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Index

Chapter I Power system


Chapter II Transmission System of 30 Series Loaders
Chapter III Transmission System of 50 Series Loaders
Chapter IV Hydraulic System of Working Device
Chapter V Steering System
Chapter VI Braking System
Chapter VII Driving Axle
Chapter VIII Electrical System
Chapter IX A/C System of LOVOL Loader

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Chapter Ⅰ Power system

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Contents

Power system

Section 1 The engine matching of loader introduction

Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine introduction

Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

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Section 1 The engine matching of loader introduction
The engine matching of loader

Numbe The Produce type The engine model manufacture factory


r
1 FL917F/FL920F LR4A3-24/ yuchai 4108 LUOYANG/YUCHAI
2 FL935F YC6B125-T20 YUCHAI
3 FL936F WP6G125E22/TD226B6G WEICHAI

4 FL938G WP6G140E22 WEICHAI


5 FL955F/ FL956F WD10G220E23 WEICHAI
6 FL958G WD10G220E21/SC11CB220G2B1 WEICHAI /SHANGCHAI
7 FL966F WD10G240E21/SC11CB240.1GB1 WEICHAI/SHANGCHAI

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
1. The appearance of the engine components

Tighten wheel

Thermostat

Ri
ght
Dipstick
Oil filling orifice

Water pump
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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine introduction

Intake pipe
Generator

Fuel filter

Fan

Starter

Flywheel case

Oil sump Injection pump assembly Vibration damper

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction

hanging ring Exhaust pipe

Compressor
turbocharger

Nameplate

Water outlet valv


Oil cooler

Oil filter

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
2. The engine composition

The basic structure of the


diesel engine

Framework Two big mechanism Five system


 Cylinder block  Crank and  Intake and exhaust
 Cylinder liner connecting rod system
 Crankcase mechanism  Fuel supporting
 Cylinder cover  Valve mechanism system
 Oil sump  Lubricating system
 Cooling system
 Starting system

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Framework
The Body is the framework of diesel engine, which is used to stall and support various of
parts assembly, is composed of cylinder block & crankcase & oil sump & cylinder liner &
cylinder cover & cylinder gasket etc.

Cylinder gasket
Cylinder cover
Oil and water path
Cylinder head

Crankcase
Cylinder block

Oil sump
cylinder

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
cylinder block
The cylinder and up-crank case box of water cooling engine often casts into the whole, Cast into with
the ash cast iron generally. Columned cavity part of upper cylinder block calls cylinder, and second calls
crankcase used to support crank, whose inside cavity is the room of crank moving. There are some ribs
& pillar cavity & cool water channel and lubricating oil path etc in the cylinder block.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Sorts of structures of cylinder block

Divide equally type Dragon gate type Tunnel type


The structure of the cylinder block usually has three sorts, with opposite crankshaft center
line( ascend the red dotted line of the diagram mean) of high come to distinguish:
-Divide equally type crankcase : the structure possesses and dismantling & mounting easy .
-Dragon gate type crankcase : the construction's anti-flection and the rigidity of anti- turns is
better, dismantling to mount too convenient.
-Tunnel type crankcase : the construction is rigid best, but dismantling to mount not convenient.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The check important points of the cylinder

1. The check of the cylinder block each process plane accuracy;


2. The cylinder block leakage checking by Air pressure and water pressure;
3. The machine clean: Need the steel wire brushes, a stick, wash liquid, compressed air;
4. Each of covers of the cylinder block need carry out leakage testing ;

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Cylinder liner

Inside of cylinder bore of cylinder block insets cylinder liner wall.


Purpose: Reduce the cost and increase the life.
Inside of the cylinder block enchases the cylinder liner ,it made of senior cast-iron. The
cylinder block made of low price cast-iron or light aluminum alloys , so it can prolongs
the service life as well as saving the good material

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The Sorts of cylinder liner

Name Characteristic sketch map


Strength is all better,
The outside wall is not direct contact processing
with cool water . complicated,
dismantling &
1) The wall is much thinner;( a ~ 3 mount conveniently,
mms) releasing the heat
Dry cylinder
liner 2) Match with cylinder block badly.
interference fit;
3) Not easy leaking water and air.
Releasing the heat
4) Install the method very easy good, cool
uniformity, process
The outside wall is not direct contact easy. Strength is not
with cool water. more than dry
Wet-type
1) The wall is much thicker;( 5 ~ 9 cylinder liner, easy
cylinder
mm) leaking, rust, cave
liner
2) Cooling effect is good; eclipse.
3) Dismantle& mount conveniently

