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AR4001 HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

MARKET STUDY AND LITERATURE STUDY ON


AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEMS:

GROUP MEMBERS:
D.PRASHANTH K.L.RAVI CHANDU SEEMACHAL SAHOO
ANANNYA TALUKDER LABANYA BAIDYA ABHAY YADAV DANII NG
CONTENTS:

 INTRODUCTION
 TERMINOLOGIES
 CASE STUDIES
 INFERENCE
 HVAC BYLAWS
AIR CONDITIONING

 Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air to


create more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of
distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space to improve
thermal comfort and indoor air quality .

 Air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies


the condition of air (heating, cooling, de-humidification, cleaning,
ventilation, or air movement).
HUMAN COMFORT

The four atmospheric conditions which affect human comforts are


 Temperature
 Humidity
 Air purity
 Air Movements

An air conditioner controls the above factors for us to achieve human comfort.

90% of the people are comfortable when the air temperature is between 18-22°C and
the %sat is between 40-65%.
AIR HANDLING UNIT

 An Air Handling Unit or AHU is a central air conditioner station that handles the air that, usually,
will be supplied into the buildings by the ventilation ductwork.
 It is a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling elements, filter racks or chambers,
humidity & temperature control loops. 
CHILLER

 Chiller removes heat from a liquid via vapour-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle.
 This cooled liquid flows through pipes in a building and passes through coils in air handlers, fan-
coil units, or other systems, cooling and usually dehumidifying the air in the building.
 Chillers are of two kinds:
1. Air Cooled
2. Water Cooled
COOLING TOWER

 The Cooling tower cools the warm water by contacting with unsaturated air. The evaporation
of water mainly provides cooling.
 Water-cooled chillers are normally more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers.
SYSTEM

 Choice of system will depend on building purpose and degree of occupancy.


There are three categories :
i. All -Air system
ii. All-water system
iii. Combination Air-water System
 The choice of which air conditioner system to use depends upon a number of
factors including how large the area is to be cooled, the total heat generated inside
the enclosed area, etc.
 An HVAC designer would consider all the related parameters and suggest the
system most suitable for your space.
ALL-AIR SYSTEM
 Air is blown across the cold evaporator coil and then delivered by ducts to
the rooms that require cooling.
 Air systems can effectively ventilate, filter and dehumidify air.
 The main disadvantages lies in the bulky ductwork that is required.

Schematic diagram of an all-air


system.
.
ALL-WATER SYSTEM
 The water is chilled by the evaporator coil and then delivered to fan-coil
units in each space. Although the piping in the building takes up very little
space, the fan-coil units in each room do required some space.
 Ventilation, dehumidification and filtering of air are possible but not as
effective as with an air system.

Schematic diagram of an all-water


system.
.
COMBINATION AIR-WATER SYSTEM
 In smaller buildings, the heat given off by a refrigeration machine/mechanical room is
usually dumped into the atmosphere by blowing outdoor air over the condenser coil.
 To make this heat transfer more efficient, water can be sprayed over the condenser coil.
 Medium sized buildings often use a specialized piece of equipment called an
evaporative condenser to dump heat into the atmosphere by evaporating water.
 A cooling tower also dumps heat into the atmosphere by evaporating water.
 This cooling tower is pumped to the refrigeration machine/mechanical room. Most
cooling towers are placed on roofs.

Schematic diagram of an air-water system.


.
Common locations for centralized mechanical equipment
spaces in large multistorey buildings.
AIR CONDITIONING OF SMALL
BUILDINGS

 There are 3 units air conditioning in small building :


i. Window units
ii. Packaged units
iii. Split units
Window Air Conditioner
 Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air conditioner for single rooms. In
this air conditioner all the components, namely the compressor, condenser, expansion valve
or coil, evaporator and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box.

