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CE 201: Statics

Lecture No. 10-11


Term 182

Instructor: Dr. Bashir Alhaji Labaran

Dept. of Civil Engineering,


College of Engineering
University of Hafr Al Batin
MOMENT OF A FORCE (SCALAR FORMULATION), CROSS
PRODUCT, MOMENT OF A FORCE (VECTOR FORMULATION),
& PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS

Today’s Objectives :
a) To understand and define moment, and,
b) To determine moments of a force in 2-D and 3-
D cases.
READING QUIZ
F = 12 N
1. What is the moment of the 12 N force
about point A (MA)?
A) 3 N·m B) 36 N·m C) 12 N·m
d=3m
D) (12/3) N·m E) 7 N·m • A

2. The moment of force F about point O


is defined as MO = ___________ .
A) r x F B) F x r
C) r • F D) r * F
APPLICATIONS

Beams are often used to bridge gaps in walls. We have


to know what the effect of the force on the beam will
have on the supports of the beam.
What do you think is happening at points A and B?
APPLICATIONS (continued)

Carpenters often use a hammer in this way to pull a stubborn


nail. Through what sort of action does the force FH at the
handle pull the nail? How can you mathematically model
the effect of force FH at point O?
MOMENT OF A FORCE - SCALAR FORMULATION
(Section 4.1)

The moment of a force about a point provides a measure of the


tendency for rotation (sometimes called a torque).
MOMENT OF A FORCE - SCALAR FORMULATION
(continued)
In a 2-D case, the magnitude of the moment is Mo = F d

As shown, d is the perpendicular distance from point O to the


line of action of the force.

In 2-D, the direction of MO is either clockwise (CW) or


counter-clockwise (CCW), depending on the tendency for
rotation.
MOMENT OF A FORCE - SCALAR FORMULATION
(continued)
a F
For example, MO = F d and the
b direction is counter-clockwise.
O
d
Fy F
Often it is easier to determine Fx
MO by using the components of b a
F as shown. O

Then MO = (FY a) – (FX b). Note the different signs on the terms!
The typical sign convention for a moment in 2-D is that counter-
clockwise is considered positive. We can determine the direction
of rotation by imagining the body pinned at O and deciding which
way the body would rotate because of the force.
VECTOR CROSS PRODUCT (Section 4.2)

Finding the moment of a force in 2-D is straightforward when


you know the perpendicular distance d. However, in 3-D
getting perpendicular distances can be hard..

So a more general approach to finding the moment of a force


exists. This more general approach is usually used when
dealing with 3D forces though can be used in the 2D case as
well.
This more general method of finding the moment of a force uses
a vector operation called the cross product of two vectors.
CROSS PRODUCT (Section 4.2)

Magnitude
Sense
(from A towards B)
Direction

In general, the cross product of two vectors A and B results in


another vector, C , i.e., C = A  B. The magnitude and
direction of the resulting vector can be written as
C = A  B = A B sin  uC
As shown, uC is the unit vector perpendicular to both A and B
vectors (or to the plane containing the A and B vectors).
LAWS OF OPERATION OF CROSS PRODUCT
1. The Commutative Law
A  B  B  A, because direction of A × B is not
same as the direction of B × A, as shown below:

Therefore, A  B = −B  A

2. The Distributive Law


A  (B + D) = (A  B) + (A  D)

3. Multiplication by a Scalar, a
a(A  B) = (aA)  B = A  (aB) = (A  B)a
CROSS PRODUCT (continued)
The right-hand rule is a useful tool for determining the
direction of the vector resulting from a cross product.
For example: i  j = k
Note that a vector crossed into itself is zero, e.g., i  i = 0

The cross-products of various pairs of unit vectors are


as follows:
i  j = k i  k = -j ii=0
j  k = i j  i = -k jj=0
k  i = j k  j = -i kk=0
CROSS PRODUCT (continued)
Also, the cross product can be written as a determinant.

Each component can be determined using 2  2 determinants.