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Wet-type cylinder liner

Insider uses processing net


Good outside craft

Upper
water seal

lower
water seal

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Mount cylinder liner points

1.Check and adjust outstanding part of cylinder liner


2.Install attention water seal.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Cylinder head
Function : seal the plane of cylinder and upper part of piston all form combustion chamber

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Four valves structure cylinder head

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Cylinder gasket

1) Function: seal the clearance between cylinder block and cylinder head, avoid water
leakage& air leakage& oil running
2) Material: flexible & Heat-proof & anti- presses
3) Attention to mount direction

Cylinder gasket

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Mount cylinder head components

Cylinder head plane;


Valve sink measurement;
Height of nozzle from bottom of cylinder head
Tightening torque of cylinder head bolts

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Oil sump
Function : stock and cool oil & closed
crankcase
structure
(1) Thin steel plate pressed makes it
(2) There is a steady baffle which is used to
prevent from oil surface occurring to wave
hugely due to the car quiver
(3) There is a oil exhaust magnetic plug at the
bottom of oil sump
(4) There is a seal between crankcase and oil
sump
Oil sump

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Crank connecting rod mechanism
Piston

Piston ring

Crankshaft

Flywheel Connecting rod

The crank connecting rod mechanism is the main part which realizes engine working circulation
and completes energy transformed. It is composed of piston connecting rod and crankshaft
flywheel. In the power stroke, pistons move along straight line in the cylinder by combustion air
pressed, which pushes crankshaft revolution by connecting rod with it to output power. In the
suction ,compression, exhaust stroke, the flywheel makes revolution transform into piston line
moving.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Crankshaft flywheel assembly

Crankshaft of engine adopts the whole supporting structure (there is a main journal
between one inflexion and another)
Small head end and timing gears have lots of positioning installation forms: the keyway, pin,
interference fitted.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The crankshaft assembly points:

The crankshaft cleaning;


Timing gears installation;
Mount main bearing shell, thrust plate
The crankshaft axial clearance check and adjustment
The main bearing bolts tighten torque

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Piston rod assembly

Function:
(1) the piston top and cylinder head, Gas ring
cylinder walls to form combustion
chamber together; Oil ring
(2) the piston bears gas pressure,
and transfers the force to the Piston pin
connecting rod, in order to push the Piston
rotation of the crankshaft. Connecting rod
Work environment:
High temperature and cooling Connecting rod
bolt
conditions poor; The top of the piston
surface has the high temperature and Connecting rod
bearing shell
uneven distribution; At the high speed
situation, the piston bears the biggish
Connecting
inertial force. rod cover

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Piston

According to different power of diesel engine, choose different structure of the piston material
The piston sort and installation mark on the top of piston

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Inside cooling oil path the piston section graph

Lubrication along around the ring oil path


of combustion chamber flow, can be very
good cooling the piston.

Return oil hole

Inlet oil hole

Inside cooling oil path the piston, corresponding big flow cooling nozzle, lower the heat load and
enhance reliability.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Piston cooling spray hook

Piston cooling spray hook

Main bear auxiliary bolt M10 Main bear bolt M12

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Mount piston ring

Mount piston ring

Gas ring (single side


trapezia ring)

Gas ring (rectangle ring)

Oil ring (rectangle ring)

Inside
cooling
oil path

Inside cooling oil path


inlet & outlet oil hole

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Every kinds of model connecting the pole

It is even to slice to connect big head of


connecting pole, fixed position by thrust
mouth.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Every kind of model connecting the pole

Inclined dispart big head of connecting Inclined dispart big head of


rod & Zigzag positioning connecting rod & seam allowance
positioning

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The piston connecting rod assemble important points:

The piston assembly mark;


Piston ring opening toward;
The connecting rod bolt tightened.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Valve train

Rocker arm

Camshaft camshaft Rocker arm shaft


timing gear
Tappet

lifter

According to the engine work order and the working process , timing opening and closing the intake
and exhaust valve, makes the mixture gas or air into the cylinder, and makes waste gas exhaust
from the cylinder, achieves the breath process. Valve train is used mostly to adopt top valve type,
generally by the valve, the valve transmission group, the group and valve driving group formed.
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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Camshaft
The camshaft use each cylinder cam controlling valve movement, make valve according to
certain work order and gas phase open and close the valve and to ensure that there is
enough opening. The shape line of CAM decides the valve open time and lifting height.

key
camshaft

Camshaft thrust plate

Bolt
Bolt Gasket

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Tappet
Function:
Cam pushes the valve by tappet and rocker arm.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Valve spring

