Chapter 3
Induction Motors
Module Outlines
Induction Motor Construction
Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor
Power and Torque in an Induction Motor
Induction Motor TorqueSpeed Characteristics
Starting Induction Motors
Speed Control of Induction Motors
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Induction Motor Ratings
Induction Motor Construction
The singlephase
induction motor is Power
Supply
the most
frequently used
Rotor
motor in the world.
Most appliances, Stator
such as washing
machines and
refrigerators, use a
singlephase
induction machine Shaft
Highly reliable and
economical
Induction Motor Construction
Using amortisseur windings, no DC field circuit.
Called “induction machines” because the rotor
voltage is induced in the rotor windings instead of
physically connected by wires.
Mostly used as motor, rarely as generator.
2 types of rotor – squirrel cage & wound rotors.
Most motors use the squirrelcage rotor because
of the robust and maintenancefree construction.
Induction Motor Construction
Squirrelcage rotor
Induction Motor Construction
Rotor bars (slightly skewed)
End ring
τ ind = kBR × BS
Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Concept of Rotor Slip
The voltage induced in rotor bar depends on the speed
of the rotor relative to the magnetic fields.
2 terms to define the relative motion:
Slip speed  difference between synchronous speed
and rotor speed:
nslip = nsync − nm
Slip  relative speed expressed on p.u. basis:
nslip ω sync − ωm
s= s=
nsync ω sync
nm = (1 − s)nsync
Basic Induction Motor Concepts
The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor
Induction motor also called as rotating transformer due to
its induced voltage and current.
Primary (stator) & Secondary (rotor).
Unlike transformer, frequency not necessarily same at
secondary and primary.
If rotor is locked, fr = fs or fe.
If rotor at nsync, fr = 0.
If rotor rotate in between the above speeds,
P
f r = sf e fr = (nsync − nm )
120
The Equivalent Circuit
An induction motor has two magnetically coupled circuits:
the stator and the rotor. The latter is shortcircuited.
This is similar to a transformer, that the secondary side is
rotating and shortcircuited.
The motor has balanced threephase circuits;
consequently, the singlephase representation is sufficient.
Both the stator and rotor have windings, which have
resistance and leakage inductance.
The stator and rotor winding are represented by a
resistance and leakage reactance connected in series.
The Equivalent Circuit
A transformer represents the magnetic coupling between
the two circuits.
The stator produces a rotating magnetic field that induces
voltage in both windings.
A magnetizing reactance (XM) and a resistance
connected in parallel represent the magnetic field
generation.
The resistance (RC) represents the eddy current and
hysteresis losses in the iron core.
The induced voltage is depend on the slip and the turn
ratio.
The Equivalent Circuit
The Transformer Model of an Induction Motor
I1 jX 1 I2 IR jX R
R1 aeff
IM
VP RC jX M E1 ER RR
Stator Rotor
The Equivalent Circuit
Magnetization curve
φ
(Wb)
The curve is more
shallower because
Transformer
of the air gap in an
induction motor
Induction that increases the
motor reluctance of the
ℑ (Aturns) flux path. More
magnetizing
current is needed!
The Equivalent Circuit
The Rotor Circuit Model
The magnitude of induced rotor voltage is directly
proportional to slip (s) of the rotor; largest during
lockedrotor and smallest during synchronous
speed with stator magnetic field.
E R = sE LR During lockedrotor
Rotor current,
ER E LR
IR = = Z R ,eq = RR / s + jX LR
RR + jX R RR / s + jX LR
The Equivalent Circuit
Final Equivalent Circuit (Per phase circuit)
Referred rotor circuit to stator side (similar to
transformer – secondary referred to primary).
E1 = E R' = aeff E LR
VP = VS' = aVS
IR
IS I2 =
IP = =I S' aeff
a
Z S' = a 2 Z S 2 RR
Z2 = aeff + jX LR
s
Transformer Induction motor
The Equivalent Circuit
Perphase Equivalent circuit of induction motor
jX 1 R1 jX 2 I2
IM
I1
Vφ jX M Rc E1 R2/s
2
R2 = aeff RR
2
X 2 = aeff X LR
Power and Torque
Transformer has electric power output from secondary,
but induction motor has no electric power output from
rotor as it is shorted out.
Only mechanical power output from rotor.