 This unit is fitted in a slot made in the wall of the room, or more commonly a window sill.
Split Air Conditioner
 The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the
outdoor unit and the indoor unit.
 The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses
components like the compressor, condenser and
expansion valve.
 The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or
cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you
don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the room.
 A split air conditioner can be used to cool one or
two rooms.
SPLIT UNITS

 Most homes and some other buildings find the split units to be most appropriate.
 In the split unit, the compressor and condenser coils are outdoors while the air
handling unit with the evaporator coil is indoors.
 The air handling unit also contains the central heating systems.
 The illustrate the use of split systems for a small office building. The air
handling units (AHU) with their evaporator coils and heating systems are
in a mechanical equipment room (MER)
 The supply ducts are above a suspended ceiling but on the indoor side of
the roof insulation.
 The air is supplied to each room through a top register or a ceiling
diffuser. Return air grilles and ducts bring the air back to the air handling
units.

A schematic diagram of a split unit system


.
Two split units for a small office building.
SPLIT UNIT – WALL MOUNTED
SPLIT UNIT – CEILING MOUNTED
SPLIT UNIT- CASSETTE TYPE
SIMPLIFIED INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE
SIMPLIFIED INSTALLATION AND
MAINTENANCE
SPLIT UNIT- FLOOR STANDING
SPLIT UNIT – CEILING DUCTED
FLOOR STANDING – FREE
BLOW
FREE STANDING – VERTICAL DISCHARGE
Packaged Air Conditioner
 This kind of air conditioner is used to cool more than two rooms
or a larger space at your home or office. There are two possible
arrangements with the package unit:
 In the first one, all the components, namely the compressor,
condenser expansion valve and evaporator are housed in a
single box.
 The cooled air is thrown by the high capacity blower, and it
flows through the ducts laid through various rooms.
 In the second arrangement, the compressor and condenser are
housed in one casing.
 The compressed gas passes through individual units, comprised
of the expansion valve and cooling coil,
located in various rooms.
PACKAGED UNITS

Packaged units can contain both heating


and cooling equipment
WATER COOLED PACKAGED UNIT
(WATER-COOLED)
WATER COOLED PACKAGED UNIT
(AIR-COOLED)
Central Air Conditioning System

 Central air conditioning is used for cooling big buildings, houses, offices, entire hotels, gyms,
movie theatres, factories etc. If the whole building is to be air conditioned, HVAC engineers find
that putting individual units in each of the rooms is very expensive making this a better option.
 A central air conditioning system is comprised of a huge compressor that has the capacity to
produce hundreds of tons of air conditioning. Cooling big halls, malls, huge spaces, galleries etc.
is usually only feasible with central conditioning units.
CASESTUDY

BARZAN ARCADE
LOCATION

CASE STUDY

KENZ FURNISHING

LOCATION: THONDAYAD BYPASS,


OPP HILITE MALL

NO. OF FLOORS: 5

FUNCTION: FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DECOR

TYPE OF AIR CONDITIONING USED – SPLIT AC SYSTEM


CASE STUDY

10 outdoor units are provided on this


facade

A series of outdoor units are provided on the


exterior side of the building
CASE STUDY

There is an opening provided for the


maintainance and service
CASE STUDY

Interior units are provide


throughout the store
CASE STUDY

GENERATOR INTERIOR
CASE STUDY

 TYPE OF AIR CONDITIONERS USED: LG L-VOGUE

 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

Tonnage Range 2.0TR

Cooling(watts) 6350

Compressor Rotary - R22

Power Supply(Volt/Phase/Hz.) 230 / Single / 50

Power Input (Watts) 2000

Running Current(Amps) 9.2


CASE STUDY
PERFORMANCE
3
Star Rating
Noise Level (Indoor)(dB) 40

DIMENSIONS

Indoor (mm)(WxHxD) 1090 x 300 x 218


Outdoor (mm)(WxHxD) 870 x 655 x 322

WEIGHT
13
Indoor (Kg)
Outdoor (Kg) 47
LITERATURE CASE STUDIES:
The Thermal Test Facility, National
Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado
The Thermal Test Facility, National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, Golden, Colorado
 The TTF at NREL in Golden, Colorado, is a 10,000-ft2 (930-m2) steel-frame
building that is typical of many small professional buildings, industrial parks,
and retail structures.
 Efficiency features include extensive daylighting through clerestory windows,
two-stage evaporative cooling, overhangs to minimize summer solar gains, T-
8 lamps, instantaneous water heaters, and a well-insulated thermal envelope.
 The integrated design and energy features of the TTF have resulted in an
energy cost saving of 51% and a site energy saving of 42% as compared to
the Federal Energy Code 10 CFR 435 (DOE 1995).
 The TTF cost 63% less per year to heat, ventilate, cool, and light than a code-
compliant, base-case building.
Annual site energy costs of TTF compared to base case for a typical
meteorological year (calibrated simulation)
FLOOR PLAN OF THE THERMAL TEST FACILITY
HVAC Systems

 The main air handler supplies conditioned air to three zones. One zone is located in
the low-bay (office) area, a second zone serves the west mid-bay and high-bay laboratory
areas, and a third zone conditions the east mid-bay area and a small portion of the east end
of the low-bay.

