Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

Jikai Deng

Introduction
• This Chapter focuses on solving Equations and
Inequalities

• It will also make use of the work we have done so far


on Quadratic Functions and graphs
Equations and Inequalities
Simultaneous Equations Example
Solve the following Simultaneous
You need to be able to solve Equations by Elimination
Simultaneous Equations by Elimination.
1 2x  3y  8 2x  3y  8
Remember that the 2 equations can 2 3 x  y  23 x3 9 x  3 y  69
also be drawn on a graph, and the
solutions are where they cross.
Add
 However, this method is less 11x  77
accurate when we start needing
decimal/fractional answers. x7
Substitute
GENERAL RULE x in to ‘2’
 If what you’re cancelling have
different signs, add. If they have the 2 3 x  y  23
SAME sign, SUBTRACT!
21  y  23
y  2

3A
Equations and Inequalities
Simultaneous Equations Example
Solve the following Simultaneous
You need to be able to solve Equations by Elimination
Simultaneous Equations by Elimination.
1 4x  5 y  4 x3 12 x  15 y  12
Remember that the 2 equations can 2 6 x  2 y  25 x2 12 x  4 y  50
also be drawn on a graph, and the
solutions are where they cross.
Subtract
 However, this method is less 19 y  38
accurate when we start needing
decimal/fractional answers. y2
Substitute
GENERAL RULE y in to ‘2’
 If what you’re cancelling have
different signs, add. If they have the 2 6 x  2 y  25
SAME sign, SUBTRACT!
6 x  4  25
x  3.5

3A
Equations and Inequalities
Simultaneous Equations Example
Solve the following Simultaneous
You need to be able to solve Equations by Substitution
Simultaneous Equations by Rearrange
Substitution. 1 2x  y  1 y  2x 1
2 4 x  2 y  30
This involves using one equation to Replace the ‘y’ in equation 2, with ‘2x – 1’
write y ‘in terms of x’ or vice versa.
This is then substituted into the other
equation. 2 4 x  2 y  30
Replace y
4x  2(2 x  1)  30
Expand
4 x  4 x  2  30
8 x  2  30
8 x  28
x  3.5
Sub into 1 or 2
y  8
3B
Equations and Inequalities
Simultaneous Equations Example
You will need the substitution Solve the following Simultaneous
method when one of the equations Equations by Substitution
is quadratic. Re-arrange
1 x  2y  3 x  3 2y
You will end up with 0, 1 or 2 2 x 2  3 xy  10
answers as with any Quadratic.
Replace the ‘x’ in equation 2, with ‘3 – 2y’

 This means you will either get 0, 2 x 2  3 xy  10


1 or 2 pairs of answers
(3  2 y ) 2  3 y (3  2 y )  10 Expand
Sub each value for y into Brackets
one of the equations 9  12 y  4 y 2  9 y  6 y 2  10
Simplify
x  2y  3 2 y  3 y  1  0
2
Multiply
y = - 1 /2 y = -1 by -1
x  (1)  3 x  (2)  3 2 y2  3y 1  0
Factorise
x4 x5 (2 y  1)( y  1)  0
1 Solve
x = 4, y = -1/2 x = 5, y = -1 y   or y  1
2 3C
Equations and Inequalities
Simultaneous Equations Example
You will need the substitution Solve the following Simultaneous
method when one of the equations Equations by Substitution
is quadratic. Re-arrange 3x  1
1 3x  2 y  1 y
2 x  y  25
2 2 2
You will end up with 0, 1 or 2
answers as with any Quadratic.
Replace the ‘y’ in equation 2, with ‘ 3x – 1/2’
 This means you will either get 0, 2 x 2  y 2  25
1 or 2 pairs of answers Replace y
2
 3x  1 
x2     25
13x 2  6 x  99  0  2  Square top and
bottom
Factorise separately
(13 x  33)( x  3)  0 9x2  6x  1
x 
2
 25
Solve 4 Multiply each
33 part by 4
x or x  3
13 4 x 2  9 x 2  6 x  1  100 Group on one
side
13 x 2  6 x  99  0
3C
Equations and Inequalities
Simultaneous Equations Example
You will need the substitution Solve the following Simultaneous
method when one of the equations Equations by Substitution
is quadratic. Re-arrange 3x  1
1 3x  2 y  1 y
2 x  y  25
2 2 2
You will end up with 0, 1 or 2
answers as with any Quadratic. 3x  1
y x=3
x= -33
/13 2
 This means you will either get 0,  33 
3  3  1
3  1
1 or 2 pairs of answers y  13  y
2
2

 99  9 1
y
33   1 2
x or x  3 y  13 
13 2
8
y
 112  2
 
y  13 
y4
x = 3, y = 4 2
x /13, y =
= -33
/13
-56

112 56
y y
26 13
3C
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. 2x  5  7
An Inequality will give a range of
possible answers, rather than 2x  5  7
specific values (like an Equation Add 5
would).
2 x  12
You can solve them in the same Divide by 2
way as a Linear Equation. x6
Only difference: When you
multiply or divide by a negative,
you must reverse the sign
>  <

