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# TOPIC 1

## Periodic Non-sinusoidal currents in

linear electrical circuits:

## 1.1Trigonometric and Exponential Form of

Fourier Series
The Fourier Series

Joseph Fourier
1768 to 1830

## Fourier studied the mathematical theory of heat

conduction. He established the partial differential
equation governing heat diffusion and solved it by
using infinite series of trigonometric functions.
The Fourier Series
Fourier proposed in 1807
A periodic waveform f(t) could be broken down into an
infinite series of simple sinusoids which, when added
together, would construct the exact form of the original
waveform.

## f (t )  f (t  nT ) ; n  1, 2,  3,

T = Period, the smallest value of T that satisfies the above
Equation.
Trigonometric Form of Fourier Series
The expression for a Fourier Series is
N N
f (t )  a0   an cos n0t   bn sin n 0t
n 1 n 1

## a0 , an , and bn are real and are called 2

and  0 
Fourier Trigonometric Coefficients T
Or, alternative form
N
f (t )  C0   Cn cos( n0t  n )
n 1

## Fourier Series = a finite sum of harmonically related sinusoids

The Fourier Series
N
f (t )  C0   Cn cos( n0t  n )
n 1

## For n = 1 the corresponding sinusoid C1 cos( 0t  1 )

is called the fundamental

## For n = k the corresponding sinusoid Ck cos( k 0t   k )

is called the kth harmonic term
Similarly, 0 is call the fundamental frequency
k0 is called the kth harmonic frequency
The Fourier Series
Definition N 
A Fourier Series is an accurate representation of a
periodic signal and consists of the sum of sinusoids at
the fundamental and harmonic frequencies.

## The waveform f(t) depends on the amplitude and phase

of every harmonic components, and we can generate any
non-sinusoidal waveform by an appropriate combination
of sinusoidal functions.
The Fourier Series
To be described by the Fourier Series the waveform f(t)
must satisfy the following mathematical properties:

## 1. f(t) is a single-value function except at possibly a

finite number of points.
t0 T
2. The integral t0
f (t ) dt   for any t0.

## 3. f(t) has a finite number of discontinuities within

the period T.
4. f(t) has a finite number of maxima and minima
within the period T.
In practice, f(t) = v(t) or i(t) so the above 4 conditions are
always satisfied.
The Fourier Series
Recall from calculus that sinusoids whose frequencies are
integer multiples of some fundamental frequency f0 = 1/T
form an orthogonal set of functions.

2 T 2 nt 2 mt

T 0
sin
T
cos
T
dt  0 ;  n, m
and

2 T 2 nt 2 mt 2 T 2 nt 2 mt

T 0
sin
T
sin
T
dt   cos
T 0 T
cos
T
dt

0 ;n m

1 ; n  m  0
The Fourier Series
The Fourier Trigonometric Coefficients can be obtained
from

1 t0 T
a0   f (t ) dt average value over one period
T t0
2 t0 T
an   f (t ) cos n 0t dt n > 0
T t0
2 t0 T
bn   f (t )sin n 0t dt n > 0
T t0
The Fourier Series
To obtain ak
T T
0
f (t ) cos k0t dt   a0 cos k0t dt
0
N T
   ( an cos n0t  bn sin n0t ) cos k 0t dt
0
n 1

## The only nonzero term is for n = k

T T 

0
f (t ) cos k 0t dt  ak  
2
Similar approach can be used to obtain bk
An Alternative Trigonometric Form of
the Fourier Series
CONT.
f t
Example 1 determine Fourier Series and plot for N = 7
average or DC value
1
a0 
2

1 t0 T
a0   f (t ) dt
T t0
1 T /2 1 T /4 1
  f (t ) dt  T / 4 1dt  2
T T / 2 T
Example 1(cont.)
An even function exhibits symmetry around the vertical axis
at t = 0 so that f(t) = f(-t).
2 t0 T
 bn   f (t )sin n0t dt
T t0
2 T /4
  1 sin n 0t dt  0
T T / 4
Determine only an
2 T /4
an   1 cos n0t dt
T T / 4
2 T /4
 sin n0t |
T  0n T / 4
Example 1(cont.)
1  n    n  
an   sin    sin  
n   2   2 
an  0 when n  2, 4, 6, 
and 2( 1) q
an  when n  1, 3, 5, 
n
(n  1)
where q 
2
1 N
2( 1) q
f (t )    cos n 0t
2 n 1,odd  n
2 2 2 2
a1  , a3  , a5  , a7 
 3 5 7
Symmetry of the Function
Four types
1. Even-function symmetry
2. Odd-function symmetry
3. Half-wave symmetry
4. Quarter-wave symmetry
Even function
f (t )  f ( t ) All bn = 0

