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Term 182

College of Engineering

University of Hafr Al Batin

MOMENT OF A FORCE (SCALAR FORMULATION), CROSS

PRODUCT, MOMENT OF A FORCE (VECTOR FORMULATION),

& PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS

Today’s Objectives :

a) To understand and define moment, and,

b) To determine moments of a force in 2-D and 3-

D cases.

READING QUIZ

F = 12 N

1. What is the moment of the 12 N force

about point A (MA)?

A) 3 N·m B) 36 N·m C) 12 N·m

d=3m

D) (12/3) N·m E) 7 N·m • A

is defined as MO = ___________ .

A) r x F B) F x r

C) r • F D) r * F

APPLICATIONS

to know what the effect of the force on the beam will

have on the supports of the beam.

What do you think is happening at points A and B?

APPLICATIONS (continued)

nail. Through what sort of action does the force FH at the

handle pull the nail? How can you mathematically model

the effect of force FH at point O?

MOMENT OF A FORCE - SCALAR FORMULATION

(Section 4.1)

tendency for rotation (sometimes called a torque).

MOMENT OF A FORCE - SCALAR FORMULATION

(continued)

In a 2-D case, the magnitude of the moment is Mo = F d

line of action of the force.

counter-clockwise (CCW), depending on the tendency for

rotation.

MOMENT OF A FORCE - SCALAR FORMULATION

(continued)

a F

For example, MO = F d and the

b direction is counter-clockwise.

O

d

Fy F

Often it is easier to determine Fx

MO by using the components of b a

F as shown. O

Then MO = (FY a) – (FX b). Note the different signs on the terms!

The typical sign convention for a moment in 2-D is that counter-

clockwise is considered positive. We can determine the direction

of rotation by imagining the body pinned at O and deciding which

way the body would rotate because of the force.

VECTOR CROSS PRODUCT (Section 4.2)

you know the perpendicular distance d. However, in 3-D

getting perpendicular distances can be hard..

exists. This more general approach is usually used when

dealing with 3D forces though can be used in the 2D case as

well.

This more general method of finding the moment of a force uses

a vector operation called the cross product of two vectors.

CROSS PRODUCT (Section 4.2)

Magnitude

Sense

(from A towards B)

Direction

another vector, C , i.e., C = A B. The magnitude and

direction of the resulting vector can be written as

C = A B = A B sin uC

As shown, uC is the unit vector perpendicular to both A and B

vectors (or to the plane containing the A and B vectors).

LAWS OF OPERATION OF CROSS PRODUCT

1. The Commutative Law

A B B A, because direction of A × B is not

same as the direction of B × A, as shown below:

Therefore, A B = −B A

A (B + D) = (A B) + (A D)

3. Multiplication by a Scalar, a

a(A B) = (aA) B = A (aB) = (A B)a

CROSS PRODUCT (continued)

The right-hand rule is a useful tool for determining the

direction of the vector resulting from a cross product.

For example: i j = k

Note that a vector crossed into itself is zero, e.g., i i = 0

as follows:

i j = k i k = -j ii=0

j k = i j i = -k jj=0

k i = j k j = -i kk=0

CROSS PRODUCT (continued)

Also, the cross product can be written as a determinant.

MOMENT OF A FORCE – VECTOR FORMULATION

(Section 4.3)

but it can be difficult and time consuming. Thus, it is often easier

to use a mathematical approach called the vector cross product.

Using the vector cross product, MO = r F.

Here r is the position vector from point O to any point on the line

of action of F.

MOMENT OF A FORCE – VECTOR FORMULATION

(continued)

So, using the cross product, a

moment can be expressed as

Section 4.2), we get (sample units are N - m or lb - ft)

MO = (ry FZ - rZ Fy) i (rx Fz - rz Fx ) j + (rx Fy - ry Fx ) k

considering the force components separately and using a 2-D

formulation.

MOMENT OF A FORCE ABOUT A POINT:

VECTOR FORMULATION

Referring to the following figure, the magnitude, direction and sense of

the moment MO may be explained as follows:

Direction of the moment M O will be the

Magnitude: about axis perpendicular to the plane of

M O rF sin θ F (r sin ) Fd the force and position vector, as shown

in the above figure.

Sense:

Using the right-hand rule, the sense of the moment MO will be

“counterclockwise”, as shown in the above figure.