3D
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. 5 x  9  x  20
An Inequality will give a range of
possible answers, rather than 5 x  9  x  20
specific values (like an Equation Subtract x
would).
4 x  9  20
Subtract 9
You can solve them in the same 4 x  11
way as a Linear Equation. Divide by 4
x  2.75
Only difference: When you
multiply or divide by a negative,
you must reverse the sign
>  <

3D
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. 12  3 x  27
An Inequality will give a range of
possible answers, rather than 12  3 x  27
specific values (like an Equation Subtract 12
would).
3 x  15
Divide by 3
You can solve them in the same x  5
way as a Linear Equation. Multiply by -1
x  5 REVERSES THE
Only difference: When you SIGN
multiply or divide by a negative,
you must reverse the sign
>  <

3D
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. 3( x  5)  5  2( x  8)

An Inequality will give a range of


possible answers, rather than 3( x  5)  5  2( x  8) Expand brackets
specific values (like an Equation (careful with
would). negatives)
3 x  15  5  2 x  16
Add 2x and
You can solve them in the same group
way as a Linear Equation. 5 x  15  21
Add 15
Only difference: When you 5 x  36
multiply or divide by a negative, Divide by 5
you must reverse the sign x  7.2
>  <

3D
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. 3x  5  x  8 and 5x  x  8
An Inequality will give a range of
possible answers, rather than Subtract
3x  5  x  8 5x  x  8 Subtract
specific values (like an Equation x x
would). 2x  5  8 4 x  8 Divide
Add 5 by 4
You can solve them in the same
Divide
2 x  13 x  2
way as a Linear Equation. by 2
x  6.5
Only difference: When you
multiply or divide by a negative,
you must reverse the sign
>  < -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x < 6.5
x > -2

2  x  6.5
3D
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. x  5  1 x and 15  3 x  5  2 x
An Inequality will give a range of x  5  1 x 15  3x  5  2 x
possible answers, rather than Add x Add 3x
specific values (like an Equation 2x  5  1 15  5  5x
would).
Add 5 Minus 5

You can solve them in the same


2x  6 10  5x
Divide Divide
way as a Linear Equation. by 2 by 5
x3 2x
Only difference: When you
multiply or divide by a negative,
you must reverse the sign
>  < -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
x>3
x<2

No answers that work for both…


3D
Equations and Inequalities
Solving Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
You need to be able to solve which:
Linear Inequalities, sometimes
more than one together. 4x  7  3 and 17  11  2x
An Inequality will give a range of
Subtract
4x  7  3 17  11  2x Subtract
possible answers, rather than 7 11
specific values (like an Equation 4 x  4 6  2x
would). Divide by Divide
4 by 2
You can solve them in the same
x  1 3 x
way as a Linear Equation.

Only difference: When you


multiply or divide by a negative, -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
you must reverse the sign x > -1
>  < x>3

x3
3D
Equations and Inequalities
Quadratic Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
To solve a Quadratic Inequality, which:
you need to:
1) Solve the Quadratic Equation x2  4 x  5  0
2) Sketch a graph of the Equation
3) Decide which is the required set x2  4x  5  0
of values Factorise
( x  1)( x  5)  0
 Remember that the solutions x  1 or x  5
are where the graph crosses the x-
axis y
 The graph will be u-shaped.
Where it crosses the y-axis does
not matter for this topic
 Then think about which area
satisfies the original inequality
x
-1 5

1  x  5 We want values below 0


3E
Equations and Inequalities
Quadratic Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
To solve a Quadratic Inequality, which:
you need to:
1) Solve the Quadratic Equation x2  4 x  5  0
2) Sketch a graph of the Equation
3) Decide which is the required set x2  4x  5  0
of values Factorise
( x  1)( x  5)  0
 Remember that the solutions x  1 or x  5
are where the graph crosses the x-
axis y Separate
 The graph will be u-shaped. sections mean
Where it crosses the y-axis does separate
not matter for this topic inequalities
 Then think about which area
satisfies the original inequality
x
-1 5

x  1 or x  5 We want values above 0


3E
Equations and Inequalities
Quadratic Inequalities Example
Find the set of values of x for
To solve a Quadratic Inequality, which:
you need to:
1) Solve the Quadratic Equation 3  5x  2 x2  0
2) Sketch a graph of the Equation
3) Decide which is the required set 3  5x  2 x2  0
Multiply by
of values
2 x2  5x  3  0 -1
Factorise
(2 x  1)( x  3)  0
 Remember that the solutions
are where the graph crosses the x- x  0.5 or x  3
axis y
 The graph will be n-shaped,
looking at the original equation
 Then think about which area
satisfies the original inequality
x
-3 0.5
x  3 or x  0.5
We want values below 0
3E
Summary
• We have looked at solving Simultaneous Equations,
including Quadratics

• We have seen how to solve Inequalities

• We have seen how to use graphs to solve Quadratic


Inequalities