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Bi-Directional End Point

Information Systems
Tom Berry
 This presentation is based on
information from Hunt
Technologies, Minnesota

 Hosted a recent IEC Working

Group meeting on information
exchange standards
 Background
 End-point Information
 What, why
 The communication system
 How to get the data
 Information exchange standards
 How to move it to other systems
 Original work sponsored by National Rural Electric Cooperative
Association (USA)
 US Cooperatives are owned by its customers - typically 30-40 000
 Monthly meter readings
 traditionally “self-read” or estimated
 Typically radial networks
 not many switched circuits
 Benefits of AMR
 Lower cost meter reads
 Improved customer service
 Enhanced information for the utility
 Company A. Line loss reduced by 0.75% = payback in 3.3 years
 Company B. Avoid estimates, or $20 meter reading costs
 Company C. Meter reading costs
 Without AMR $2.20 to $3.60 per read per month
 With AMR $1.00 per read over 5 years
 Improved customer satisfaction
– Opportunities for other services e.g security, cell-phones
 Diversification into installation & testing expertise
– E.g. Water billing
 Company D
 Site visits 10 per month reduced to 4 per year
Communication System - Major Components
End point information (1)
 1 packet per day
 Meter identifier
 kWh
 Reduce billing disputes, reach hard to read meters, deter tampering, etc.
 Time series data for monthly profiles.
 Meter reading when customers move.
 Min, max demand + times
 Improve system design
–E.g. Load balancing, transformer sizing, line losses, power quality
 Loss of power = loss of signal
 Faster outage management
–before weekend users call-in
 Power failure counts
 Help trace transient faults
End point Information (2)
 End of Line Voltage Monitor
 Min, Max, average voltage
 Momentary outage count
 Multiple channels
 8 Data packets per day
 A circuit board installed into
standard meters
 Measures kWh, min, max
demand, power failure
 Data is time-stamped and
transmitted on the power
Power Line Carrier for Meter Reading
 Classification of technologies
 Telephone, Radio, Power Line Carrier
 Power Line Carrier
 Used on transmission lines for voice and control
– lines are long, simple and controlled
 PLC on Distribution lines
 High frequency (100kHz) transmission has problems with reflections
from circuit discontinuities
– e.g branches, transformers, underground/overhead junctions,
capacitor banks, loads.
 Hence lower frequencies used e.g 10kHz
 Ripple control at 100Hz successfully used for peak load management.
Power Line Carrier (2)
 Lower frequency = larger transmitters = more cost
 => ripple technology used for one-way broadcast from substation to
many receivers.
 Good for load management, not for meters
 Variation of ripple is sequential waveform distortion
 Transceivers create current spikes
 Allows meter readers to be polled by central equipment
Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) communication
 “Slower is better”
 Low frequency power line carrier
 Does not need repeaters or line conditioning
 Not significantly affected by transformers and capacitor banks
 Frequency division multiplexing
 Simultaneous transmission on multiple frequencies.
 14-28 hours per packet (60Hz systems)
 16-33 hours per packet (50Hz systems)
 Typically 5 minutes to detect an outage (loss of signal)
Substation Receiver
 A data collection device
 Digital Signal Processing to decode data packets
 Installed at substation supplying less than 10MW.
 Range at least 160 miles
 2800 channels, 30 packet storage
 Dial-up or Ethernet connection from Utility office
Utility Office

 Host computer with configuration database

 Records Meter identifier, connected phase, circuit etc
 Integration with other systems
 Billing Systems
 Geographic Information Systems
 Asset/Facility Management

 Currently product based on MultiSpeak data model.

 Participating in development of IEC 61968
 System Interfaces for Distribution Management
Bi-directional Information
 Each transceiver has a unique frequency

 All end-points can simultaneously transmit & receive

 Allows tracking of configuration changes due to switching

 Other applications
 Configuration changes can be downloaded
 E.g change time-of-use tariff say 4 times per day
Information Exchange Standards
 MultiSpeak
 IEC 61968
 Other IEC standards and reports
Coop perspective on Integration Needs:
IEC 61968: System Interfaces for
Utility Control
Distribution Management

Network Utility
Customer Business
Planning Systems
(ERP, Billing,
Energy trading,
Meter other systems)
Reading &
Network IEC 61968 Control
Distribution Automation Operation Compliant Corporate
Interface LAN

Records Operational
& Asset Planning &
Management Maintenance Optimization
Substation Protection, &
Monitoring and Control

RTU Communications
IEC TC57 Reference Architecture

Control centre

Protection -101 S 61970
Substation EMS
61850 C
Automation Application
Metering 61850 A
Remote A
61968 DMS

Unit Subsystem

Device Substation Control Centre
Relevant IEC Standards

 Technical Committee 57
 Power system control and associated communications
 Published
 IEC 60870 Telecontrol equipment and systems
 IEC 61334 Distribution Automation using Power Line Carrier
 TR 62195 Deregulated energy market communications
– confirmed EDIFACT as a recommended standard for business transactions
 In progress
 IEC 61850 Communication networks and systems in substations
 IEC 61968 System Interfaces for Distribution Management
 IEC 61970 Energy Management Systems Application Program Interfaces
 (no number) Security for power systems control
 .