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Employee Safety and Health

Table of Content
Employee Safety SLIDE 2
1. Introduction of Safety
2. Importance of Safety
3. Regulatory Framework
4. Workplace Safety Law in Nepal
5. Workplace Accident
a. Causes
b. Prevention
6. In context of Nepal
Introduction of Safety

• Safety is the state of being “safe”.

• The condition of being protected from
harm or other non-desirable outcomes.
Importance of Safety
1 Employee Retention

2 Company productivity & Quality product

Why is safety required in 3 Company reputation

4 Prevent from injury and death

5 Public Relation Improves

6 Property Damage
Regulatory Framework
Employee Safety and Health SLIDE 5

•  Labor Act 1992 (2048 B.S.) was introduced to secure the rights,
interests and safety of workers and employees working in enterprises
of various sectors.
•  Section 27 through 36 of Chapter V of Labor Act 1992 explains
about Health & Safety Provisions for enterprises and workers or
• One of the major objectives of the DoL is to provide the labor force
with safe and healthy working environment 
Workplace Safety Law in Nepal
Labor Act 1992 (Summary )
• Arrangements for garbage management;
• Provision of modern toilets;
• Supply of adequate safe drinking water;
• Provision of appropriate volume of ventilation,
• Condition of light, temperature and sound;
• Protection from dust, smoke, fumes and other impurities;
• Avoidance of overcrowding in any room of the establishment
• Provision of extinguishing fire
• Provision of medical check-up for the workers at least once a year in the establishment which
are hazard prone
Workplace Safety Law in Nepal
Labor Act 1992 SLIDE 9

Preventive Measures
• protection of eyes,
• protection against chemical hazards and fire,
• guarding against dangerous machinery,
• prohibition on lifting heavy load
• safety measures for pressure plants.
Workplace Safety Law in Nepal
Labor Act 1992 SLIDE 10
Protection of Eyes:
(1) Necessary protective means shall have to be arranged for the protection of eyes of the
workers and employees from injuries likely to be caused by dust or pieces while working in the
Enterprise using glass, mercury, magnet, pallets, iron, concrete, cement, lime, stone and
explosive substances
(2)Necessary protective devices shall have to be arranged to protect the eyes from harmful rays
coming from during the process of welding or gas-cutting, or other similar works.

Protection from Chemical Substance:

The Proprietor shall have to make provisions for necessary personal protective devices for the
protection of workers or employees handling chemical substances.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Nepal

Since 1950, the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization
(WHO) have shared a common definition of occupational health. This definition was adopted
by the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health at its first session in 1950 and
revised at its twelfth session in 1995.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting
the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.
Though OSH is popular in many countries , it is a new concept here in Nepal.
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Nepal
The major impediments in enforcing effective OSH practices in Nepal are as follows:

• Lack of legal back up mechanisms

• Need of separate laws on OSH
• Update of Labor Act 1992
• Isolation and overlooking of OSH issues by formal and informal sectors
• Necessity to build the capacity of State, employers and workers on OSH
Workplace Accident
• Workplace accident is a discrete
occurrence in the course of work leading
to physical or mental occupational injury.
• According to International Labor
Organization (ILO), work accident
includes accidents occurring "while
engaged in an economic activity, or at
work, or carrying on the business of the
What Causes Accidents?

1Chance Occurrence

Chances occurrence (such as

Unsafe Conditions

Unsafe conditions are

3 Unsafe Acts

Any act that deviates from a

walking past a tree just when hazards that have the generally recognized safe
a branch falls) potential to cause injury or way or specified method of
even death to an employee. doing a job .
As it is more or less beyond
Unsafe conditions are a main
management’s control.
cause of accidents.
How to prevent Accidents?
Reducing Unsafe Conditions
• Job hazard analysis
• Operational Safety reviews
• Personal protective equipment