RESULTANT MOMENT OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES

Let us consider forces F1, F2, F3, ------ positioned with the help of

position vectors r1, r2, r3-------- from a point O, as shown in the following

figure:

algebraic sum of the cross-products of the position vectors and forces,

as given below:

M R O (r F )

PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS OR VARIGNON’S THEOREM

The principle of moments or Varignon’s theorem states that “the

moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of moments of the

force’s components about the point”.

Let us consider a force F positioned with the help of position vector r

from a point O, as shown in the following figure:

The moment of the force about point O, MO may be taken as the sum of

the moments of the components of the force F 1 and F2, as given below:

MO = r F1 + r F2 = r (F1 + F2) = r F

EXAMPLE I

Given: A 100 N force is

applied to the frame.

Find: The moment of the

force at point O.

Plan:

2) Determine MO using a scalar analysis for the two

force components and then add those two moments

together..

EXAMPLE I (continued)

Solution

+ Fy = – 100 (3/5) N

+ Fx = 100 (4/5) N

+ MO = {– 100 (3/5)N (5 m) – (100)(4/5)N (2 m)} N·m

= – 460 N·m or 460 N·m CW

EXAMPLE II

Given: F1={100 i - 120 j + 75 k}kN

F2={-200 i +250 j + 100 k}kN

o

Find: Resultant moment by the

forces about point O.

Plan:

1) Find F = F1 + F2 and rOA.

2) Determine MO = rOA F .

EXAMPLE II (continued)

Solution:

First, find the resultant force vector F

F = F1 + F2

= { (100 - 200) i + (-120 + 250) j + (75 + 100) k} kN

= {-100 i +130 j + 175 k} kN

Find the position vector rOA

rOA = {4 i + 5 j + 3 k} m

i j k

MO = 4 5 3 = [{5(175) – 3(130)} i – {4(175) –

- -100 130 175 3(-100)} j + {4(130) – 5(-100)} k] kNm

= {485 i – 1000 j + 1020 k} kN.m

CONCEPT QUIZ

1. If a force of magnitude F can be applied in four different 2-D

configurations (P,Q,R, & S), select the cases resulting in the

maximum and minimum torque values on the nut. (Max, Min).

A) (Q, P) B) (R, S)

S

C) (P, R) D) (Q, S)

R

P Q

A) 0 B) 1

C) r 2 F D) None of the above.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

y Given: A 20 lb force is applied

x to the hammer.

Find: The moment of the

force at A.

Plan:

1) Resolve the 20 lb force

along the handle’s x and y

axes.

2) Determine MA using a

scalar analysis.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

y

x Solution:

+ Fy = 20 sin 30° lb

+ Fx = 20 cos 30° lb

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

shown.

Find: Moment of F about

point A

Plan:

2) Determine MA = rAC F

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

Solution:

F ={ (80 cos30) sin 40 i

+ (80 cos30) cos 40 j 80 sin30 k} N

={44.53 i + 53.07 j 40 k } N

i j k

MA = 0.55 0.4 0.2

44.53 53.07 40

= { -5.39 i + 13.1 j +11.4 k } N·m

ATTENTION QUIZ

10 N 5N

3m P 2m

two forces about point P is

A) 10 N ·m B) 20 N ·m C) - 20 N ·m

D) 40 N ·m E) - 40 N ·m

r x F equals { _______ } N·m.

A) 50 i B) 50 j C) –50 i

D) – 50 j E) 0

RECOMMENDED PROBLEMS

(SECTION 4.1 - 4.4)

4-8

4-9

4-13

4-23

4-29

4-31

CE 201: Statics

Term 182

Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of

Engineering

UHB

MOMENT ABOUT AN AXIS

Today’s Objectives:

Students will be able to determine the moment of a force about

an axis using

a) scalar analysis, and, In-Class Activities:

b) vector analysis. • Check Homework

• Reading Quiz

• Applications

• Scalar Analysis

• Vector Analysis

• Concept Quiz

• Group Problem Solving

• Attention Quiz

READING QUIZ

1. When determining the moment of a force about a specified

axis, the axis must be along _____________.

A) the x axis B) the y axis C) the z axis

D) any line in 3-D space E) any line in the x-y plane

A) a scalar quantity ( + or - ). B) a vector quantity.

C) zero. D) a unit vector.