MOMENT OF A FORCE – VECTOR FORMULATION
(Section 4.3)

Moments in 3-D can be calculated using scalar (2-D) approach,


but it can be difficult and time consuming. Thus, it is often easier
to use a mathematical approach called the vector cross product.
Using the vector cross product, MO = r  F.
Here r is the position vector from point O to any point on the line
of action of F.
MOMENT OF A FORCE – VECTOR FORMULATION
(continued)
So, using the cross product, a
moment can be expressed as

By expanding the above equation using 2  2 determinants (see


Section 4.2), we get (sample units are N - m or lb - ft)
MO = (ry FZ - rZ Fy) i  (rx Fz - rz Fx ) j + (rx Fy - ry Fx ) k

The physical meaning of the above equation becomes evident by


considering the force components separately and using a 2-D
formulation.
MOMENT OF A FORCE ABOUT A POINT:
VECTOR FORMULATION
Referring to the following figure, the magnitude, direction and sense of
the moment MO may be explained as follows:

Direction (i.e., Moment Axis):


Direction of the moment M O will be the
Magnitude: about axis perpendicular to the plane of
M O  rF sin θ  F (r sin  )  Fd the force and position vector, as shown
in the above figure.
Sense:
Using the right-hand rule, the sense of the moment MO will be
“counterclockwise”, as shown in the above figure.
RESULTANT MOMENT OF A SYSTEM OF FORCES
Let us consider forces F1, F2, F3, ------ positioned with the help of
position vectors r1, r2, r3-------- from a point O, as shown in the following
figure:

The resultant moment, MRO, of the forces may be obtained by taking


algebraic sum of the cross-products of the position vectors and forces,
as given below:
M R O  (r  F )
PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS OR VARIGNON’S THEOREM
The principle of moments or Varignon’s theorem states that “the
moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of moments of the
force’s components about the point”.
Let us consider a force F positioned with the help of position vector r
from a point O, as shown in the following figure:

The moment of the force about point O, MO may be taken as the sum of
the moments of the components of the force F 1 and F2, as given below:
MO = r  F1 + r  F2 = r  (F1 + F2) = r  F
EXAMPLE I
Given: A 100 N force is
applied to the frame.
Find: The moment of the
force at point O.
Plan:

1) Resolve the 100 N force along x and y-axes.


2) Determine MO using a scalar analysis for the two
force components and then add those two moments
together..
EXAMPLE I (continued)

Solution
+  Fy = – 100 (3/5) N
+  Fx = 100 (4/5) N
+ MO = {– 100 (3/5)N (5 m) – (100)(4/5)N (2 m)} N·m
= – 460 N·m or 460 N·m CW
EXAMPLE II
Given: F1={100 i - 120 j + 75 k}kN
F2={-200 i +250 j + 100 k}kN

o
Find: Resultant moment by the
forces about point O.
Plan:
1) Find F = F1 + F2 and rOA.
2) Determine MO = rOA  F .
EXAMPLE II (continued)
Solution:
First, find the resultant force vector F
F = F1 + F2
= { (100 - 200) i + (-120 + 250) j + (75 + 100) k} kN
= {-100 i +130 j + 175 k} kN
Find the position vector rOA
rOA = {4 i + 5 j + 3 k} m

Then find the moment by using the vector cross product.


i j k
MO = 4 5 3 = [{5(175) – 3(130)} i – {4(175) –
- -100 130 175 3(-100)} j + {4(130) – 5(-100)} k] kNm
= {485 i – 1000 j + 1020 k} kN.m
CONCEPT QUIZ
1. If a force of magnitude F can be applied in four different 2-D
configurations (P,Q,R, & S), select the cases resulting in the
maximum and minimum torque values on the nut. (Max, Min).
A) (Q, P) B) (R, S)
S
C) (P, R) D) (Q, S)
R
P Q

2. If M = r  F, then what will be the value of M • r?


A) 0 B) 1
C) r 2 F D) None of the above.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I
y Given: A 20 lb force is applied
x to the hammer.
Find: The moment of the
force at A.
Plan:

Since this is a 2-D problem:


1) Resolve the 20 lb force
along the handle’s x and y
axes.
2) Determine MA using a
scalar analysis.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)
y
x Solution:

+  Fy = 20 sin 30° lb

+  Fx = 20 cos 30° lb

+ MA = {–(20 cos 30°)lb (18 in) – (20 sin 30°)lb (5 in)}

= – 361.77 lb·in = 362 lb·in (clockwise or CW)


GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

Given: The force and geometry


shown.
Find: Moment of F about
point A

Plan:

1) Find F and rAC.