Function:
Make the valve press tightly on the valve seat and self-return.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Rocker arm and rocker arm shaft assembly

Rocker arm is the drive part between tappet and valve, which changes the direction of
tappet force to force the valve end.
The sorts of Structure: integral type & split-body type

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Four valve structure

Four valve structure is compact, injectors are different disposal.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The valve sink measure and clearance

Inlet valve rocker arm Outlet valve rocker arm

Inlet valve Inlet Outlet Outlet valve


clearance valve valve clearance

Valve sink Valve sink


measure measure

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Valve clearance

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Why need to adjust valve clearance?
In the cold situation , without clearance or clearance is too small, but in hot state, the valve and
transmission parts because of heat expansion valve conduce closed laxly, cause the engine in
the compression and power stroke to make the leakage and power decrease, seriously not easy
to start. Too small valve clearance can have pistons severe faults, accordingly, must be
periodically adjustment of the valve clearance.
Valve clearance too big also causes the valve has difficult to open and close in time, which will
affect the charging efficiency of engines and exhaust situation, make burning deterioration, it
also can hear the larger noise under working.
Engine is used for a long time, can cause parts wear and tear, at this time to adjust.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Valve clearance adjustment:

Adjustment principle of the valve clearance:


when valve must be in the fully closed, and can adjust valve clearance. Or when jib quite
(or rocker) must fall on the foundation column of CAM just can be adjusted.
Valve clearance adjustment method -- twice method
The production practice, generally using twice method, namely first cylinder compression on
the end point, adjust all half valves, then turn again crankshaft a circle, next to adjust the rest.
Firstly make sure of the fist cylinder in the top dead center:
1. For order of 2-1-3-4 four cylinder engine
Adjust the order of 1-2-3-6 valve, then turn 360 degrees crankshaft, adjust 4-5-7-8 valve
2. For the order of 1-5-3 6-2-4 six cylinders engine
Adjust the order of 1-2-3-6-7-10 valve, then turn 360 degrees crankshaft, adjust 4-5-8-9-11-
12 valve

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Gas phase
In the abstract, suction, compression, power and exhaust stroke each possesses the 180 °,
that is the intake and exhaust valve are opened and closed in the top & low dead center, the
duration time is the crankshaft rotated 180 ° . But the actual show that simple gas phase is not
used to the real work.
Reason:
1 The valve open and close has a process. Valve circulation area: from small to large.
2 The influence of the gas inertia: result in exhaust flow is from small to large.
3 Crankshaft speed is high, the piston each trip lasted time is all very short.
Theoretical gas phase can't satisfy the engine possessing full intake and exhaust
requirements. So the actual gas phase is the inlet and exhaust valve opened ahead, delay
closed.
Inlet advance Angle
Inlet delay angle
Exhaust advance Angle
Exhaust delay angle

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Gas phase demo figure

Intake last Angle for:α +180 °+ β


Inlet valve
Exhaust last Angle for: γ +180 °+ δ
Outlet valve

•Because the intake early open or


exhaust late close, came out inlet
and exhaust valve at the same time
open phenomenon, called the valve
fold open. At the same time open
Inlet advance Angle, namely the intake and
Angle exhaust early open Angle of late
Inlet delay angle close sum (α + δ ), called valve
Exhaust advance overlap Angle.
Angle
Exhaust delay
angle

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Inlet and exhaust system:

Inlet and Exhaust system is


the first important system of
Air filter
the diesel engine system,
because enough, clean air
supercharger
decides to the performance of
the diesel engine influence.
Function: Inlet air pipe
To each work of diesel engine
cylinder to offer fresh, clean,
Exhaust
dense & enough air.
air pipe
cooler

Exhaust
muffler
air brake
valve
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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Air filter

Main filter core Lamina ring

Collection dust plate


Safety filter
core

Filter shell

Intake pipe

Exhaust dust bag

• The air filter task ensures to engine by adequate protection to be free of dust
particles in under the condition of the abnormal wear; The air filter must have high
filtration efficiency and high stocking dust ability (high use life).

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Turbocharged system

Because of diesel engine burning, any sorts of circumstances require excess air
coefficient > 1, emissions, power, economy are considered, also require supplying
enough air, so modern diesel engine used more turbocharged system, and some were
turbocharged mid-cool system.