PAG Pconv
Mechanical power
Pstray
Pfriction
PRCL (Pmisc. )
Pcore and
PSCL (Rotor
IR
2 (Core windage
(Stator copper
losses) losses
copper loss)
loss) RC
Power and Torque
jX 1 R1 jX 2 I2
IM
I1
Vφ jX M Rc E1 R2/s
Vφ
I1 =
Z eq
1
Z eq = R1 + jX 1 +
1
GC − jBM +
R2 s + jX 2
Power and Torque
The stator copper losses
PSCL = 3I12 R1
The core losses
Pcore = 3E12GC
The airgap power
R2
PAG = Pin − PSCL − Pcore = 3I 22
s
The rotor copper losses PRCL = sPAG
PRCL = 3I R2 RR = 3I 22 R2
Power and Torque
The electrical power is then converted to
mechanical power, called Pconv or developed
mechanical power.
Pconv = PAG − PRCL Pconv = PAG − PRCL
2 1− s = PAG − sPAG
= 3I 2 R2
s = (1 − s ) PAG
(SCL) IM (RCL)
R2(1s)/s
Vφ
(Core loss) Rc jX M E1
(Pconv)
R2 1− s
Rconv = − R2 = R2
s s
TorqueSpeed Characteristics
I1 jX 1 R1 jX2 I2
Vφ jX M E1 R2 /s
jX 1 R1 jX 1 R1
Vφ + XM VTH jX M ( R1 + jX 1 ) jX M
VTH = VjX
φ
M ZTH =
R12 + ( X 1 + X M ) 2 R1 + j ( X 1 + X M )
+ E1 R2 /s
V TH

Pullout torque
500
400 Starting
torque
300
100
) da ol
nsync
Mechanical Speed
TorqueSpeed Characteristics
Torquespeed characteristic curve (extended operating ranges)
τ ma
400
x
Generator region
800
TorqueSpeed Characteristics
Torque and power converted versus motor speed
800 120
700
105
600
90
500
75
400
60
300
45
) Wk( r e wo P
200
30
100
( e uqr ot dec udnI
15
250 1000 2000
Mechanical speed (r/min)
TorqueSpeed Characteristics
Maximum (Pullout) Torque
Maximum torque occurs when the airgap power
is maximum and it is equal to the power
consumed in load resistor, R2/s.
R2 2
= RTH + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2
s
1 2 1 2 1 2
3 3
hp eer hT
nart ot ua
Motor terminals
Speed Control of Induction Motors
2 techniques to control the speed of induction
motor:
i. Vary the nsync (changing fe and pole)
ii. Vary the slip (changing VT and rotor resistance)
Changing Pole
Old technique, greatly obsolete nowadays!
Speed Control of Induction Motors
Changing Line Frequency
From the below equation,
VM
φ(t) = − cos ωt f ↓, φ ↑ Excessive magnetization
ωN P e current flow in the motor!
R1 R1
VDC V
(variable)
R1
PSCL = 3I12 R1 Vφ
Pin = PSCL + Prot Z eq = ≈ X1 + X M
Prot = Pcore + PF &W + Pmisc I1,nl
I1 I 1 R1 jX1 I2=0
RR jX
jX11 jX2 R2
+ 11
Since + +
Initial
Combining
R2(1s)/s IM R F,RW,
equivalent
R V jX MM F&W=
& core
>>F&WR2and
VφφVφ R
RCC jXjX
and M >>
R2(1s)/s X
R 2 (1s)/s
M
circuit
R
RC2(1s)/s
 
>> X2.
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Lockedrotor Test
IA
aA P
Adjustable
IBV
voltage,
adjustable
frequency,
bA Locked
threephase rotor f r = f e = f test
power source IC
cA
P
I A + I B + IC
IL = ≈ I L,rated
3
I1 R1 I2
jX1 jX2
+
X M >> R2 + jX 2
Vφ RC jX M R2/s=R2
RC >> R2 + jX 2
 So neglect RC and X M
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Lockedrotor Test
One problem with this test: During normal
operating conditions, s of the motor is only 24%,
and resulting the frotor is in the range of 13 Hz.
The fe,rated (50/60 Hz) does not represent the normal
operating conditions of the rotor.
A typical compromise is to use a frequency (ftest)
25% or less of fe,rated, examples: 12.5 Hz and 15 Hz.
Determining Circuit Model Parameters
Lockedrotor Test
The input power to the motor,
Pin = 3VT I L cos θ