4 T /2
an   f (t ) cos n 0t dt
T 0
Symmetry of the Function

Odd function
f (t )   f ( t ) All an = 0
4 T /2
bn 
T  0
f (t )sin n 0t dt

Half-wave symmetry
T
f (t )   f (t  )
2
an and bn = 0 for even values of n and a0 = 0
Symmetry of the Function
Quarter-wave symmetry

## All an = 0 and bn = 0 for even values of n and a0 = 0

8 T /4
bn 
T 0
f (t )sin n0t dt ; for odd n
Symmetry of the Function
For Even & Quarter-wave

## All bn = 0 and an = 0 for even values of n and a0 = 0

8 T /4
an 
T 0
f (t ) cos n0t dt ; for odd n
Example 2 determine Fourier Series and N = ?

f m  4 and T  s
2

 2
T  0   4 rad/s
2 T
To obtain the most advantages form of symmetry,
we choose t1 = 0 s  Odd & Quarter-wave
All an = 0 and bn = 0 for even values of n and a0 = 0
8 T /4
bn 
T 
0
f (t )sin n0t dt ; for odd n
Example 2(cont.)
4
fm 4 fm
f (t )  t t ; 0  t T /4
T /4 T

32 2
 f (t )  t ; 0  t  T /4

8  32  T / 4
bn     t sin n0t dt
T  0
T /4
512  sin n 0t t cos n 0t 
 2  2 2  
  n 0 n 0  0
32 n
 2 2 sin ; for odd n
 n 2
Example 2(cont.)
The Fourier Series is
N
1 n
f (t )  3.24 2 sin sin n0t ; for odd n
n 1 n 2
32
 2

## The first 4 terms (upto and including N = 7)

1 1 1
f (t )  3.24(sin 4t  sin12t  sin 20t  sin 28t )
9 25 49
Next harmonic is for N = 9 which has magnitude
3.24/81 = 0.04 < 2 % of b1 ( = 3.24)
Therefore the first 4 terms (including N = 7) is enough for
the desired approximation
Exponential Form of the Fourier Series
N
f (t )  C0   Cn cos( n0t  n )
n 1
C0 is the average (or DC) value of f(t) and
( an  jbn )
Cn   Cn n
2
where a b 2 2
Cn  C n  n n

2
 1  bn 
 tan   ; if an  0
  an 
and n  
180  tan 1   bn  ; if a  0
   n
  an 
Exponential Form of the Fourier Series
or
an  2Cn cos  n and bn  2Cn sin  n
Writing cos( n 0t   n ) in exponential form using
Euler’s identity with N  
 
f (t )  C0  Ce
n 
n
jn0t
 Ce
n 
n
jn0t

n 0

## where the complex coefficients are defined as

1 t0 T
Cn 
T  t0
f (t )e  jn0t dt  Cn e j n
And Cn  C* n ; the coefficients for negative n are the
complex conjugates of the coefficients for positive n
Exponential Form of the Fourier Series
Definition of Fourier Series in
Exponential Form
Example 3 determine complex Fourier Series
Even function

## The average value of f(t) is zero  C0  0

1 t0 T

 jn0t
Cn  f ( t )e dt
T t0
T
We select t0   and define jn 0  m
2
Example 3(cont.)
1 T /2
Cn   f (t )e  jn0t dt
T T / 2
1 T / 4 1 T /4 1 T /2
   Ae dt  
 mt
Ae dt    Ae  mt dt
 mt

T T / 2 T T / 4 T T /4
A  mt  T / 4  mt T / 4

mT
 e |T / 2  e |T / 4  e |T / 4 
 mt T / 2

A

jn0T
 2 e jn / 2
 2 e  jn / 2
 e  jn
 e jn

0 ; for even n
A  n  
  4sin  2sin( n )    2 A 
2 n  2   sin n ; for odd n
 n 2
sin x n
A where x 
x 2
Example 3(cont.)
Since f(t) is even function, all Cn are real and = 0 for n even

For n = 1
A sin  / 2 2 A
C1    C1
 /2 
For n = 2
sin 
C2  A  0  C2

For n = 3

A sin(3 / 2) 2 A
C3    C3
3 / 2 3
Example 3(cont.)
The complex Fourier Series is
2 A  j 30t 2 A  j0t 2 A j0t 2 A j 30t
f (t )    e  e  e  e 
3   3
2 A j0t 2 A j 30t

 e  e  j0t
 
3
 e  e  j 3 0t
 
 jx
4A 4A e jx
 e  2 cos x
 cos 0t  cos 30t    jx
 3 e jx
 e  2 j sin x
4 A  ( 1) q n 1
 
 n 1 n
cos n0t where q 
2
n odd

## For real f(t)  Cn  C  n

Example 4 determine complex Fourier Series

Even function

Use jn 0  m
1 T /4

 mt
Cn  1e dt
T T / 4

1  mt T / 4
 e |T / 4
 mT
1

 mT
 e  mT / 4
 e  mT / 4

Example 4 (cont.)