Engine suction air


发 动 机 Turbocharger

Air environment

Engine exhaust
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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The structure and principle of turbocharger

Air-release valve

Air compressor turbine case

Middle case
Turbine case

Rotor

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction

1. Turbine rotor group:


turbine, pinch roller, thrust plate,
spacer ring, seal cartridge, splashing
oil dish, sealing ring
2. Mid-case group:
support block, bearing sleeve, float
sleeve, platen, flange
3. Air compressor turbine shell group:
turbine case, (diffuser), support
plate
4. Turbine shell group:
turbine case, (spray nozzle ring,
turbine end cover)
5. Air-release valve group:
valve block, diaphragm, spring, link
rod

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Supercharger principle:

Use the engine exhaust high temperature and speed waste gas to push turbine, and at the
same time drive air compressor rotary high-speed, improve the inlet pressure, increase air
density, increase air inflow.
Naturally suction diesel engine the inlet pressure is low, the inlet pressure often can only reach
to 0.7 bar, supercharger can reach to 1.5 bar.
Turbocharged technology has one of the most obvious response, namely "lag due to the inertia
effect ", slow response, even after the response time of the improved to 1.5 seconds or so with
the throttle changed , make the engine delay change output power. So, if urgent acceleration,
will feel the engine that don't have enough power.
Low inertia bypass-valve efficient supercharger:
Inertia is small, fast response and low speed , air compressed high efficiency. Reduce the
emissions of NOx, and reduce the CO emissions, improve engine emission, make the engine
low speed have enough big torque. Greatly improve the low speed of the engine performance
(a low heat load; a lower cylinder pressure; more power, low fuel consumption rate).

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Mid-cooler function and advantage

Function: cool the air out from the


turbocharger compressor temperature ,
to increase the density of air, improve
the charging efficiency of engine.
Generally speaking, the supercharger
pressurized air temperature higher than
before the pressurization temperature
about 100 degrees, the inlet air
temperature will be a trend, go against
the spread, and through the intercooler,
the air temperature will be dropped .
Classification: air-intercooler and water
intercooler

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The fuel supply system

1. Function
Achieve fuel storage, filtration and delivery according to various diesel engine requirements
of the working conditions, timing, quantitative and the constant pressure and with certain fuel
injection spray into the combustion chamber, the quality of the air and quickly and good
mixing and burning, finally make waste gas discharged into the atmosphere.
(1) In the proper time, will be a certain amount of clean fuel pressurized with proper regular
injected the combustion chamber.
(2) In each work cycle, each cylinder injects oil once, injection order consistent with cylinder
working order
(3) According to the change of the diesel engine load automatically adjusts circulation fuel
delivery, to ensure the stable operation, and especially diesel engine stable idle, limit over
speeding
(4) To store a certain amount of fuel, ensure the maximum mileage cars.
Fuel supply system must meet diesel combustion theory.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Combustion theory

Delay burning period


Urgent burning period
Slow burning period
Last burning period
Fuel combustion starting point
Injection starting point
Pump oil starting point

When stop supply fuel cylinder


pressure change

Top dead center Crank Angle


Pump oil advance Angle
Supply oil advance Angle

Cylinder pressure and crankshaft corner the relationship


Ⅰ- Prepared Ⅱ - quick Ⅲ - slow Ⅳ - After
Burning period Burning period Burning period Burning period

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Combustion theory:
Delay burning period: spray into the cylinder fuel through a series of physical and chemical
change process, including fuel atomization, heating, evaporation, and air mixing the
preparation stage, although time is short, but for the whole of the combustion process have
great influence.
Urgent burning period : the fuel burns quickly and the air pressure has increased dramatically.
Pressure increasing speed determines to the stability performance of diesel engine, if
pressure increasing speed is too quick, the diesel engine works rudely, movement parts will
bear big load. In order to guarantee stability, pressure increasing rate is not less than 0.4
MPa/crankshaft corner
Slow burning period: it starts from the working cubage of cylinder increasing , if keep the
quickly burning, then can make the cylinder pressure unchanged or have increased slightly.
Therefore, only during slow burning period accelerates air mixed quickly so that fuel burns
rapidly.
Last burning period: the energy of last burning period is not very to influence to power of
engine , but increases parts heat load, burning situation is bad, emissions worse. Therefore,
try to reduce last burning period.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Injection advance Angle and injection time:
(2) injection time to be exact, the mixture formation rule should be suitable
When cylinder is in combustion process, main exothermic stage should be behind the top dead
center a little, the small volume can possess high pressure, thermal efficiency is high, and the
heat loss is small, so the injection time required to be exact. Injection early or late will be bad for
the engine work.
Too early: the mixture gas will be formed early , and explosion combustion before the piston gets
to the top dead center, as a result it causes the piston have a short time resistance, and serious
"knock on cylinder" work roughly.
Too late: the mixture in the piston down and then began to form and burning, results from the
burning space increased, the cylinder wall temperature will be increasing quickly, cause the
engine overheating, combustion pressure reducing (P↓) and gas pushing the piston effect
decreases, and even the mixture will be exhausted directly without burning, the power go down.
The best moment of the injection is contacted with combustion chamber type and engine speed,
under a certain speed for the structure of the engine, may be through regulation test to find a big
power, low fuel consumption of the best injection time, usually using crankshaft corner during the
piston went to the dead center expresses injection advance Angle.
Injection advance Angle must is variable, and increased with the rotating speed.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Mechanical fuel supply system constitute
Composition:
Fuel supply device: fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel filter (filter has two kinds, one is fixed before
hand pump, called coarse filter, another is behind hand pump, called fine filter), Suction pipe,
low pressure pipe, the high pressure pipeline etc.