2) Determine MA = rAC  F
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)
Solution:
F ={ (80 cos30) sin 40 i
+ (80 cos30) cos 40 j  80 sin30 k} N
={44.53 i + 53.07 j  40 k } N

rAC ={0.55 i + 0.4 j  0.2 k } m

Find the moment by using the cross product.


i j k
MA = 0.55 0.4  0.2
44.53 53.07 40
= { -5.39 i + 13.1 j +11.4 k } N·m
ATTENTION QUIZ
10 N 5N
3m P 2m

1. Using the CCW direction as positive, the net moment of the


two forces about point P is
A) 10 N ·m B) 20 N ·m C) - 20 N ·m
D) 40 N ·m E) - 40 N ·m

2. If r = { 5 j } m and F = { 10 k } N, the moment


r x F equals { _______ } N·m.
A) 50 i B) 50 j C) –50 i
D) – 50 j E) 0
RECOMMENDED PROBLEMS
(SECTION 4.1 - 4.4)

4-8

4-9

4-13

4-23

4-29

4-31
CE 201: Statics

Lecture No. 12-13


Term 182

Instructor: Dr. Bashir Alhaji Labaran


Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of
Engineering
UHB
MOMENT ABOUT AN AXIS
Today’s Objectives:
Students will be able to determine the moment of a force about
an axis using
a) scalar analysis, and, In-Class Activities:
b) vector analysis. • Check Homework
• Reading Quiz
• Applications
• Scalar Analysis
• Vector Analysis
• Concept Quiz
• Group Problem Solving
• Attention Quiz
READING QUIZ
1. When determining the moment of a force about a specified
axis, the axis must be along _____________.
A) the x axis B) the y axis C) the z axis
D) any line in 3-D space E) any line in the x-y plane

2. The triple scalar product u • ( r  F ) results in


A) a scalar quantity ( + or - ). B) a vector quantity.
C) zero. D) a unit vector.
E) an imaginary number.
APPLICATIONS

With the force P, a person is creating a moment MA using this


flex-handle socket wrench. Does all of MA act to turn the
socket? How would you calculate an answer to this question?
APPLICATIONS

Sleeve A of this bracket can provide a maximum resisting


moment of 125 N·m about the x-axis. How would you
determine the maximum magnitude of F before turning
about the x-axis occurs?
SCALAR ANALYSIS

Recall that the moment of a scalar force about


any point O is MO= F dO where dO is the
perpendicular (or shortest) distance from the
point to the force’s line of action. This concept
can be extended to find the moment of a force
about an axis.

Finding the moment of a force about an axis can


help answer the types of questions we just
considered.
SCALAR ANALYSIS

In the figure above, the moment about the y-axis would be


My= Fz (dx) = F (r cos θ). However, unless the force can
easily be broken into components and the “dx” found quickly,
such calculations are not always trivial and vector analysis
may be much easier (and less likely to produce errors).
VECTOR ANALYSIS
Our goal is to find the moment of F
(the tendency to rotate the body)
about the a-axis.

First compute the moment of F


about any arbitrary point O that lies
on the a’- a axis using the cross
product.
MO = r  F

Now, find the component of MO along the a-axis using the dot
product.
Ma’-a = ua • MO
VECTOR ANALYSIS (continued)

M a can also be obtained as

The above equation is also called the


triple scalar product.

In this equation,
ua represents the unit vector along the a-axis,
r is the position vector from any point on the a-axis to any
point A on the line of action of the force, and
F is the force vector.
EXAMPLE
Given: A force is applied to
A the tool as shown.
Find: The magnitude of the
B
moment of this force about
the x axis of the value.
Plan:

1) Use Mx = u • (r  F).
2) First, find F in Cartesian vector form.
3) Note that u = 1 i in this case.
4) The vector r is the position vector from O to A.
EXAMPLE (continued)
Solution:
u=1i
rOA = {0 i + 0.3 j + 0.25 k} m
F = 200 (cos 120 i + cos 60 j
+ cos 45 k) N
= {-100 i + 100 j + 141.4 k} N
Now find Mx = u • (rAB  F)
1 0 0
Mx = 0 0.3 0.25 = 1{0.3 (141.4) – 0.25 (100) } N·m
-100 100 141.4

Mx = 17.4 N·m CCW


CONCEPT QUIZ

1. The vector operation (P  Q) • R equals


A) P  (Q • R).
B) R • (P  Q).
C) (P • R)  (Q • R).
D) (P  R) • (Q  R ).
CONCEPT QUIZ (continued)