1
Cn 
 jn 2
 e  jn / 2
e  jn / 2

0 ; n even, n  0
 ( n 1) / 2
 ( 1) ; n odd

To find C0
1 T
C0   f (t ) dt
T 0
1 T /4 1
  1 dt 
T T / 4 2
Circuits and Fourier Series
It is often desired to determine the response of a circuit
excited by a periodic signal vS(t).
Example 5 An RC Circuit vO(t) = ?
R  1 , C  2 F, T   sec

Example 1

## An RC circuit excited by a periodic voltage vS(t).

Circuits and Fourier Series
Each voltage source
is a term of the
Fourier series of vs(f).

An equivalent circuit.
Example 5
(cont.)

Each
input
is a
Sinusoid.

Using
phasors
to find
responses
to the
sinusoids.
Example 5 (cont.)

1 N
2( 1) q
vs (t )    cos n0t
2 n 1,odd  n
(n  1)
where q 
2
The first 4 terms of vS(t) is 0  2 rad/s
1 2 2 2
vs (t )   cos 2t  cos 6t  cos10t
2 
   3   5   
v (t ) v (t ) v ( t ) v ( t )
s0 s1 s3 s5
The steady state response vO(t) can then be found using
superposition. vo (t )  vo 0 (t )  vo1 (t )  vo 3 (t )  vo 5 (t )
Example 5 (cont.)
The impedance of the capacitor is
1
ZC  ; for n  0,1, 3, 5,
jn0C
We can find
1
jn0C
Von  Vsn ; for n  0,1, 3, 5,
1
R
jn 0C
Vsn

1  jn 
 0CR
4
Example 5 (cont.)
The steady-state response can be written as
von (t )  Von cos( n0t  Von
Vsn
 cos( n0t  Vsn  tan 1 4n )
1  16n 2

## In this example we have

1
Vs 0 
2
2
Vsn  for n  1, 3, 5
n
Vsn  0 for n  0,1, 3, 5
Example 5 (cont.)
1
vo 0 (t ) 
2
2 1
von (t )  cos( n 2t  tan 4n ) ; for n  1,3,5
   n 1  16
2
 n        
vo1 (t )  0.154 cos(2t  76)
vo 3 (t )  0.018cos(6t  85)
vo 5 (t )  0.006cos(10t  87)

1
 vo (t )   0.154 cos(2t  76)  0.018cos(6t  85)
2
 0.006cos(10t  87)
Example 6

1 2 1
vs  t     sin  2k  1t
2  k 1 2k  1

1 2 2 2
vs  t    sin t  sin 3t  sin 5t  ...
2  3 5
EXAMPLE 6(CONT.)

1 2  1
vs  t     sin  2k  1t
2  k 1 2k  1
v0  t   0 
 cos  2k  1t  90 

5
2 1
Vs    90 

 2k  1
j  2k  1  2
   2k  1
EXAMPLE 6(CONT.)

1 2  1
vs  t     sin  2k  1t
2  k 1 2k  1
v0  t   0
2  1 2 2k  1  
cos  2k  1t  tan 
25  4 2k  1   5 
2 2
EXAMPLE 6(CONT.)

1 2 2 2
vs  t    sin t  sin 3t  sin 5t  ...
2  3 5
1
  0.64 sin t  0.21sin 3t  0.13 sin 5t  ...
2

vo  t   0.50 cos t  51.49 

  
 0.21cos 3t  75.14  0.13 cos 5t  80.96  ...
 

AVERAGE POWER AND RMS VALUES
The average power absorbed by a circuit due to a
periodic excitation is obtained by writing the voltage
and current in amplitude-phase form.

## The average power is

AVERAGE POWER (CONT.)
Average power
AVERAGE POWER (CONT.)
Given a periodic function f(t) its rms value is given by
noting that
and substituting we obtain
AVERAGE POWER (CONT.)
EXAMPLE 7