Hand pump

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Fuel filter

Fuel prefilters

Take the oil-water separator filters

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Inline plunger fuel injection pump

Constitute: Pump block, hand pump and speed adjustment, advance machine and increasing
pressure expiation machinery related parts.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Type A fuel injection pump structure advantage:

Outlet oil valve seat


Plunger sleeve

Adjustment gear ring Lock screw

Control rack
Side cover plate
plunger
Control sleeve

Adjust screw Plunger spring

Locknut Roller body

Camshaft

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
P type fuel injection pump structure advantage:
Outlet oil
valve seat Nut

Minus
container
Adjustment
Outlet oil mat
spring

Plunger Adjust
sleeve groove

Adjustment
Plunger pull pole
Plunger
spring Control
sleeve
Jib block Camshaft

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Piston pump oil pump principle:

Inlet oil: Piston downside, Pressure oil: Piston upside, Return oil: piston
inlet oil hole open inlet oil hole shut upside, return oil hole
open

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Injector

The function and spray characteristics of the injector


(1)Function:
Spray scattered high pressure diesel fuel of supply injection pump, reasonable
distribution in the combustion chamber, with high speed and flow of air mixed, formed
burning mixture gas.
(2) Requirements:
① Uniform atomization
② Injection flat and quick
③ Without the drop phenomenon
④ The shape and the direction of fuel adapt to the combustion chamber

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
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Injector atomization quality
(3) Spray characteristics:
Oil mist is spewed by the fuel injectors with the high pressure, high speed with bunch of conical
oil .
Spray cone Angle β: express oil beam pervasion extend. β is the bigger the better.
Cannon-shot L: said oil beam through ability.
Spray quality: said oil bunch spray scattered atomization extend. Spray scattered is the more
uniform and fine, the better atomization.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
P type injector

Needle valve Tight cap Pad Adjustment spring Injector block

Spring low seat Adjustment mat Return oil hole Filtration needle Inlet oil hole

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Fuel electronic supplying system

The emission requirement reaches Europe III or IV standard has used electronic
fuel injection system.
For heavy diesel engine adopts electric monomer pump system.
Miniature and light diesel engine adopts electric control and high pressure in
common rail, from the German BCR, Delphi.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Fuel electric supplying system advantages:

Realize injection pressure, timing, injection law of electronic control.


Provide additional control (each cylinder balance, variable idle and closed loop control,
deceleration broken oil, startup control and so on)
And it is more connected with the vehicle , provide more function (A/T automatic transmission
box, stop cylinder and exhaust braking, A/C self-adaptive adjustment, P/S power steering,
ABS, instrument instructions etc.)
Improve the consistency and reliability of diesel engine itself (fault diagnosis, failure safety
strategy, self-learning and self-adaptive, etc.)
Better burning lead to low emission, high performance and low oil consumption

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The company of Delphi single pump system

Electric control monomer pump in the ECU, will be under the control of a certain number of
fuel pressure (up to 160 MPa above), and through the monomer on electromagnetic valve
pump of receive from the ECU control instruction decided to open or close time, to decide
the injection process each cylinder, namely the injection pressure, oil injection quantity,
injection timing.
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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
High pressure common rail fuel system schemes

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
High pressure common rail fuel system schemes

Track pressure sensor Track

Main filter

CP3.3

Take the water


separator prefilter Sensor Command

Injector

Take filter tank


EDC7 ECU

High pressure Low pressure

FIE working principle and the MV PWM electrical impulses

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Cooling system:

A, the purpose of the cooling system:


