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Community Organizing

Participatory Action
Alain Julius V. Camasura, R.N.
Clinical Instructor
Approaches to Community

• Welfare approach
• Modernization approach
• Transformatory/Participatory approach
• Social development approach that aims to transform the
apathetic, individualistic, and voiceless poor into
dynamic, participatory and political responsive

• Collective, participatory, transformative, liberative,

sustained and systematic process of building people’s
organization by mobilizing and enhancing the capabilities
and resources of the people for the resolution of their
issues of concerns towards effecting change in their
existing oppressive and exploitative conditions (1994
National Rural Conference)
Criteria in Initial Site Selection:
P – Poor

D – Depressed

O – Oppressed

M – Marginalized

E - Exploited
Importance of COPAR
• Important tool for community development
and people empowerment

• It prepares people to eventually take over

the management of a development
program in the future

• It maximizes community participation and

Processes/Methods Used
• A progressive cycle of Action Reflection
Action Session (ARAS)
• Consciousness-Raising.
• Group-centered and not leader-oriented
Principles of COPAR
• People especially the most oppressed, exploited
and deprived sectors are open to change, have
the capacity to change and are able to bring
about the change

• COPAR should be based on the interests of the

poorest sectors of society

• COPAR should lead to a SELF RELIANT

Phases/COPAR process
• Pre entry
• Entry
• Research phase (Community Diagnosis)
• Organizational Building
• Community action Phase
• Sustenance and
• Initial phase of organizing process where
the community organizer (CO) looks for
communities to serve/help

• The simplest phase in terms of actual

output, activities and strategies and time
• Designing a plan for community
• Designing criteria for selection of site
• Actual selection of site for community care
• Preliminary social investigation (PSI)
networking with local government units
(LGU’s), Non-government Organizations
(NGO’s) and Health resources
Development Programs (HRDP)
• Formulate institutional goals, objectives
and targets for the program
• Revision of the curriculum
• Train the faculty in CO-PAR
Pre- entry phase (Community
• Conduct Preliminary Social Investigation or PSI
• Do initial networking/consultation
• General secondary data
• Make long/short list of potential communities
• Conduct ocular survey of shortlisted community
• Interview barangay officials
Pre- entry phase (Community
• Identify project site/alternative
• Coordinate with LGU’s for assistance
• Develop community profile from secondary data
• Develop survey tools
• Orient/train students/staff on baseline data
• Pay courtesy call to community leaders
• Conduct community assembly
• Conduct baseline survey
• Identify/develop materials for information
• Conduct staff planning/strategizing for
entry phase
Entry phase
• Social preparation phase
– Integration
– Sensitization
– Motivating
– Mobilizing
• Core group (CG) formation
• Development of criteria for selection of core group
• Define roles/tasks/functions of CG
• Deliver essential basic health services
• Continuing social investigation
• Conduct a team building Activities
• Present baseline survey results to the community
• Conduct Self Awareness leadership Training (SALT)
• Consult community to organize
– Community health Organization
– Community Research team
Research Phase (Community
• Clarify the research issues
• Identify the data needed
• Identify the sources of the information
• Identify the research that are appropriate
• Formulate the research tool
• Pre-test the tool
• Collect data
• Tabulate the data
• Analyze/Interpret the primary data
• Prioritize the problems
• Recommends programs based on the problems identified
• Prepare for the research validation
Organization-building phase
• Election of officers, delineation of roles,
functions, tasks
• Develop management procedures and
• Working out legal requirements for
establishment of organization.
Community Action Phase
• Organization and training of community health workers
– Development of criteria for selection of CHW
– Selection and training
• Setting up linkages/network referral system
• Community development projects
• Initial identification and implementation of resources
• Consolidate community diagnosis and PAR results
• Formulate community health plan
• Link with LGU’s for financing and technical assistance
• Implement/monitor/evaluate health projects
Sustenance and Strengthening
• Occurs when the community organization
has already been established and the
community members are already actively
participating in community-wide
• Set-up committees
• Formulation and ratification of constitution and
by laws
• Identification, development of secondary leaders
• Set up financing scheme for community health
• Formalize and institutionalize linkages,
networks, referral systems
• Continuing education of community leaders,
CHW’s and residents (household level)
• Development of medium/long term health and
development plans
Types of community diagnosis
• Comprehensive
• Problem-oriented
Comprehensive Community
• Demographic variables
• Socio-economic and cultural variables
• Health and Illness Patterns
• Health resources
• Political/leadership patterns
Problem-Oriented Community
• A type of assessment that responds to a
particular needs
Community Diagnosis: The
• Collecting
• Organizing
• Synthesizing
• Analyzing
• Interpreting health data
Steps in conducting community
• Determining the objectives
• Defining the study population
• Determining the data to be collected
• Collecting the data
• Develop the instrument
• Actual data gathering
• Data collation
• Data analysis/interpretation/recommendation
• Data presentation
• Identifying the community health nursing problems
• Priority setting
Categories of community nursing
• Health status problems
• Health resources problems
• Health-related problems
Presentation of the Data
• Chapter I - Introduction
 Background of the study
 Purpose of the study
 Spot map
 Significance of the study
 Scope and Delimitation