2. The force F is acting


along DC. Using the
triple scalar product to
determine the moment
of F about the bar BA,
you could use any of the
following position
vectors except ______.
A) rBC B) rAD
C) rAC D) rDB
E) rBD
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING
Given: The hood of the
automobile is supported
by the strut AB, which
exerts a force F = 24 lb.
Find: The moment of F about
the hinged axis y.
Plan:
1) Use My = u • (rOA  F)
2) Find uAB from rAB
3) Find F in Cartesian vector form using uAB.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
Solution:
 

F = F uAB
= (24 / 4.899) {– 2 i + 2 j + 4 k} lb
= { – 9.80 i + 9.80 j + 19.60 k} lb
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Now find the triple product, My = u • (rOA  F)


0 1 0
My = 4 0 0 lb·ft
-9.80 9.80 19.6

My = -1 {4 (19.6) – 0 (-9.80)}
= - 78.4 lb·ft
= 78.4 lb·ft CW
ATTENTION QUIZ

1. For finding the moment of the


force F about the x-axis, the
position vector in the triple
scalar product should be ___ .
A) rAC B) rBA
C) rAB D) rBC

2. If r = {1 i + 2 j} m and F = {10 i + 20 j + 30 k} N, then


the moment of F about the y-axis is ____ N·m.
A) 10 B) -30
C) -40 D) None of the above.
Multiple Choice Problems
1. The moment of the 100 N force about x-axis, Mx,, is

(a) −300 N-m (b) −200 N-m (c) 200 N-m (d) 300 N-m
Ans: (b)
Feedback:
Using scalar approach:
We have: F = 100 N and dx = 2 m
Mx = F dx = −100 × 2 = −200 N-m (minus sign because the sense of the moment is clockwise)
Using Cartesian vector approach:
F = {−100k} N
Let us consider origin O (0, 0, 0) m as a point on the x-axis and A (0, 2, 0) m as a point where the
force is acting.
The position vector r OA = {2j} m
The moment about O, MO is determined as: MO = rOA × F = {2j} × {−100k} = {−200i} N-m
The magnitude of moment about x-axis, Mx, is given as: Mx = MO · ux = {−200i}· {i} = −200 N-m
Multiple Choice Problems
2. The moment of the 100 N force about y-axis, My,, is

(a) −200 N-m (b) −300 N-m (c) 0 (d) 200 N-m
Ans: (c)
Feedback:
Using scalar approach:
We have: F = 100 N and dy = 0
My = F dy = −100 × 0 = 0
Using Cartesian vector approach:
F = {−100k} N
Let us consider origin O (0, 0, 0) m as a point on the y-axis and A (0, 2, 0) m as a point where the
force is acting.
The position vector rOA = {2j} m
The moment about O, MO is determined as: MO = rOA × F = {2j} × {−100k} = {−200i} N-m
The magnitude of moment about y-axis, My, is given as: My= MO · uy = {−200i} · {j} = 0
Multiple Choice Problems
3. The moment of the 100 N force about z-axis, Mz,, is

(a) 0 (b) −200 N-m (c) 200 N-m (d) 300 N-m
Ans: (a)
Feedback:
Using scalar approach:
We have: F = 100 N and dz = 0
Mz = F dz = −100 × 0 = 0
Using Cartesian vector approach:
F = {−100k} N
Let us consider origin O (0, 0, 0) m as a point on the z-axis and A (0, 2, 0) m as a point where the
force is acting.
The position vector rOA = {2j} m
The moment about O, MO is determined as: MO = rOA × F = {2j} × {−100k} = {−200i} N-m
The magnitude of moment about z-axis, Mz, is given as: Mz = MO · uz = {−200i} · {k} = 0
CE 201: Statics

Lecture No. 13-14


Term 182

Instructor: Dr. Bashir Alhaji Labaran

Dept. of Civil Engineering,


College of Engineering
University of Hafr Al Batin
MOMENT OF A COUPLE

Today’s Objectives:
a) To define a couple, and,
b) To determine the moment of a couple.
READING QUIZ
1. In statics, a couple is defined as __________ separated by a
perpendicular distance.
A) two forces in the same direction
B) two forces of equal magnitude
C) two forces of equal magnitude acting in the same direction
D) two forces of equal magnitude acting in opposite directions

2. The moment of a couple is called a _________ vector.


A) Free B) Spinning
C) Fixed D) Sliding
APPLICATIONS

A torque or moment of 12 N·m is required to rotate the wheel.