Keep the engine in the most appropriate temperature range.
Engine work, because of the burning of fuels in the air, gas temperatures as high as 2200
K to 2800 K, about a third of the work into mechanical energy, with most of the rest of the
waste gas discharge, the rest be engine parts absorption engine parts, especially the
temperature rise directly with high temperature of the gas contact parts, if not timely cooling,
it's hard to guarantee the normal work engine.
Second, the engine too hot or too cold harm
1. The engine overheat hazards;
1) charging efficiency, reduce the engine power down;
2) preignition and deflagration, make parts increase tendency for taking on additional impact
load and cause early damage;
3) sports a normal clearance (heat bilges cold shrink) be destroyed, sports wear block,
increased, even damage;

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
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• 4) lubrication worse and exacerbated the components of the friction and wear;
• 5) parts of mechanical properties is reduced, cause deformation or damage.
• 2. The engine is cold harm
• 1) Into the mixture (or air cylinder) temperature is too low, the mixture quality difference
(atomization sent), make the ignition difficulties or burning, engine power to slow down,
fuel consumption increase heat loss, fuel (too much condensation flow into the
crankcase).
• 2) The combustion, water vapor condenses into water easily with acidic gas formation
acids, added to the body and parts of erosion;
• 3) The fuel vaporization not scour dilution parts surface (cylinder walls, piston, piston, etc)
of the oil film, make parts wear is intensified.
• 4) Oil viscosity, poor liquidity, cause bad lubrication, aggravate wear parts, increase
power consumption
• Visible, the engine temperature is to guarantee the normal work of the good work
performance and engine service life of an important condition.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The cooling system structure

Pipe joint the water tank and radiator


Exhaust
1-water tank air pipe
2-expansion water tank
3- thermostat
4- thermostat seat
5-water set
6-oil radiator
7- small circulation rubber
hoses
8-fan
9-big circulation rubber hoses
10-water pump intake water
pipe
11-water pump

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
cooling cycle:

Small cycle

Big cycle

Complex cycle

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
thermostat

Small cycle thermostat state Big cycle thermostat state

closed opened

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The cooling water circulation speed

Water pump shaft

Impeller
Water pump Outlet water pipe

Water cavity
thermostat
Inlet water pipe
radiator

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Lubrication system
1.the engine lubrication method:

(1)Pressure lubrication: oil pump sends a certain pressure oil to the friction surface. For
example, the crankshaft main bearing, connecting rod bearing and the camshaft bearing
receive the load and the relative movement speed is bigger, demand certain pressure oil to
sent to the friction surface clearance , can form the oil film to ensure the lubrication. The
lubrication method called pressure lubrication.
(2)Splash lubrication: the engine work movement splash up the oil droplets or oil mist to
lubricate the friction surface called splash lubrication. The lubrication method makes use of
the bare outside loads the lighter cylinder walls, relative sliding smaller speed piston pins,
and gas mechanism CAM surface, jib and so on.
(3)Regular lubrication: engine auxiliary system has some parts only adopt regular filling
grease lubrication (butter), such as water pumps and generator bearing lubricating method
adopt it.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Lubricating system function

1. Lubrication:
Decreasing part of friction, wear and power consumption.
2. Clean:
Engine work, inevitably to produce the metal abrasive dust, air into dust and burning
the resulting of solid impurities, etc. These particles into the parts work if the surface,
can form abrasive, greatly increased the wear parts. And oil lubrication system can
clean away the dust from parts, and return back to the crankcase. Here, big particle
sink to the oil sump bottom, the small particles is filtered out by oil filter.
3. Cooling:
Because of the movement parts friction and the mixture burning, it makes some parts
generate higher temperatures. And lubricating oil flows through parts surface can
absorb their heat and return heat back to the oil sump, consequently let into the
atmosphere, which has a cooling effect.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Lubricating system function

4. Seal:
The oil film is full in the gap among engine cylinder walls, pistons, and piston ring groove
with, reduce the gas leak, ensure the proper cylinder pressure, and played the sealing
function.
5. Corrosion prevention:
Because the grease on the surface adhesion in parts, to avoid water, air, gas, etc, the
directly to contact with the parts. Prevent or reduce corrosion.
6. Shock absorption:
The oil film can absorb shock and reducing the vibration.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Lubrication system graph:

Composition:
It is composed of oil pump, oil filter,
oil cooler, oil sump, oil filter,
lubricating oil way and with some
valve etc.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Lubrication system requirements

Oil pressure (main oil way) : not less than 0.1 MPa at idle running, between 0.2 and 0.6
MPa at mid-high speed .
Oil pump flux
Each Oil way processing precision.
The oil quality: brand, viscosity
Lubrication part clearance: main bearing, connecting rod bearing, CAMshaft bushing, etc.

