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DEEP LEARNING FOR

BUSINESS
APPLICATIONS
Delivered by

Dr. Pratyush Banerjee


Assistant Professor, T.A. Pai Management Institute,
Manipal, Karnataka
FLOW OF PRESENTATION

OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS
OVERVIEW OF
DEEP CASES OF DEEP
AI
LEARNING LEARNING
• Basic Architecture of • Fundamentals of Deep • Applications in
ANN Learning Industry
• Connection with Deep • Types of Deep • Capability
learning Learning Algorithms requirement for
execution
THE PROGRESS OF AI

Source: IBM Watson Research


 AI basically stands for the discipline of
training a machine (computer programs /
algorithms) to mimic a human brain and it’s
thinking capabilities
 Termed by John McCarthy, an American
computer scientist, in 1956
Definition of AI  AI focuses on 3 major aspects: learning,
reasoning and self-correction to obtain
maximum possible efficiency
 AI mimics the neural network mechanism of
human brain
 The brain functions by passing electro magnetic impulses across a
vast network of neurons
 A neural network can be defined as a model of reasoning based
on the human brain. The brain consists of a densely
interconnected set of nerve cells, or basic information-processing
units, called neurons.
How the brain  The human brain incorporates nearly 10 billion neurons and 60

works trillion connections, synapses, between them. By using multiple


neurons simultaneously, the brain can perform its functions much
faster than the fastest computers in existence today.
 Each neuron has a very simple structure, but an army of such
elements constitutes a tremendous processing power.
 A neuron consists of a cell body, soma, a number of fibers called
dendrites, and a single long fiber called the axon.
Anatomy of a single biological neural
network

Axon hillock
 An artificial neural network consists of a number of
very simple processors, also called neurons, which
are analogous to the biological neurons in the brain.
 The neurons are connected by weighted links
Artificial Neural passing signals from one neuron to another.

Networks  The output signal is transmitted through the


neuron’s outgoing connection. The outgoing
connection splits into a number of branches that
transmit the same signal. The outgoing branches
terminate at the incoming connections of other
neurons in the network.
Architecture of a simple ANN

O u t p u ti g Sn a l s
I n p u t i gS n a l s

Middle Layer
Input Layer Output Layer
Analogy between biological and
artificial neural networks
The neuron as a simple computing element

Input Signals Weights Output Signals

x1
Y
w1
x2
w2
Neuron Y Y

wn
Y
xn
Types Of Artificial Intelligence
 Artificial Narrow Intelligence - Also known as Weak AI, ANI is the stage of Artificial
Intelligence involving machines that can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific
tasks. At this stage, the machine does not possess any thinking ability, it just performs a
set of pre-defined functions.
Eg:  All existing applications of AI
 Artificial General Intelligence - Also known as Strong AI, AGI is the stage in the
evolution of Artificial Intelligence wherein machines will possess the ability to think
and make decisions just like us humans.
Eg: Near future applications such as autonomous robots
 Artificial Super Intelligence - Artificial Super Intelligence is the stage of Artificial
Intelligence when the capability of computers will surpass human beings. ASI is
currently a hypothetical situation as depicted in movies and science fiction books,
where machines have taken over the world.
Applications of AI

 Google’s Self-driving car


 Alexa/Siri like digital assistants
 Real time face recognition at airports
 Amazon/Netflix recommendation algorithms
 AI composers/artists (we can create a Shakespearean text by making the AI learn
about patterns of Shakespeare’s published works)
TYPES OF AI

Based on the functionality of AI-based systems, AI can be categorized into the following
types:
 Reactive Machines AI – IBM Watson, Google’s Deep Mind, Deep Blue Computer,
AlphaGo
 Limited Memory AI- Self driving cars
 Theory Of Mind AI – AI based emotion recognition
 Self-aware AI- Still at a hypothetical stage
HOW DOES AN AI LEARN?
 ANN is modeled using layers of artificial neurons to receive input and apply an
activation function along with a human set threshold to process the input to get the
desired output.
The processing of an ANN
 The backpropagation learning algorithm
procedure:
1. Initializes weights with random values and set
other network parameters for the input
The learning variables
technique - 2. Compute the actual output (by working
forward through the layers)
Backpropagation
3. Compute the error (difference between the
(BP) actual and desired output)
4. Change the weights by working backward
through the hidden layers
5. Repeat steps 2-5 until weights stabilize
How Back Propagation takes place

a(Z
a (Zi – Yi)
x1 error
w1

x2 w2 Neuron (or PE) f (S )


. S  
n
X iW i
Y  f (S ) Yi
. i 1

. Summation
Transfer
Function
wn
xn
17
TYPES OF MACHINE
LEARNING
Supervised learning
 Involves an output label (target variable) associated with each
instance in the dataset
 This output can be discrete/categorical (Yes, No, True, False, Success,
Failure, Jaguar, Ford, Mustang, STOP sign, spam/ham etc)
 Can also be continuous / real number (Satisfaction score, revenue,
TRP Rating, BMI)
 It involves a human supervisor that is more knowledgeable than the
ML Algorithm itself who dictates how the ML algorithm learns about
hidden patterns in the raw data
Training the Model