E) an imaginary number.

APPLICATIONS

flex-handle socket wrench. Does all of MA act to turn the

socket? How would you calculate an answer to this question?

APPLICATIONS

moment of 125 N·m about the x-axis. How would you

determine the maximum magnitude of F before turning

about the x-axis occurs?

SCALAR ANALYSIS

any point O is MO= F dO where dO is the

perpendicular (or shortest) distance from the

point to the force’s line of action. This concept

can be extended to find the moment of a force

about an axis.

help answer the types of questions we just

considered.

SCALAR ANALYSIS

My= Fz (dx) = F (r cos θ). However, unless the force can

easily be broken into components and the “dx” found quickly,

such calculations are not always trivial and vector analysis

may be much easier (and less likely to produce errors).

VECTOR ANALYSIS

Our goal is to find the moment of F

(the tendency to rotate the body)

about the a-axis.

about any arbitrary point O that lies

on the a’- a axis using the cross

product.

MO = r F

Now, find the component of MO along the a-axis using the dot

product.

Ma’-a = ua • MO

VECTOR ANALYSIS (continued)

triple scalar product.

In this equation,

ua represents the unit vector along the a-axis,

r is the position vector from any point on the a-axis to any

point A on the line of action of the force, and

F is the force vector.

EXAMPLE

Given: A force is applied to

A the tool as shown.

Find: The magnitude of the

B

moment of this force about

the x axis of the value.

Plan:

1) Use Mx = u • (r F).

2) First, find F in Cartesian vector form.

3) Note that u = 1 i in this case.

4) The vector r is the position vector from O to A.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

u=1i

rOA = {0 i + 0.3 j + 0.25 k} m

F = 200 (cos 120 i + cos 60 j

+ cos 45 k) N

= {-100 i + 100 j + 141.4 k} N

Now find Mx = u • (rAB F)

1 0 0

Mx = 0 0.3 0.25 = 1{0.3 (141.4) – 0.25 (100) } N·m

-100 100 141.4

CONCEPT QUIZ

A) P (Q • R).

B) R • (P Q).

C) (P • R) (Q • R).

D) (P R) • (Q R ).

CONCEPT QUIZ (continued)

along DC. Using the

triple scalar product to

determine the moment

of F about the bar BA,

you could use any of the

following position

vectors except ______.

A) rBC B) rAD

C) rAC D) rDB

E) rBD

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: The hood of the

automobile is supported

by the strut AB, which

exerts a force F = 24 lb.

Find: The moment of F about

the hinged axis y.

Plan:

1) Use My = u • (rOA F)

2) Find uAB from rAB

3) Find F in Cartesian vector form using uAB.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Solution:

F = F uAB

= (24 / 4.899) {– 2 i + 2 j + 4 k} lb

= { – 9.80 i + 9.80 j + 19.60 k} lb

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

0 1 0

My = 4 0 0 lb·ft

-9.80 9.80 19.6

My = -1 {4 (19.6) – 0 (-9.80)}

= - 78.4 lb·ft

= 78.4 lb·ft CW

ATTENTION QUIZ

force F about the x-axis, the

position vector in the triple

scalar product should be ___ .

A) rAC B) rBA

C) rAB D) rBC

the moment of F about the y-axis is ____ N·m.

A) 10 B) -30

C) -40 D) None of the above.

Multiple Choice Problems

1. The moment of the 100 N force about x-axis, Mx,, is

(a) −300 N-m (b) −200 N-m (c) 200 N-m (d) 300 N-m

Ans: (b)

Feedback:

Using scalar approach:

We have: F = 100 N and dx = 2 m

Mx = F dx = −100 × 2 = −200 N-m (minus sign because the sense of the moment is clockwise)

Using Cartesian vector approach:

F = {−100k} N

Let us consider origin O (0, 0, 0) m as a point on the x-axis and A (0, 2, 0) m as a point where the

force is acting.

The position vector r OA = {2j} m

The moment about O, MO is determined as: MO = rOA × F = {2j} × {−100k} = {−200i} N-m

The magnitude of moment about x-axis, Mx, is given as: Mx = MO · ux = {−200i}· {i} = −200 N-m

Multiple Choice Problems

2. The moment of the 100 N force about y-axis, My,, is

(a) −200 N-m (b) −300 N-m (c) 0 (d) 200 N-m

Ans: (c)

Feedback:

Using scalar approach:

We have: F = 100 N and dy = 0

My = F dy = −100 × 0 = 0

Using Cartesian vector approach:

F = {−100k} N

Let us consider origin O (0, 0, 0) m as a point on the y-axis and A (0, 2, 0) m as a point where the

force is acting.