Why does one of the two grips of the wheel above require less
force to rotate the wheel?
Equivalent Couples
APPLICATIONS (continued)

When you grip a vehicle’s steering wheel with both


hands and turn, a couple moment is applied to the wheel.
Would older vehicles without power steering need
larger or smaller steering wheels?
MOMENT OF A COUPLE

A couple is defined as two


parallel forces with the same
magnitude but opposite in
direction separated by a
perpendicular distance “d.”

The moment of a couple is defined as


MO = F d (using a scalar analysis) or as
MO = r  F (using a vector analysis).
Here r is any position vector from the line of action of F to
the line of action of F.
MOMENT OF A COUPLE (continued)
The net external effect of a couple is that
the net force equals zero and the
magnitude of the net moment equals F *d.

Since the moment of a couple depends


only on the distance between the
forces, the moment of a couple is a
free vector. It can be moved anywhere
on the body and have the same
external effect on the body.

Moments due to couples can be added


together using the same rules as adding
any vectors.
EXAMPLE : SCALAR APPROACH
Given: Two couples act on the
beam with the geometry
shown.
Find: The magnitude of F so
that the resultant couple
moment is 1.5 kNm
clockwise.
Plan:

1) Add the two couples to find the resultant couple.


2) Equate the net moment to 1.5 kNm clockwise to find F.
EXAMPLE: SCALAR APPROACH (continued)

Solution:

The net moment is equal to:


+  M = – F (0.9) + (2) (0.3)
= – 0.9 F + 0.6
– 1.5 kNm = – 0.9 F + 0.6

Solving for the unknown force F, we get


F = 2.33 kN
EXAMPLE: VECTOR APPROACH

Given: A 450 N force couple acting


on the pipe assembly.
rAB Find: The couple moment in
Cartesian vector notation.
FB Plan:

1) Use M = r  F to find the couple moment.


2) Set r = rAB and F = FB.
3) Calculate the cross product to find M.
EXAMPLE: VECTOR APPROACH (continued)
Solution:
rAB = { 0.4 i } m
FB = {0 i + 450(4/5) j  450(3/5) k} N
rAB
= {0 i + 360 j  270 k} N
M = rAB  FB FB
i j k
= 0.4 0 0 N·m
0 360 270
= [{0(-270) – 0(360)} i – {4(-270) – 0(0)} j
+ {0.4(360) – 0(0)} k] N·m
= {0 i + 108 j + 144 k} N·m
CONCEPT QUIZ
1. F1 and F2 form a couple. The moment F 1
of the couple is given by ____ .
r1
r2
A) r1  F1 B) r2  F1
C) F2  r1 D) r2  F2 F 2

2. If three couples act on a body, the overall result is that


A) The net force is not equal to 0.
B) The net force and net moment are equal to 0.
C) The net moment equals 0 but the net force is not
necessarily equal to 0.
D) The net force equals 0 but the net moment is not
necessarily equal to 0 .
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I
Given: Two couples act on the
beam with the geometry
shown.
Find: The resultant couple

Plan:

1) Resolve the forces in x and y-directions so they can


be treated as couples.
2) Add the two couples to find the resultant couple.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)
The x and y components of the
upper-left 300 lb force are:
(4/5)(300 lb) = 240 lb vertically up
(3/5)(300 lb) = 180 lb to the left
Do both of these components form
couples with their matching
components of the other 300 force?

No! Only the 240 lb components create a couple. Why?


GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)
Now resolve the lower 150 lb force:
(150 lb) (sin 30°), acting up
(150 lb) (cos 30°), acting to the left
Do both of these components create
a couple with components of the
other 150 lb force?

The net moment is equal to:


+ M = – (240 lb)(2 ft) – (150 lb)(cos 30º)(2 ft)
= – 480 – 259.8 = -739.8 ft·lb CCW or 739.8 ft·lb CW
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II
Given: F = {15 k} N and
– F = {– 15 k} N
Find: The couple moment
acting on the pipe
assembly using
Cartesian vector
notation.
Plan:

1) Use M = r  F to find the couple moment.