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Oil pump:

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The structure of oil filter

Seal ring

Filter core oil-out

Filter core oil-in

Disposable filter
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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Engine oil cooler

water drain valve

To ensure the quality of the oil

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Start system

Battery of 24 V
Starting
switch
Fly wheel gear
ring

Starting
motor
Driving gear

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
The structure of starter

Electromagnetic
Driver Middle cover Move iron core End cover
Fork cover switch
end cover

Clutch Stator Rotor Brush rocker Brush

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Section 2 The basic structure and principle of engine
introduction
Electromagnetic switch
When turn on the start switch, the current
will come into attract winding and keep
Attract winding
winding of electromagnetic switch, produce
the magnetic force and attract iron core
moved, drive fork clutch to pull out, clutch
gear and engine flying ring gear will be
mesh; At the same time the
electromagnetic switch contacts turn on ,
starter makes the engine starting.
When engine can run itself, the engine
Battery Keep winding
speed will increase quickly, because of
clutch protection, short time starter will not
be damaged go with engine speed
increasing. Disconnect starting switch, the
electromagnetic switch is turned off under
the action of spring, starter gear will be
separated with flywheel ring gear, at the
same time the starter circuit was cut off,
starting process is over.
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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

1. The cylinder liner worn quickly within the short time

No Reason or cause Troubleshooting method


1 Climate condition is quite execrable According to the manual of engine to
and sandstorm is larger, air filter is maintain the air filter on time .
not in time
2 Piston surface is too rough or Selecting the piston with higher
elastic force of piston ring group is roughness and piston ring with proper
too strong. elastic force.
3 The engine oil brand is wrong, oil is According to the manual of engine to
too thin or thick , oil pressure is select and use exactly engine oil brand.
insufficient, cylinder liner cannot be
lubricated well.
4 When filling engine oil, the dust or The method is improving filling oil to
impurity is mixed into oil sump. prevent that dust or impurity is mixed into
oil sump
5 Poor function of air filter, Maintaining the air filter on time .
6 Roughness does not reach the Working process is improved. Cylinder
standard during grinding cylinder liner is processed according to standard
liner. process.
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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

1. The cylinder liner worn quickly within the short time

No Reason or cause Troubleshooting method

7 Axial clearance of crankshaft is too Check the clearance of crankshaft ,if


much ,causing crankshaft front & necessary, exchange front & back thrust
back play bearings.
8 After start-up the engine , work under Changing the operation method .
the heavy load at once. the engine
temperature is not normal, poor
lubrication .
9 The oil filter is too dirty Check maintain and cleaned in time. If
necessary ,replace filter element according .
10 The speed is not stable during Check and adjust the speed regulator.
operation of diesel.

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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

2. The engine Can’t start or hard starting


Cause Analysis Remedy
Fuel tank switch is off or there is no fuel in
Switch on it or refuel sufficiently.
fuel tank.
Check whether the joints of pipelines are loose and exhaust
Air in fuel system.
the air in fuel line.
Fuel system
Feed pump failure Check the feed pump and change the unqualified.
failure
Bad fuel atomization Check and adjust the fuel injectors.
Incorrect fuel supply advance angle Check and adjust the fuel supply advance angle

Fuel pipes or fuel filter jammed Check and clean them


Excessively-worn piston rings or cylinder Check and change the piston rings. If necessary, change
Low liners the cylinder liners and pistons
compression Check the valve clearance and valve sealing. Grind the
pressure of Valve leakage
valves.
cylinders
Cylinder gasket Leakage Check whether the cylinder gaskets leak and remedy them.

Low battery voltage Check and recharge the battery

Poor contact of the electrical circuit Check and repair the electrical circuit.
Starting
system faults Starter stall or low power output Check and repair the starting motor.
Starter gear is unable to engage correctly Turn the flywheel ring gear for a certain angle. If it still can
with the flywheel ring gear. not engage correctly, then check and repair the starter.
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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

3. Fuel consumption is too much


Cause Analysis Remedy
Oil ejection timing is wrong Adjust oil ejection timing
Fuel system leaks oil. Check fuel pipeline, tighten it .
Feed pump failure Check the feed pump and change the unqualified.
Fuel system
failure Check and adjust the fuel injectors, or change the
Bad fuel atomization
injector .
Incorrect fuel supply advance angle Check and adjust the fuel supply advance angle
Fuel pipes or fuel filter jammed Check and clean them
Excessively-worn piston rings or Check and change the piston rings. If necessary, change
Intake and cylinder liners the cylinder liners and pistons
exhaust Check the valve clearance and valve sealing. Grind the
system Valve leakage
valves.
faults
Air filter is blocked Check and clean it ,If necessary change it .
Lubrication Engine oil temperature too high or low Check water tank if blocked. clean It .
system
failure The oil too Short . Add the oil to specified amount .

