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# Fourier Series

And Transforms
Even And Odd Functions

## A function f(x) is said to be even if f(-x) = f(x).

e.g. are all even functions. Graphically an even function is
symmetrical about the y-axis.

## A function f(x) is said to be odd if f(-x) = - f(x).

e.g. are odd functions. Graphically, an odd function is
symmetrical about the origin.
We shall be using the following property of definite
integrals in the next paragraph.
c
c
f (x) dx  2  f (x) dx, when f(x) is an even function

c
0

##  0. when f (x) is an odd function.

Expansions of Even or Odd periodic functions.
We know that a periodic function f(x) defined in (-c, c)
can be represented by the Fourier series

a0  n x  n x
f (x)    an cos   bn sin
2 n 1 c n 1 c
Where
c
1
a0   f (x) dx,
c c
c
1 n x
an   f (x) cos dx,
c c c
c
1 n x
bn   f (x)sin dx,
c c c
CASE-I when f(x) is an even function
c c
1 2
a0   f (x) dx   f (x) dx
c c c0
n x
Since f (x) cos is also an even function.
c
Therefore,
n x n x
c c
1 2
an   f (x) cos dx   f (x) cos dx
c c c c0 c
n x
Again since f (x)sin is an odd function
c
Therefore,
n x
c
1
bn   f (x) sin dx  0
c c c
Hence, if a periodic function f(x) is even, its Fourier
expansion contains only cosine terms,
and

2
c

a0   f (x) dx 
c0 
----------- (1) 
n x 
c
2
an   f (x) cos dx
c0 c 

CASE-II when f(x) is an odd function,
c
1
a0   f (x) dx  0
c c
n x n x
Since cos is an even function, therefore f (x) cos
c c
is an odd function.
Therefore,
n x
c
1
an   f (x) cos dx  0
c c c
n x n x
Again since sin is an odd function, therefore f (x) sin
c c
is an even function,
c
n x
c
1 2 n x
bn   f (x)sin dx   f (x)sin dx
c c c c0 c
Thus, if a periodic function f(x) is odd, its Fourier
expansion contains only sine terms and

n x
c
2
bn   f (x) sin dx ----------------- (2)
c0 c
Example: Express f(x) = x/2 as a Fourier series in

the interval .
Sol:
Since f(-x) = - x/2 = - f(x)
Given function is an odd function and hence

f (x)   bn sin nx
n 1
 
2 2 x
Where bn   f (x)sin nx dx   sin nx dx
 0  02

1
bn   x .sin nx dx
 0

1   cos nx   cos nx  
bn   x     dx 
  n   n  0

1   cos nx  sin nx 
bn   x    2 
  n  n 0
1   cos n( )    cos n
bn     
  n  n
1 1 1
 b1   1, b2  , b3  , etc.
1 2 3
Hence the series is
x 1 1 1
 sin x  sin 2 x  sin 3x  sin 4 x  ........
2 2 3 4
Example: Find a Fourier series to represent in the

interval .
Sol:
Since f(x) = is an even function in ,
a0  n x
f (x)    an cos
2 n 1 l
Then
l 3 l
2 2 2 x 2l 2
a0   x dx  
l 0 l 3 0
3

n x
l
2 2
an   x cos dx
l 0 l
l
 n x n x 
sin sin
2 2 l l 
an   x   2 x. dx 
l n / l n / l 
 0
l
 n x 
sin
2 2 l 2l   cos( n x / l )  cos( n x / l )  
an   x   x.  dx  
l n / l n  n / l n / l 
 0
l
 n x 
sin
2 2 l 2 l   cos( n x / l ) l 2

an   x   x.  2 2 sin(n x / l ) 
l n / l n  n / l n 
 0
 n l 
sin
2 2 l 2 l   cos( n l / l ) l 2

an   l   l.  2 2 sin( n l / l )  
l  n / l n  n / l n 
 
4l  1 2 n

an 
n
2 2

4l 2
l 2
4l 2
 a1  2 , a2  2 , a3  etc.
  9 2

## Substituting these values in (i), we get

l 2 4l 2  cos( x/ l ) cos(2 x/ l ) cos(3 x/ l ) cos(4 x/ l ) 
x   2
2
    ........ 
3   12 22 32 42 