 While training the model, data is usually split in the ratio of 80:20 i.e. 80% as
training data and rest as testing data. In training data, we feed input as well as output
for 80% data.
 The model learns from training data only. By learning, it means that the model will
build some logic of its own.
 Once the model is ready then it is good to be tested. At the time of testing, the input
is fed from the remaining 20% data which the model has never seen before.
 The model will predict some value using the test data and we can compare it with
actual output and calculate the accuracy.
Types of Supervised Learning
Clustering: A clustering problem is

Types of where you want to discover the inherent


groupings in the data, such as grouping
customers by purchasing behavior.
Unsupervised
learning
algorithms Association: An association rule
learning problem is where you want to
discover rules that describe large
portions of your data, such as people that
buy X also tend to buy Y.
How AI, ML and Deep Learning are related?
WHO IS PLAYING WHOM?
THE EVOLUTION OF AI
COMPLEXITY
WHAT IS DEEP LEARNING?
 Deep Learning is an approach to Machine Learning which involves Artificial
Neural Networks to work with the data.
 Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms in the form of a neural
network that uses a cascade of layers (tiers) of processing units to extract features
from data and make predictive guesses about new data
 The data is classified according to how it’s scored, or the answers received by the
logic network.
DEEP / REINFORCEMENT
LEARNING

 In case of reinforcement / deep learning, instead of telling the model whether it has
got the right prediction, we reward the model with some positive signs or through
some negative signs depending on what the model predicts.
 Very quickly after a few iterations the model learns to predict the correct outcome
through this type of trial and error process.
 This is called reinforcement learning where the models are trained by receiving
virtual “rewards” or “punishments”.
Why reinforcement learning is also known as
deep learning?
Reinforcement learning models are also known as
Deep-learning networks as these are distinguished from
the more general single-hidden-layer neural networks
by their depth.
Here by Depth, we mean the number of node layers
where there are more than one hidden layers thus need
for more computation power for forward/backward
optimization while training, testing and eventually
running these ANNs.
A typical DEEP LEARNING NEURAL
NETWORK compared to a simple ANN
 CNNs are deep artificial neural networks that are
used primarily to classify images (e.g. label what

Convolutional they see), cluster them by similarity (photo search),


and perform object recognition within scenes.

neural  These are algorithms that can identify faces,


individuals, street signs, tumors, flowers and many
networks other aspects of visual data. Self driving cars or
drones will increasing use CNN capabilities.
(CNN)  Technically, deep learning CNN process the input
data by passing the data through a series of
convolution layers with filters
CNN
applications
for self
driving cars
A typical CNN architecture of a self-driving
car
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

Source: Georges Seurat, Un dimanche après-midi à l'Île de la Grande Jatte, 1884-1886;


http://web.cs.hacettepe.edu.tr/~aykut/classes/spring2016/bil722; Google DeepDream uses algorithmic
pareidolia (seeing an image when none is present) to create a dream-like hallucinogenic appearance
 Sometimes used interchangeably, recursive neural network is just a
generalization of a recurrent network while having the same
acronym. An RNN simply uses previous input sources within the
calculations.

Recursive  Say you are analyzing hand-writing, you can predict words and
future letters much better if you remember the previous letters.
(Recurrent) Another way to think about RNNs is that they have a “memory”
which captures information about what has been calculated so far.
Neural  RNN can remember the former inputs, which gives them a big edge
over other artificial neural networks when it comes to sequential
Networks time series data and context-sensitive tasks such as speech
recognition .
(RNN)  RNNs are considered maybe the most powerful model for NLP.
RNNs are also used for language translations, composing music,
writing novels, Wikipedia articles or Shakespearean poems, write AI
tweets… You can train it to write machine generated Obama
speeches or compose non-existent “Beatles” songs.
A TYPICAL RNN ARCHITECTURE
Handwriting recognition with RNN
APPLICATIONS IN MEDICAL
TREATMENT
THE NEXT WAVE – SMART
NETWORKS
 Smart networks are computing networks with intelligence built in such that
identification and transfer is performed by the network itself through protocols that
automatically identify (deep learning), validate, confirm, and route transactions
(blockchain) within the network
 Smart Networks are based on two core fundamentals:
- Deep Learning algorithms for predictive identification
- Blockchains to transfer value, confirm authenticity
DEEP LEARNING BLOCK CHAIN
NETWORKS
 Deep Learning Blockchain Network combines Deep Learning and Blockchain
Technology, where Blockchain offers secure audit ledger of activity
 Applications include larger-scale problems such as Genomic disease, protein
modelling, energy storage, global financial risk assessment, voting, astronomical
data
TAXONOMY OF AI ALGORITHMS
DEEP LEARNING FRAMEWORKS