The position vector rOA = {2j} m

The moment about O, MO is determined as: MO = rOA × F = {2j} × {−100k} = {−200i} N-m

The magnitude of moment about y-axis, My, is given as: My= MO · uy = {−200i} · {j} = 0

Multiple Choice Problems

3. The moment of the 100 N force about z-axis, Mz,, is

(a) 0 (b) −200 N-m (c) 200 N-m (d) 300 N-m

Ans: (a)

Feedback:

Using scalar approach:

We have: F = 100 N and dz = 0

Mz = F dz = −100 × 0 = 0

Using Cartesian vector approach:

F = {−100k} N

Let us consider origin O (0, 0, 0) m as a point on the z-axis and A (0, 2, 0) m as a point where the

force is acting.

The position vector rOA = {2j} m

The moment about O, MO is determined as: MO = rOA × F = {2j} × {−100k} = {−200i} N-m

The magnitude of moment about z-axis, Mz, is given as: Mz = MO · uz = {−200i} · {k} = 0

CE 201: Statics

Term 182

College of Engineering

University of Hafr Al Batin

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

Today’s Objectives:

a) To define a couple, and,

b) To determine the moment of a couple.

READING QUIZ

1. In statics, a couple is defined as __________ separated by a

perpendicular distance.

A) two forces in the same direction

B) two forces of equal magnitude

C) two forces of equal magnitude acting in the same direction

D) two forces of equal magnitude acting in opposite directions

A) Free B) Spinning

C) Fixed D) Sliding

APPLICATIONS

Why does one of the two grips of the wheel above require less

force to rotate the wheel?

Equivalent Couples

APPLICATIONS (continued)

hands and turn, a couple moment is applied to the wheel.

Would older vehicles without power steering need

larger or smaller steering wheels?

MOMENT OF A COUPLE

parallel forces with the same

magnitude but opposite in

direction separated by a

perpendicular distance “d.”

MO = F d (using a scalar analysis) or as

MO = r F (using a vector analysis).

Here r is any position vector from the line of action of F to

the line of action of F.

MOMENT OF A COUPLE (continued)

The net external effect of a couple is that

the net force equals zero and the

magnitude of the net moment equals F *d.

only on the distance between the

forces, the moment of a couple is a

free vector. It can be moved anywhere

on the body and have the same

external effect on the body.

together using the same rules as adding

any vectors.

EXAMPLE : SCALAR APPROACH

Given: Two couples act on the

beam with the geometry

shown.

Find: The magnitude of F so

that the resultant couple

moment is 1.5 kNm

clockwise.

Plan:

2) Equate the net moment to 1.5 kNm clockwise to find F.

EXAMPLE: SCALAR APPROACH (continued)

Solution:

+ M = – F (0.9) + (2) (0.3)

= – 0.9 F + 0.6

– 1.5 kNm = – 0.9 F + 0.6

F = 2.33 kN

EXAMPLE: VECTOR APPROACH

on the pipe assembly.

rAB Find: The couple moment in

Cartesian vector notation.

FB Plan:

2) Set r = rAB and F = FB.

3) Calculate the cross product to find M.

EXAMPLE: VECTOR APPROACH (continued)

Solution:

rAB = { 0.4 i } m

FB = {0 i + 450(4/5) j 450(3/5) k} N

rAB

= {0 i + 360 j 270 k} N

M = rAB FB FB

i j k

= 0.4 0 0 N·m

0 360 270

= [{0(-270) – 0(360)} i – {4(-270) – 0(0)} j

+ {0.4(360) – 0(0)} k] N·m

= {0 i + 108 j + 144 k} N·m

CONCEPT QUIZ

1. F1 and F2 form a couple. The moment F 1

of the couple is given by ____ .

r1

r2

A) r1 F1 B) r2 F1

C) F2 r1 D) r2 F2 F 2

A) The net force is not equal to 0.

B) The net force and net moment are equal to 0.

C) The net moment equals 0 but the net force is not

necessarily equal to 0.