Cooling Coolant temperature too high, coolant


Add the coolant to specified amount .
system too short .
failure Cooling system temperature too low Check the

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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

4. Abnormal engine oil pressure

Cause Analysis Remedy

Low oil level in the sump Add oil to specified level

Oil pressure gauge failure Check, repair or replace

Clean or change the fuel filter


Primary oil filter or filter jammed
element.
Abnormal Excessively-worn crankshaft main
engine oil bearing and connecting rod Check or change them.
pressure bearings
Incorrect engine oil grade or water in Check the oil grade and cause.
engine oil Change the engine oil.

Pressure limiting valve failure Check and change it.

Check and solve the problem


Engine oil line jammed or oil leakage
correspondingly.

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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

5 、 Overheating

Cause Analysis Remedy

Long time overloaded running Reduce the load

Check the fuel injection and fuel


Poor combustion
supply advance angle.
Overhea Check the oil dipstick. Increase or
Ted Insufficient or excessive engine oil reduce the engine oil according to
engine requirement.
oil Oil cooler jammed Clean or change the oil cooler.
Low delivery capacity of the water Check the impeller clearance. Change
pump it, if necessary.
Low fan speed Adjust the tension of fan belt.
Overheat
ed Excessive scale in cooling system Clean the scale
coola
Clean the dirt on the cooling fins and
nt Low radiating capability of the
improve the ventilation of the
radiator
radiator.
Thermostat failure Change it after finding out the cause
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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

6. Abnormal smoke

Cause Analysis Remedy

Bad atomization of fuel injectors and fuel dribbling Check the fuel injection pressure and spray.
Excessive
Clean the fuel tank and filter. And change the
white Water in diesel fuel
diesel fuel.
smok
e Check reason for leakage of the valves, cylinder
low compress pressure of cylinders
gaskets and piston rings. Solve the problems.

Excessively-high oil level in sump Drain the redundant engine oil.


Excessive
blue Piston ring wear or low flexibility, oil blow-by Check and change the piston rings.
smok
e Check the valve sealing and change the seal
Valve sealing failure
sleeve of valve stem.

Diesel over-loaded Reduce the load to the given level.

Check or change the delivery valves of the fuel


Bad fuel injection and bad atomization
pump and injectors.
Excessive
black Delayed fuel supply and excess post-combustion Adjust the fuel supply advance angle
smok
e Incorrect valve clearance or bad valve sealing Check the valve clearance and valve sealing.

Air filter jammed Clean the air filter element.

Poor fuel quality Use high quality fuel.


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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

7. Sudden stop

Cause Analysis Remedy

Crankshaft and bearing shell locked


Crankshaft is unable Check and change parts.
together
to rotate after
diesel engine
stopped. Pistons and cylinder liners locked Check and change the pistons, piston rings
together and cylinder liners.

Exhaust the air and check the sealing of


Air in fuel system
lines.

Fuel system jammed Clean or change the fuel filter element.


Crankshaft is able to
rotate easily Racks or plungers of injection pump
after diesel Check and repair the injection pump.
jammed.
stopped.
Inlet air pipe or air filter jammed Check and clear the air filter.

Lack of fuel Add fuel.

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Section 3 The engine common failure analysis judgment and eliminate

8. Unusual sounds

Cause Analysis Remedy

Premature fuel injection and rhythmic tinkling knock in


Check and adjust the fuel injecting time.
cylinders

Delayed fuel supply and hollow rapping sound in


Check and adjust the fuel injecting time
cylinders

Excess clearance between valves


and valve arms and metallic beating sound in valve Check and adjust the valve clearance
structures
Check the cylinder liners fit clearance.
excess clearance between pistons and cylinders
Change the pistons and cylinders.
Unusual Excess clearance between the piston
soun pin and small rod connecting bearing, pealing with a Change the connecting rod bushing to satisfy
ds metallic beating sound, especially at high or low the clearance requirement.
speed
Big clearance between connecting rods and
Change the bearings.
muffled raucous beating sound
Excess clearance of main bearing, the sound
Change the main bearings.
resembling the connecting rod beating sound
Piston bumps the valve, tinkling near the cylinder head
Check the valve timing.
at low speed
Excess gear clearance and Check and adjust the gear clearance. Change
bumping sound at sudden deceleration the gears if necessary.
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