 Outside air enters the building on the south mid-clerestory. The outside air is
introduced into the building only when the economizer of evaporative cooler is operating.

 Ductwork from this system is short with large diffusers. In addition, the ductwork in
the building is larger than standard practice in order to reduce the pressure drop associated
with moving air through the system.
 Most of the air is introduced in the low-bay area and flows through
the west mid-bay and into the highbay.

 Additional diffusers in these zones can help control temperature.


The return is in the east mid-bay.

 Heating is provided via parallel VAV boxes and hot water is supplied
from NREL’s central heating plant.

 The fans in these units operate only when heating is required


 The main air handler is used only for cooling; it is
turned off when cooling is not needed. There are
four different operating modes for the air handler:
(1) economizer
(2) direct evaporative cooling
(3) indirect direct evaporative cooling
(4) indirect evaporative cooling.

 When outside conditions are favourable, the air


handler meets cooling loads by economizing where
outside air and return air (drawn from the east mid-
bay) are mixed to meet a control temperature.
 When outside conditions are not favorable for economizer operation, the
air handler draws 100% outside air and uses the evaporative cooling
system.
 If outside relative humidity is acceptable, the direct evaporative cooling
section is used. If loads or outdoor temperatures become more
demanding than what can be met with the direct section alone, the
indirect section is turned on (by starting the scavenger fan).
 If outdoor humidity is too high, only the indirect section is used.
 Building air is not recirculated in the evaporative cooling mode.
 The surplus of air is discharged from the building with a passive relief
damper located on the east wall in the high-bay.
LITERATURE CASESTUDY 2:
HOSPITAL IN ITLAY:
General Description of Case Study:
 This case study illustrates the energy auditing of the AC system serving a three-storey building within the
hospital of Oderzo, a town situated in the north-eastern Italian province of Treviso, 60 km NE of Venice.
The study was carried out in cooperation with the ESCO responsible of managing the energy systems of the
hospital.

 The building and AC system under investigation is currently undergoing a complete renovation. So far, the
first floor hosting the Surgery and Nursing department has been completed (building refurbishment and a
totally new AC system) and is now into its second year of utilisation; work on the basement and second
floor are still ongoing.

 The energy analysis has been focused on optimising the operation of the Air Handling Unit (AHU) of the
Surgery department. To do so, the main operational parameters of the AHU were monitored in the April-
October 2006 period; recorded data were acquired with ad-hoc instrumentation, installed by the ESCO for
the purpose of this energy diagnosis.
General Building Data:

 LocationOderzo (Treviso)
 Altitude above sea level 13 m
 Configuration Concrete framed
 LAYOUT:
Basement: Service areas (to be completed)
First floor: Surgery and Nursing (completed)
Second floor: Cafeteria, Chapel, Office space (to be completed). HVAC eqpt room (4 AHU’s – 2 already
installed), electrical eqpt
 Number of floors: Three
 Floor area (Treated): 350 sq. m. (first floor)
 Year of construction: Unknown
 Refurbishment HVAC: 2004
 Refurbishment Lighting: 2004
 HVAC System: All air with HEPA filters (first floor)
 Cooling System: Air-cooled, vapor-compression water chiller
 Types of fuel used: Heating Gas
 Cooling: Electrical
 DHW: Gas
 HDD : 2358 (conventional value)
HVAC System Design:
 The AC system of the building is all-air (100% external), as prescribed by Italian regulations for
hospitals. When the renovation work will be complete, four AHU’s will be installed at the second
floor: the two already existing AHU’s serve the Surgery and Nursing areas, while the two future
AHU’s will respectively serve the basement and the second floor. Terminal units with HEPA filters
are present in critical areas of the first floor.
 The Surgery and Nursing AHU’s are virtually identical, and include the following sections:
Outdoor air intake with pre-filter
Intermediate-fluid heat recovery deck
Pre-heating deck, Cooling deck
Steam humidifier
High efficiency filter
Supply fan
Extract fan
 
