat, Quezon
City, Calendar Year 2 0 1 5
Examples:
• Health Practices of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major
in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) a t
University of Rizal System Pililla and Angono Academic Year
2015-2016
• Level of Acceptability of the Tracing Guide for Children w i t h
Cerebral Palsy by the Special Education Teachers in the
Division of Pampanga, School Year 2 0 1 5 - 2 0 1 6
Background of the Study
• I t includes information which would focus attention on the
importance and validity of the problem. I t is the general
orientation to the problem area. A brief rationale to justify the
problem must be provided. This is the present state of knowledge
regarding the problem.
• The background includes:
1. Discussion of the problem in general and the specific situations as
observed and experienced by the researcher
2. Concepts and ideas related to the problem
3. Discussion of the existing or present conditions and w h a t is aimed
to be in the future or the gap to be filled in by the researcher.
Statement of the Problem
• This is the basic difficulty, the issue, the area of concern, the
circumstances which exist, then, how they ought t o be. The
researcher should give the background which led t o this
circumstances t h a t exist. Briefly describe the condition or a
situation t h a t exists which is perceived as something less
t h an the ideal: or w h a t i t should be and how you see i t t o
be.
• I t has t w o m ain elements:
1. The objective
2. Research questions
Objective or Purpose of the Study
• I t is the first p a r t of the problem where the researcher
states the objective. This is a statement of a long t e r m
objective expected t o be achieved by the study. This is
derived by the identification and crystallization of the
research problem and as reflected in the title.
Research Questions or Investigative
Problems:
• These are the specific questions which are t o be answered in
the study. The answers t o these should lead t o the solution of
the research problem. Focus on a clear goal or objective. State
the precise goal. The problem should be limited enough in
making a definite conclusion possible.
1. The ma jor statement or question m a y be followed by m i n o r
statements or questions. The int roduct ory statement must
be the purpose/aim or the objective of the study.
Example: Specifically, the study aims t o determine the causes
of low performance of selected programs in the board
examinations. Further, i t seeks t o answer t o answer t o the
following sub problems 1 , 2 , 3 etc.
Research Questions or Investigative
Problems:
2.If the goal is specifically t o test a given hypothesis then state
so. In m a n y cases, the objective will be a more general
statement t han t h a t of a hypothesis.
Example: The p r i m a r y objective of this study is t o test the
hypothesis t h a t there is a relationship between workplace
condition and teaching performance of faculty members.
3.Investigative questions are the specific topical questions t h a t
one must resolve t o achieve research objective or test the
research hypothesis.
• This study a tte mp ted to evaluate the status and extent of
implementation of the Computer Education Program in the
Division of Rizal SY 2 0 1 5 - 2 0 1 6 a s perceived by teacher and
student respondents. Specifically this sought answers to the
following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
1. Teacher respondents
1. sex;
2. field of specialization;
3. educational a tta i n me nt ;
4. length of service; and,
5. computer education seminar/training attended?
2. Student Respondents
1. sex;
2. m on th ly family income;
3. parent’s educational background;
4. accessibility to computers; and,
5. performance in English and Mathematics?
2. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program implementation
as perceived by the teacher-respondents w i t h respect to:
1. objectives and content of instruction;
2. teaching competencies;
3. learning competencies;
4. methods of teaching employed; and,
5. computer facilities?
3.Wha t is the extent of the Comput e r Education Program
implementation as perceived by the s t u d e n t - respondents
w i t h respect to:
1. objectives and content of instruction;
2. teaching competencies; and,
3. learning competencies
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
• The scope describes the coverage of the study. I t specifies
w h a t is covered in terms of concept, number of subjects or
the population included in the study, as well as the timeline
when the study was conducted.
• Delimit by citing factors or variables t h a t are no t t o be
included and the boundary in terms of t i m e frame, number
of subjects, participants or respondents who are excluded.
Specify t h a t which you will n ot deal w i t h i n the study.
Parameters of the Research:
• What – the topic of investigation and the variables included
• Where – the venue or the setting of the research
• When - the t im e frame by which the study was conducted
• Why – the general objectives of the research
• Who – the subject of the study, the population and sampling
• How – the methodology of the research which m a y include
the research design, methodology and the research
instrument
Example:
The ma in purpose of the study is t o provide information
regarding metro-sexuality and how being a m e t r o sexual
affects the lifestyle of the student. The study considers the
student’s personal information such as their name (optional),
gender, age, and section.
The researchers limited the study t o 8 0 male and female
secondary education student enrolled in the second semester of
school year 2 0 1 5 - 2 0 1 6 of Technological Institute of the
Philippines. Each of the respondents was given a questionnaire
t o answer. The students selected came f r o m four different
sections t o prevent bias and get objective perceptions.
Significance of the Study
• The researcher defines who will benefit out of the findings of
the study. He describes how the problem will be solved and
specifically pinpoints who will benefit f r o m such findings or
results.

Tips in Writing the Significance of the Study:


1. Refer t o the statement of the problem.
2. Write f r o m generic t o specific.
Do the following:
1. Think of three topics which you intend to
prepare as your research undertaking.
Take your t i m e in choosing the topic. Take
note t h a t the topic should be related to
your academic tr a c k /s tra n d .
2. What are the 5 i m p o r t a n t things you had
in m i n d considering these three topics?
3. Formulate your research titles for the
three topics and present t h e m to your
teacher. Have your teacher approve one
research title.