2) Set r = rAB and F = {15 k} N.
3) Calculate the cross product to find M.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)
rAB = { (0.3 – 0.2 ) i + (0.8 – 0.3) j + (0 – 0) k } m
= { 0.1 i + 0.5 j } m
F = {15 k} N

i j k
M = rAB  F = 0.1 0.5 0 N·m
0 0 15
= {( 7.5 – 0 ) i – (1.5 – 0) j + k (0) } N · m
= { 7.5 i – 1.5 j } N · m
ATTENTION QUIZ
1. A couple is applied to the beam as shown. Its moment equals
_____ N·m.
50 N
A) 50 B) 60
1m 2m 5
C) 80 D) 100 3
4

2. You can determine the couple


moment as M = r  F
If F = { -20 k} lb, then r is
A) rBC B) rAB
C) rCB D) rBA
Recommended Problems
(Section 4.6)

4-72

4-80

4-82

4-85

4-92

4-96
CE 201: Statics

Lecture No. 14-16


Term 182

Instructor: Dr. Bashir Alhaji Labaran

Dept. of Civil Engineering,


College of Engineering
UHB
SIMPLIFICATION OF FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEMS
& THEIR FURTHER SIMPLIFICATION
Today’s Objectives:
In-Class Activities:
Students will be able to:
• Check Homework
a) Determine the effect of moving a
force.
• Reading Quiz
b) Find an equivalent force-couple
system for a system of forces and • Applications
couples. • Equivalent Systems
• System Reduction
• Concept Quiz
• Group Problem
Solving
• Attention Quiz
READING QUIZ
1. A general system of forces and couple moments acting on a
rigid body can be reduced to a ___ .
A) single force
B) single moment
C) single force and two moments
D) single force and a single moment

2. The original force and couple system and an equivalent


force-couple system have the same _____ effect on a body.
A) internal B) external
C) internal and external D) microscopic
APPLICATIONS

What are the resultant effects on the person’s hand


when the force is applied in these different ways?
Why is understanding these differences important when
designing various load-bearing structures?
APPLICATIONS (continued)

Several forces and a couple moment


are acting on this vertical section of
an I-beam.

| | ??
For the process of designing the I-
beam, it would be very helpful if
you could replace the various forces
and moment just one force and one
couple moment at point O with the
same external effect? How will
you do that?
SIMPLIFICATION OF FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEM
(Section 4.7)
When a number of forces and couple
moments are acting on a body, it is
easier to understand their overall effect
on the body if they are combined into a
single force and couple moment having
the same external effect.
The two force and couple systems are
called equivalent systems since they
have the same external effect on the
body.
MOVING A FORCE ON ITS LINE OF ACTION

Moving a force from A to B, when both points are on the


vector’s line of action, does not change the external effect.
Hence, a force vector is called a sliding vector. (But the
internal effect of the force on the body does depend on where
the force is applied).
MOVING A FORCE OFF OF ITS LINE OF ACTION

When a force is moved, but not along its line of action, there is
a change in its external effect!
Essentially, moving a force from point A to B (as shown above)
requires creating an additional couple moment. So moving a
force means you have to “add” a new couple.
Since this new couple moment is a “free” vector, it can be
applied at any point on the body.
SIMPLIFICATION OF A FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEM
When several forces and couple moments
act on a body, you can move each force
and its associated couple moment to a
common point O.
Now you can add all the forces and
couple moments together and find one
resultant force-couple moment pair.
SIMPLIFICATION OF A FORCE AND COUPLE SYSTEM
(continued)

WR = W1 + W2
(MR)o = W1 d1 + W2 d2

If the force system lies in the x-y plane (a 2-D case), then the
reduced equivalent system can be obtained using the following
three scalar equations.
FURTHER SIMPLIFICATION OF A FORCE AND
COUPLE SYSTEM (Section 4.8)

= =

If FR and MRO are perpendicular to each other, then the system


can be further reduced to a single force, FR , by simply moving
FR from O to P.

In three special cases, concurrent, coplanar, and parallel systems


of forces, the system can always be reduced to a single force.
EXAMPLE I
Given: A 2-D force system
with geometry as shown.
Find: The equivalent resultant
force and couple
moment acting at A and
then the equivalent
single force location
measured from A.
Plan:
1) Sum all the x and y components of the forces to find FRA.
2) Find and sum all the moments resulting from moving each
force component to A.
3) Shift FRA to a distance d such that d = MRA/FRy
EXAMPLE I (continued)

+ FRx= 50(sin 30) + 100(3/5)


FR
= 85 lb
+  FRy= 200 + 50(cos 30) – 100(4/5)
= 163.3 lb
+ MRA = 200 (3) + 50 (cos 30) (9)
– 100 (4/5) 6 = 509.7 lb·ft
FR = ( 852 + 163.32 )1/2 = 184 lb
 = tan-1 ( 163.3/85) = 62.5°