• Chapter II – Methodology
 Data Collection procedure
 Sampling design
 Research design
Chapter III – Presentation, Analysis and
Interpretation of Data
– Line or curve graphs
– Bar graphs
– Area diagrams/Pie graphs

Chapter IV – Findings, Conclusion and

 Bibliography
 Appendices
Basic Training of Student Trainors
I. Concept of Training and Learning
II. Training Methodologies and Techniques
III. Criteria for choosing training methods
IV. Inductive and Deductive methods
learning experience
V. Steps in Facilitation
VI. Communication
VII. Designing effective training programs
Outline for Trainors’ Training
I. Identify the vision of the community
II. Presentation of the National and Local
Health Situation
III. Concept of health and illness
IV. Problems identification
VI. Community assembly
VII. Documentation
Self Awareness and Leadership
Training (SALT)
• Set Objectives
Session I. Concept of man
A.Activity: Human name
B.Input: Concept of man
C.Activity: Photo language
Self Awareness and Leadership
Training (SALT)
Session II. Introduction
• Ice breaker
• Topic: National/Local health situation
• Activity: Games of Why’s
• Topic: Communication
• Activity: Monk’s meal
• Topic: Community Organization
• Activity: Mystery Box
• Topic: Vision-Mission
• Activity: Workshop on Vision-Mission
• Topic: Leadership
• Activity: Build a tower
• Input: Define leadership, characteristics of the leader, kinds of the leader
• Evaluation: Role play
Flow of ARAS
Action Reflection in Faith Action

Experience Gospel reading

Church Teaching Response

Message meaning Decision

CALLS Action
Basic Health Skills Training
• Session I
A.Set objectives
B.Leveling of expectation
C.Activity: Games of Why
D.Input: Local/national situation
F.Input: Primary health care
G.Input: Concept of Health and Illness
Basic Health Skills Training
• Session II
A.Input: Factors Affecting Health and Illness
B.Input: Anatomy and Physiology

• Session III
A.Input: Vital signs
B.Activity: Demonstrate and Return
Basic Health Skills Training
• Session IV
A. Input: Physical Assessment
B. Activity: Demonstrate and Return Demonstration

• Session V
A. Input: Common diseases occurring in the community
B. Activity: Return Demonstration
• Session VI
A. Input: Maternal and Child Care
Project Management Training
• Set objectives
Session I. Management
Session II. Decision making
Session III. Financial management
Session IV. Monitoring and evaluation
Session V. Project Proposal
Specialized health Skills Training

• Set objectives
Session I. Home Delivery
Session II. Traditional/Alternative
Advanced Health Skills Training
• Set objectives
Session I. Physical assessment
Session II. First Aid
Session III. First Aid measure
Session IV. High risks mothers and
Session V. Common abnormalities