D) The net force equals 0 but the net moment is not

necessarily equal to 0 .

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

Given: Two couples act on the

beam with the geometry

shown.

Find: The resultant couple

Plan:

be treated as couples.

2) Add the two couples to find the resultant couple.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

The x and y components of the

upper-left 300 lb force are:

(4/5)(300 lb) = 240 lb vertically up

(3/5)(300 lb) = 180 lb to the left

Do both of these components form

couples with their matching

components of the other 300 force?

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Now resolve the lower 150 lb force:

(150 lb) (sin 30°), acting up

(150 lb) (cos 30°), acting to the left

Do both of these components create

a couple with components of the

other 150 lb force?

+ M = – (240 lb)(2 ft) – (150 lb)(cos 30º)(2 ft)

= – 480 – 259.8 = -739.8 ft·lb CCW or 739.8 ft·lb CW

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

Given: F = {15 k} N and

– F = {– 15 k} N

Find: The couple moment

acting on the pipe

assembly using

Cartesian vector

notation.

Plan:

2) Set r = rAB and F = {15 k} N.

3) Calculate the cross product to find M.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

rAB = { (0.3 – 0.2 ) i + (0.8 – 0.3) j + (0 – 0) k } m

= { 0.1 i + 0.5 j } m

F = {15 k} N

i j k

M = rAB F = 0.1 0.5 0 N·m

0 0 15

= {( 7.5 – 0 ) i – (1.5 – 0) j + k (0) } N · m

= { 7.5 i – 1.5 j } N · m

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. A couple is applied to the beam as shown. Its moment equals

_____ N·m.

50 N

A) 50 B) 60

1m 2m 5

C) 80 D) 100 3

4

moment as M = r F

If F = { -20 k} lb, then r is

A) rBC B) rAB

C) rCB D) rBA

Recommended Problems

(Section 4.6)

4-72

4-80

4-82

4-85

4-92

4-96

CE 201: Statics

Term 182

College of Engineering

UHB

SIMPLIFICATION OF FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEMS

& THEIR FURTHER SIMPLIFICATION

Today’s Objectives:

In-Class Activities:

Students will be able to:

• Check Homework

a) Determine the effect of moving a

force.

• Reading Quiz

b) Find an equivalent force-couple

system for a system of forces and • Applications

couples. • Equivalent Systems

• System Reduction

• Concept Quiz

• Group Problem

Solving

• Attention Quiz

READING QUIZ

1. A general system of forces and couple moments acting on a

rigid body can be reduced to a ___ .

A) single force

B) single moment

C) single force and two moments

D) single force and a single moment

force-couple system have the same _____ effect on a body.

A) internal B) external

C) internal and external D) microscopic

APPLICATIONS

when the force is applied in these different ways?

Why is understanding these differences important when

designing various load-bearing structures?

APPLICATIONS (continued)

are acting on this vertical section of

an I-beam.

| | ??

For the process of designing the I-

beam, it would be very helpful if

you could replace the various forces

and moment just one force and one

couple moment at point O with the

same external effect? How will

you do that?

SIMPLIFICATION OF FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEM

(Section 4.7)

When a number of forces and couple

moments are acting on a body, it is

easier to understand their overall effect

on the body if they are combined into a

single force and couple moment having

the same external effect.

The two force and couple systems are

called equivalent systems since they

have the same external effect on the

body.

MOVING A FORCE ON ITS LINE OF ACTION

vector’s line of action, does not change the external effect.

Hence, a force vector is called a sliding vector. (But the

internal effect of the force on the body does depend on where

the force is applied).

MOVING A FORCE OFF OF ITS LINE OF ACTION

When a force is moved, but not along its line of action, there is

a change in its external effect!

Essentially, moving a force from point A to B (as shown above)

requires creating an additional couple moment. So moving a

force means you have to “add” a new couple.

Since this new couple moment is a “free” vector, it can be

applied at any point on the body.

SIMPLIFICATION OF A FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEM

When several forces and couple moments

act on a body, you can move each force

and its associated couple moment to a

common point O.

Now you can add all the forces and

couple moments together and find one

resultant force-couple moment pair.

SIMPLIFICATION OF A FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEM

(continued)

WR = W1 + W2

(MR)o = W1 d1 + W2 d2

If the force system lies in the x-y plane (a 2-D case), then the

reduced equivalent system can be obtained using the following

three scalar equations.