The equivalent single force FR can be located at a distance d


measured from A.
d = MRA/FRy = 509.7 / 163.3 = 3.12 ft
EXAMPLE II
Given: The slab is subjected to
three parallel forces.
Find: The equivalent resultant
force and couple
moment at the origin O.
Also find the location
(x, y) of the single
equivalent resultant
Plan: force.
1) Find FRO = Fi = FRzo k
2) Find MRO =  (ri  Fi) = MRxO i + MRyO j
3) The location of the single equivalent resultant force is given
as x = – MRyO/FRzO and y = MRxO/FRzO
EXAMPLE II (continued)

FRO = {100 k – 500 k – 400 k} = – 800 k N


MRO = (3 i)  (100 k) + (4 i + 4 j)  (-500 k)
+ (4 j)  (-400 k)
= {–300 j + 2000 j – 2000 i – 1600 i}
= { – 3600 i + 1700 j }N·m

The location of the single equivalent resultant force is given as,


x = – MRyo / FRzo = (–1700) / (–800) = 2.13 m
y = MRxo / FRzo = (–3600) / (–800) = 4.5 m
CONCEPT QUIZ Z
• S
1. The forces on the pole can be reduced to
a single force and a single moment at •R
point ____ . • Q
A) P B) Q C) R P
• Y
D) S E) Any of these points. X

2. Consider two couples acting on a body. The simplest possible


equivalent system at any arbitrary point on the body will have
A) One force and one couple moment.
B) One force.
C) One couple moment.
D) Two couple moments.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I
Given: A 2-D force and couple
system as shown.
Find: The equivalent resultant
force and couple
moment acting at A.
Plan:

1) Sum all the x and y components of the two forces to find FRA.
2) Find and sum all the moments resulting from moving each
force to A and add them to the 1500 Nm free moment to find
the resultant MRA .
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)
Summing the force components:
+ Fx = 450 (cos 60) – 700 (sin 30)
= – 125 N
+  Fy = – 450 (sin 60) – 300 – 700 (cos 30)
= – 1296 N
Now find the magnitude and direction of the resultant.
FRA = (1252 + 12962)1/2 = 1302 N and  = tan-1 (1296 /125)
= 84.5°

+ MRA = 450 (sin 60) (2) + 300 (6) + 700 (cos 30) (9) + 1500
= 9535 Nm
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II
Given: Forces F1 and F2 are
applied to the pipe.
Find: An equivalent resultant
force and couple moment
at point O.
Plan:
a) Find FRO =  Fi = F1 + F2
b) Find MRO =  MC +  ( ri  Fi )
where,
MC are any free couple moments (none in this example).
ri are the position vectors from the point O to any point on the line
of action of Fi .
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)
F1 = {– 20 i –10 j + 25 k} lb
F2 = {–10 i + 25 j + 20 k} lb
FRO = {–30 i + 15 j + 45 k} lb
r1 = {1.5 i + 2 j} ft
r2 = {1.5 i + 4 j + 2 k} ft
Then, MRO =  ( ri  Fi ) = r1  F1 + r2  F2
i j k i j k
MRO = { 1.5 2 0 + 1.5 4 2 } lb·ft
-20 -10 25 -10 25 20
= {(50 i – 37.5 j + 25 k ) + (30 i – 50 j + 77.5 k )} lb·ft
= {80 i – 87.5 j + 102.5 k} lb·ft
ATTENTION QUIZ
1. For this force system, the equivalent system at P is
___________ .
A) FRP = 40 lb (along +x-dir.) and MRP = +60 ft ·lb
B) FRP = 0 lb and MRP = +30 ft · lb
C) FRP = 30 lb (along +y-dir.) and MRP = -30 ft ·lb
D) FRP = 40 lb (along +x-dir.) and MRP = +30 ft ·lb

y 30 lb
1' 1' x
• 40 lb
P 30 lb
ATTENTION QUIZ
2. Consider three couples acting on a body. Equivalent
systems will be _______ at different points on the body.
A) Different when located
B) The same even when located
C) Zero when located
D) None of the above.
Recommended Problems
(Section 4.7-4.8)