 Three post-treatment sections with re-heating and re-cooling decks are provided
for individual control of space conditions in operating room no. 1, operating room
no. 2, and recovery area.
 Chilled water is produced with an air-cooled, vapour compression water chiller
installed on the roof of the building.
 The central boiler room of the hospital produces hot water for space heating and
SHW with two hot water boilers; steam for air humidification is produced with
an indirect steam generator coupled to a low-pressure, diathermic fluid steam
boiler, which also covers other steam users of the hospital.
HVAC Control Strategy:
General
 The existing and new chillers adopt different control strategies: two regulation steps for the existing chillers,
and nine regulation steps for new chillers.
 HVAC Plant Control: Continuous operation (24 hrs/day) for contamination control Set Points (operating
rooms) adjustable in the 18-24 °C +/- 1°C range
 Run times of HVAC plant: Continuous
 Identify HVAC zoning of building : Each space of the Surgery / Nursing areas has individual
temperature control
 Details of planned maintenance: Contract maintenance as per normal standards and documentation
available on request.
Boiler room:

Low-pressure steam boiler and indirect Hot water boilers


steam generator
HVAC SYSTEM:

AHU – Surgery Intermediate-fluid heat recovery deck


Water chiller:

Air-cooled water chiller serving the


Surgery and Nursing AHUs
Inferences:
 This case study has allowed a quantification of the impact of AHU operation on the electrical
energy consumption of an all-air AC system for the hospital. Attention has been focused on
ventilation heat recovery and free cooling.

 Data were obtained through a monitoring campaign carried out in April-October 2006, which
required the installation of ad-hoc instrumentation (temperature sensors, electricity meters, and
data loggers). Such approach was necessary since the necessary quantities were neither metered
for billing purposes, nor acquired by the existing BEMS.

 Metrological problems in obtaining reliable field data were identified and solved.
HVAC BYLAWS:
HVAC BYLAWS

 ASHRAE (AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR HEATING, REFRIGERATION AND AIR


CONDITIONINNG ENGINEERING)

 Air-conditioning and ventilating systems circulating air to more than one floor or floor area shall
be provided with dampers designed to close automatically in case of fire and thereby preventing
spread of fuel or smoke

 From fire safety point of view, separate air handling units for the various floors shall be provided
so as to avoid the hazards arising from spread of fire and smoke through the air-conditioning
ducts. The requirements of air-conditioning ducts shall be in accordance with good practice
HVAC BYLAWS

 DUCT SYSTEM — A continuous passageway for the transmission of air which, in addition to the
ducts, may include duct fittings, dampers, plenums, and grilles and diffusers.

 REFRIGERANT — The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system, which absorbs heat
at a low temperature and low pressure of the fluid Ad rejects heat at a higher temperature and
higher pressure of the fluid, usually involving changes of, state of the fluid.
HVAC BYLAWS

 RECIRCULATED AIR — The return air that has been passed through the
conditioning apparatus before being re-supplied to the space.

 PLENUM — An air compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are


connected and which forms part of an air distribution system. The pressure drop
and air velocities in the plenum should be low. Generally, the velocity in plenum
should not exceed 1.5 to 2.5 m/s.
HVAC BYLAWS

CHILLERS:
Sizing and selecting a chiller is an important aspect in noise control. The following guidelines may
be considered for noise control:
 For rooftop installation of chillers, these may be placed on beams connected on the elevated
levels of pillars on correctly chosen vibration isolators.
 Water cooled chillers have less vibration. However, if air cooled chillers have to be chosen,
choose them with fan of less speeds and compressors must be jacketed without compromising
their ventilation requirement.
 If much more silencing is required, plan a silencer on the exhaust of the fans and also an acoustic
enclosure around the chillers. Care must be taken for the additional static demand in the fan.
HVAC BYLAWS
HVAC BYLAWS
THANK YOU