FURTHER SIMPLIFICATION OF A FORCE AND

COUPLE SYSTEM (Section 4.8)

= =

can be further reduced to a single force, FR , by simply moving

FR from O to P.

of forces, the system can always be reduced to a single force.

EXAMPLE I

Given: A 2-D force system

with geometry as shown.

Find: The equivalent resultant

force and couple

moment acting at A and

then the equivalent

single force location

measured from A.

Plan:

1) Sum all the x and y components of the forces to find FRA.

2) Find and sum all the moments resulting from moving each

force component to A.

3) Shift FRA to a distance d such that d = MRA/FRy

EXAMPLE I (continued)

FR

= 85 lb

+ FRy= 200 + 50(cos 30) – 100(4/5)

= 163.3 lb

+ MRA = 200 (3) + 50 (cos 30) (9)

– 100 (4/5) 6 = 509.7 lb·ft

FR = ( 852 + 163.32 )1/2 = 184 lb

= tan-1 ( 163.3/85) = 62.5°

measured from A.

d = MRA/FRy = 509.7 / 163.3 = 3.12 ft

EXAMPLE II

Given: The slab is subjected to

three parallel forces.

Find: The equivalent resultant

force and couple

moment at the origin O.

Also find the location

(x, y) of the single

equivalent resultant

Plan: force.

1) Find FRO = Fi = FRzo k

2) Find MRO = (ri Fi) = MRxO i + MRyO j

3) The location of the single equivalent resultant force is given

as x = – MRyO/FRzO and y = MRxO/FRzO

EXAMPLE II (continued)

MRO = (3 i) (100 k) + (4 i + 4 j) (-500 k)

+ (4 j) (-400 k)

= {–300 j + 2000 j – 2000 i – 1600 i}

= { – 3600 i + 1700 j }N·m

x = – MRyo / FRzo = (–1700) / (–800) = 2.13 m

y = MRxo / FRzo = (–3600) / (–800) = 4.5 m

CONCEPT QUIZ Z

• S

1. The forces on the pole can be reduced to

a single force and a single moment at •R

point ____ . • Q

A) P B) Q C) R P

• Y

D) S E) Any of these points. X

equivalent system at any arbitrary point on the body will have

A) One force and one couple moment.

B) One force.

C) One couple moment.

D) Two couple moments.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

Given: A 2-D force and couple

system as shown.

Find: The equivalent resultant

force and couple

moment acting at A.

Plan:

1) Sum all the x and y components of the two forces to find FRA.

2) Find and sum all the moments resulting from moving each

force to A and add them to the 1500 Nm free moment to find

the resultant MRA .

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Summing the force components:

+ Fx = 450 (cos 60) – 700 (sin 30)

= – 125 N

+ Fy = – 450 (sin 60) – 300 – 700 (cos 30)

= – 1296 N

Now find the magnitude and direction of the resultant.

FRA = (1252 + 12962)1/2 = 1302 N and = tan-1 (1296 /125)

= 84.5°

+ MRA = 450 (sin 60) (2) + 300 (6) + 700 (cos 30) (9) + 1500

= 9535 Nm

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

Given: Forces F1 and F2 are

applied to the pipe.

Find: An equivalent resultant

force and couple moment

at point O.

Plan:

a) Find FRO = Fi = F1 + F2

b) Find MRO = MC + ( ri Fi )

where,

MC are any free couple moments (none in this example).

ri are the position vectors from the point O to any point on the line

of action of Fi .

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

F1 = {– 20 i –10 j + 25 k} lb

F2 = {–10 i + 25 j + 20 k} lb

FRO = {–30 i + 15 j + 45 k} lb

r1 = {1.5 i + 2 j} ft

r2 = {1.5 i + 4 j + 2 k} ft

Then, MRO = ( ri Fi ) = r1 F1 + r2 F2

i j k i j k

MRO = { 1.5 2 0 + 1.5 4 2 } lb·ft

-20 -10 25 -10 25 20

= {(50 i – 37.5 j + 25 k ) + (30 i – 50 j + 77.5 k )} lb·ft

= {80 i – 87.5 j + 102.5 k} lb·ft

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. For this force system, the equivalent system at P is

___________ .

A) FRP = 40 lb (along +x-dir.) and MRP = +60 ft ·lb

B) FRP = 0 lb and MRP = +30 ft · lb

C) FRP = 30 lb (along +y-dir.) and MRP = -30 ft ·lb

D) FRP = 40 lb (along +x-dir.) and MRP = +30 ft ·lb

y 30 lb

1' 1' x

• 40 lb

P 30 lb

ATTENTION QUIZ

2. Consider three couples acting on a body. Equivalent

systems will be _______ at different points on the body.