4-105

4-108

4-109

4-116

4-119

4-127

4-131
CE 201: Statics

Lecture No. 16-17


Term 182

Instructor: Dr. Bashir Alhaji Labaran


Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of
Engineering
UHB
REDUCTION OF A SIMPLE DISTRIBUTED LOADING
Today’s Objectives:
Students will be able to determine an
equivalent force for a distributed load.
In-Class Activities:
• Check Homework
• Reading Quiz
• Applications

= • Equivalent Force
• Concept Quiz
• Group Problem Solving
• Attention Quiz
READING QUIZ
1. The resultant force (FR) due to a y Distributed load curve
w
distributed load is equivalent to
the _____ under the distributed
loading curve, w = w(x). x
A) Centroid B) Arc length FR
C) Area D) Volume

2. The line of action of the distributed load’s equivalent force


passes through the ______ of the distributed load.
A) Centroid B) Mid-point
C) Left edge D) Right edge
APPLICATIONS

There is a bundle (called a bunk) of 2” x 4” boards


stored on a storage rack. This lumber places a
distributed load (due to the weight of the wood) on
the beams holding the bunk.

To analyze the load’s effect on the steel beams, it is often


helpful to reduce this distributed load to a single force.
How would you do this?
APPLICATIONS
(continued)

The uniform wind pressure


is acting on a triangular
sign (shown in light
brown).

To be able to design the joint


between the sign and the sign
post, we need to determine a
single equivalent resultant force
and its location.
DISTRIBUTED LOADING
In many situations, a surface area
of a body is subjected to a
distributed load. Such forces are
caused by winds, fluids, or the
weight of items on the body’s
surface.
We will analyze the most common
case of a distributed pressure
loading. This is a uniform load
along one axis of a flat rectangular
body.
In such cases, w is a function of x
and has units of force per length.
MAGNITUDE OF RESULTANT FORCE

Consider an element of length dx.


The force magnitude dF acting on it is
given as
dF = w(x) dx

The net force on the beam is given by


+  FR = L dF = L w(x) dx = A
Here A is the area under the loading
curve w(x).
LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE

The force dF will produce a moment of


(x)(dF) about point O.
The total moment about point O is
given as
+ MRO = L x dF = L x w(x) dx

Assuming that FR acts at x , it will produce


the moment about point O as
+ MRO = ( x ) (FR) = x L w(x) dx
LOCATION OF THE RESULTANT FORCE (continued)

Comparing the last two equations,


we get

You will learn more detail later, but


FR acts through a point “C,” which is
called the geometric center or
centroid of the area under the loading
curve w(x).
EXAMPLES
Until you learn more about centroids, we will consider only
rectangular and triangular loading diagrams whose centroids are
well defined and shown on the inside back cover of your textbook.

Look at the inside back cover of your textbook. You should find
the rectangle and triangle cases. Finding the area of a rectangle
and its centroid is easy!
Note that triangle presents a bit of a challenge but still is pretty
straightforward.
EXAMPLES
Now let’s complete the calculations to find the concentrated loads
(which is a common name for the resultant of the distributed load).

The rectangular load: FR = 400  10 = 4,000 lb and x = 5 ft.


The triangular loading:
FR = (0.5) (600) (6) = 1,800 N and x = 6 – (1/3) 6 = 4 m.
Please note that the centroid of a right triangle is at a distance
one third the width of the triangle as measured from its base.
CONCEPT QUIZ

1. What is the location of FR, i.e., the


FR distance d?
A BA A) 2 m B) 3 m C) 4 m
B
d D) 5 m E) 6 m
3m 3m

2. If F1 = 1 N, x1 = 1 m, F2 = 2 N
and x2 = 2 m, what is the location
x2 F1 x FR of FR, i.e., the distance x.
F2
A) 1 m B) 1.33 m C) 1.5 m
x1 D) 1.67 m E) 2 m
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: The loading on the


beam as shown.
Find: The equivalent force
and its location from
point A.
Plan:

1) The distributed loading can be divided into three parts. (one


rectangular loading and two triangular loadings).
2) Find FR and its location for each of these three distributed loads.
3) Determine the overall FR of the three point loadings and its
location.
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
 

 
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

15 ft 1350 lb
16.5 ft 4800 lb 4500 lb
8 ft

 
ATTENTION QUIZ

100 N/m FR

12 m x

1. FR = ____________ 2. x = __________.

A) 12 N B) 100 N A) 3 m B) 4 m

C) 600 N D) 1200 N C) 6 m D) 8 m