Reducing Unsafe acts

• Screening
• Training
• Through Posters, Incentives and Positive
Current Situation of Workplace Safety and Measures Taken
Nepalese workers have been victim of major work related accidents majorly in abroad where no
any prevention or care is provided to the workers.
Case 1:
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 1 3A migrant worker in Saudi said that Nepali
migrants faced accident when they work on scaffolding without apply-ing health and safety
measures. He added:One Nepali who was a lead man in our company had an accident abroad.
The crane lifted up a block. The crane driver was on the top and our Nepali friend was at the
bottom. The rope of the crane broke and the block fell and hit our Nepali friend on the head. His
hands, legs and head were injured.
(Chaudhary, High edu. Poor health, Middle East, Age 49.
In this case , only the medical bill was covered by the organization. No any other compensation
was given to the person that was majorly injured.
Current Situation of Workplace Safety and Measures Taken
Case 2
One day I was working on a hole to pass the sewage pipe through the wall to the fourth floor. I
was not wearing a safety belt or helmet that day. I slipped and fell from the fourth floor and was
trapped in the hole. My back bone, legs and hands broke. I also have a vision problem.
(B/C, No edu. Poor health, Middle East, Age 40)

The victim recalled how he has borrowed NRs 300,000 ($3281) to go abroad and doesn’t have
sufficient funds or property to repay .

He quoted “I have two sons aged 13 and 11. I cannot imagine how my children will pay back
that money”.
Current Situation of Workplace Safety and Measures Taken

Other findings included:

• Accidents and injuries depend on the company or factory.
• People didn’t have accidents and injuries in the good companies or in workplaces where they
do not have to work with machines.
• People who worked using heavy machines have more chances of having accidents and
• People using smaller machines were less likely to get accidents and injuries.
Workplace Safety Law in Nepal
Labor Act 1992 SLIDE 19
Workplace Accident

• The Act further mentions provision for compulsory notice of any kind of accident or disease
to the concerned labor office.
• The Act has given authority to the concerned inspector to collect samples of any finished
and semi-finished products as well as any material being used that may cause harm to the
workers or damage their health.
• The concerned labor office has also right to close down the whole establishment or
unsecured parts, plant or machinery of it.
• Inspectors have been assigned responsibility to ensure that the building, machinery and
manufacturing processes are safe for workers. Violations of these provisions are punishable
with fines
Workplace Accident
Case of workplace in Nepal
• In many enterprises several accidents are occurring due to old machine operating
without regular maintenance and the absence of machine guard.
• In most of the workplaces there is a provision of emergency door to exit the workers
during emergency but the management of the enterprises did not educate their
workers about the importance of the emergency door.
• Mostly women workers involved in discussion programme were not known the
provisions made by the enterprises to save the workers and the enterprise from any
type emergency.
• It is also disclosed that mass workers are not aware how to use such equipments
during emergency.
• It indicated high demand of training to all employees on the issue .
Workplace Accident
Case of workplace in Nepal
Kinds of accidents :
• Minor accident (cut hand by knife, pricked by needle)
• major accidents (facture, burn, injury at different parts of body by various reasons,
• Cut and wounds, fall down, fracture, electric shock, press and cut by machine,
• press by heavy load of goods, etc.
Workplace Accident
Case of workplace in Nepal SLIDE 22
Kinds of accidents :
• Burn, eye and skin damage while handling acid experienced by the women involved with
chemical handling.
• working in the street are suffering from frequent accident by vehicles in the morning time
(especially during winter)
• fall down from the tree in case of cleaning workers.
• Fall down from the construction site, electric shock is the specific accident faced by
construction workers.
• females involved in marble and chips are victim of reproductive health – from excess
bleeding to prolapse.
• transport workers suffer from road accident due to break fail where indirectly they are
facing a lot of reproductive health problems caused by road condition.
Workplace Accident
Case of workplace in Nepal SLIDE 23
Arihanta Multi Fiber Industry (Jute Industry) is a large (with more than 3000 workers) and
heavily equipped in Nepalese context where 31 cases of accident (Minor 16 and 15 referral case
such as fractured and cut accidents) were reported in a month just before the field work.

- 2011
Workplace Accident
Case of workplace in Nepal SLIDE 24

• Ignorance of workers and employers
• Negligent efforts of the government.
Workplace Accident
Case of workplace in Nepal SLIDE 25

• violation of safety rules,
• unsecured/ old machine or equipments,
• unavailability of the safety equipments/tools as necessary,
• lack of training,
• lack of inspection,
• supervision and monitoring, resource constraint (human and financial)

• Current Situation of Occupational Safety and Health in Nepal (A Study Report) [Journal] /
auth. Rudra Prasad Gautam Ph D. Jib Nath Prasain, Ph D.. - 2011.
• Course Book

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