A) Different when located

B) The same even when located

C) Zero when located

D) None of the above.

Recommended Problems

(Section 4.7-4.8)

4-105

4-108

4-109

4-116

4-119

4-127

4-131

CE 201: Statics

Term 182

Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of

Engineering

UHB

REDUCTION OF A SIMPLE DISTRIBUTED LOADING

Today’s Objectives:

Students will be able to determine an

equivalent force for a distributed load.

In-Class Activities:

• Check Homework

• Reading Quiz

• Applications

= • Equivalent Force

• Concept Quiz

• Group Problem Solving

• Attention Quiz

READING QUIZ

1. The resultant force (FR) due to a y Distributed load curve

w

distributed load is equivalent to

the _____ under the distributed

loading curve, w = w(x). x

A) Centroid B) Arc length FR

C) Area D) Volume

passes through the ______ of the distributed load.

A) Centroid B) Mid-point

C) Left edge D) Right edge

APPLICATIONS

stored on a storage rack. This lumber places a

distributed load (due to the weight of the wood) on

the beams holding the bunk.

helpful to reduce this distributed load to a single force.

How would you do this?

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

is acting on a triangular

sign (shown in light

brown).

between the sign and the sign

post, we need to determine a

single equivalent resultant force

and its location.

DISTRIBUTED LOADING

In many situations, a surface area

of a body is subjected to a

distributed load. Such forces are

caused by winds, fluids, or the

weight of items on the body’s

surface.

We will analyze the most common

case of a distributed pressure

loading. This is a uniform load

along one axis of a flat rectangular

body.

In such cases, w is a function of x

and has units of force per length.

MAGNITUDE OF RESULTANT FORCE

The force magnitude dF acting on it is

given as

dF = w(x) dx

+ FR = L dF = L w(x) dx = A

Here A is the area under the loading

curve w(x).

LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

(x)(dF) about point O.

The total moment about point O is

given as

+ MRO = L x dF = L x w(x) dx

the moment about point O as

+ MRO = ( x ) (FR) = x L w(x) dx

LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE (continued)

we get

FR acts through a point “C,” which is

called the geometric center or

centroid of the area under the loading

curve w(x).

EXAMPLES

Until you learn more about centroids, we will consider only

rectangular and triangular loading diagrams whose centroids are

well defined and shown on the inside back cover of your textbook.

Look at the inside back cover of your textbook. You should find

the rectangle and triangle cases. Finding the area of a rectangle

and its centroid is easy!

Note that triangle presents a bit of a challenge but still is pretty

straightforward.

EXAMPLES

Now let’s complete the calculations to find the concentrated loads

(which is a common name for the resultant of the distributed load).

The triangular loading:

FR = (0.5) (600) (6) = 1,800 N and x = 6 – (1/3) 6 = 4 m.

Please note that the centroid of a right triangle is at a distance

one third the width of the triangle as measured from its base.

CONCEPT QUIZ

FR distance d?

A BA A) 2 m B) 3 m C) 4 m

B

d D) 5 m E) 6 m

3m 3m

2. If F1 = 1 N, x1 = 1 m, F2 = 2 N

and x2 = 2 m, what is the location

x2 F1 x FR of FR, i.e., the distance x.

F2

A) 1 m B) 1.33 m C) 1.5 m

x1 D) 1.67 m E) 2 m

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

beam as shown.

Find: The equivalent force

and its location from

point A.

Plan:

rectangular loading and two triangular loadings).

2) Find FR and its location for each of these three distributed loads.

3) Determine the overall FR of the three point loadings and its

location.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

15 ft 1350 lb

16.5 ft 4800 lb 4500 lb

8 ft

ATTENTION QUIZ

100 N/m FR

12 m x

1. FR = ____________ 2. x = __________.

A) 12 N B) 100 N A) 3 m B) 4 m

C) 600 N D) 1200 N C) 6 m D) 8 m