Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

TYPES OF MIC ROO RG ANIS M.

FUNGI
BACTERIA

MICROORGANISM
ALGAE
ALGAE
PROTOZOA

VIRUSSES
MICROORGANISM CHARACTERISTIC

VIRUS SMALLEST MICROORGANISM


HAS VARIOUS SHAPE; CYLINDER, SPHERE
CANNOT BE CLASSIFY AS LIVING ORG, IT CAN ONLY
MULTIPLY IN LIVING CELL
IT CRYSTALLIZES OUTSIDE LIVING CELL
BASIC COMPONENT IS NUCLEAR ACID & OUTER
PROTEIN COAT
VIRUS CAUSES VARIOUS KINDS OD DISEASE

BACTERIA UNICELLULAR ORGANISM


REPRODUCES BY BINARY FISSION (COCCUS)
FORM SPORES UNDER ADVERSE CONDITION.

ALGAE UNICELLULAR & MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM


CAN CARRY PHOTOSYNTHESIS ( SPIROGYRA SP.)
PROTOZOA UNICELLULAR ORGANISM
LIVE IN WATER (PARAMECIUM SP. & AMOEBA SP.)
FUNGI UNICELLULAR & MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM
REPRODUCE BY FORMING SPORE, (YEAST & MOULD)
PA THO GEN S, VECTO RS, SYM PTO M &
ME THO D IN TR ANS MI SSI ON OF DISEA SES
DISEASE PATHOGEN METHOD OF SYMPTOM
TRANSMISSION

MALARIA PLASMODIUM SP VECTOR , HIGH FEVER, SEVERE


(PROTOZOA) ANOPHELES SP. SHIVERING & SWEATING
MOSQUITO

CHOLERA VIBRIO CHOLERA CONSUMING DIARRHOEA,


(BACTERIA) CONTAMINATED FOOD VOMITTING,
& WATER DEHYDRATION.

HEPATITIS VIRUSES HEP A: OCCUR WHEN VOMITTING, DIARRHOEA


CONSUME , FEVER, STOMACH
CONTAMINATED FOOD CRAMP.
& WATER NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
HEP B: TRANSMITTED PAIN, CANCER OF THE
BY CONTAMINATED LIVER.
BLOOD & SEXUAL
INTERCOURSE
RINGWORM FUNGI DIRECT CONTACT REDDISH CIRCULAR
WITH INFECTED RASHES, LESION & VERY
PERSON ITCHY.
TRANSMISSION OF THE DISEASES

Food & Water.


•Microorganism enter digestive Direct Contact
system through contaminated •Infected person by sharing
food & water, unwashed hands & personal item such as towel,
feaces of infected people. unprotected sex
•Eg: Cholera (b), Hepatitis A(v) Eg: ,Ringworm (f), AIDs

HOW THE
DISEASES SPREAD

Airborne & Droplet Transmission Vectors


•Method where pathogens change •Malaria is caused by
into spores then transmit by air. Plasmodium sp. transmit
•Liquid droplet of infected people by mosquitoes Anopheles
enter other people respiratory sys. •Houseflies can cause
•Eg: flu, viral fever, food poisoning .
VACCINES ANTIBIOTICS
Dead or weakened •Penicillin & streptomycin are
bacteria or viruses is •Produced by microogrs which
inoculated into body inhibit the growth or kill other
to induce antibodies microogs esp. bacteria
Eg: BCG

METHODS OF CONTROLLING PATHOGENS

DISINFECTANTS
ANTISEPTICS •Solutions used to sterilize
•Used on cuts & wounds surgical equipment, kill
to kill & inhibit growth of microorgs on the floor
microorgs.
•Eg: phenol, farmaldehyde
• Eg: iodine solution
THE ROLE OF USEFUL MICROORGANISM

1. THE NITROGEN CYCLE

• Allows nitrogen to be utilized by organism & return to physical


environment.
a. Nitrogen fixation :Nitrogen
: fixing bacteria such as Nostoc sp. &
Rhizobium sp. will convert nitrogen from atmosferic to ammonium ..
• Plants absorb nitrogen in form of ammonium & nitrate then convert to
plant protien.
• When animals eats plants the organic nitrogen is transfer into their
body.
• When they die decompose bacteria change them into ammonium .

b. Nitrification process. :Ammonium


: compounds are converted into
nitrites by Nitrosomonas sp.

c. Nitryfying process :Nitrites


: convert into nitrates by Nitrobacter sp

d. Denitryfying process:
Nitrates will break down to nitrogen back to atmosphere
2. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IN HUMANS

•Symbiotic bacteria in human colon synthesis vitamin B 12 & Vit K.


•Deficiency in vitamin B 12 lead to anemia
•Lack of Vit K, slow down the blood clotting process

3. ALIMENTARY CANALS OF TERMITES


•Termites feed on wood which contain cellulase but they do not have
cellulase enzyme.
•Trichonympha sp. Is mutualistic protozoa present in alimentary canal of
termites & secrete cellulase.

4. DECOMPOSITION
Carried out by saprophytic bacteria & fungi called decomposers
Secretes enzyme that break down complex organic into simple inorganic it
can reduce pollution cause it turns to water, minerals & CO2
Maintain life on earth by recycling & release nutrients into soil.
MICROORGANISM USE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
1. PRODUCTION Penicillin the first antibiotic discovered by
OF ANTIIOTIC Alexander Flemming is produced by the fungus
& VACCINES Penicilium notatum is use to treat blood poisoning,
syphlis & pneumonia.
BCG vaccine use to treat tuberculosis.
Salk vaccine protect us poliomyelities
2. CLEANING OF Bacteria which fed on oil are now used to clean up
OIL SPILLS oil spills are sprayed on the surface of oil spill
instead of using chemical methods.
The hydrocarbon in the oil is decomposed by
bacteria to release carbon dioxide.
3. WASTE Sewage from household & industries
TREATMENT Aerobic bacteria in the sewage decompose
organic matter at treatment plants.
Anaerobic bacteria continue decompose the
organic matter to methane & carbon dioxide.
The digested sludge is rich in nitrates &
Can you gi ve more
exampl e on useful l of
mi croorgani sm?
4. Food Processing.

Fermentation by yeast in bread making produces CO2 which helps the


dough to rise.
Beer is brewed from barley grains.
Wine is made by fermentation of grape juices, ethanol & CO2 are
realeased.
Yoghurt is made from fermentation of milk by using bacteria
Lactobacillus bulgaricus which convert sugar into lactic acid.
Cheese is made by mixing Streptococcus with the enzyme rennin.

5. Production of Biodegradable Plastic (bioplastic)

Bioplastic can be broken down into inorganic compound by bacteria.


Bioplastic is produced by culturing bacteria such as Erwina sp in
glucose.
The bacteria react by producing plastic as a storage component in
their cells
Bioplastic is to used to make credit card, bottles, medical gums.
6. Production of Energy from Biomass

Two sources of energy that are generated through the activities of


microorganism are biogas & gasohol.
Biogas is a gas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter
or waste in a bioreactor
Gasohol or biofuel is a combination of 10% ethanol & 99% petrol.
Sugar cane & maize are the main sources of gasohol.
The cane or maize is crushed & sucrose is extracted to form a syrup , the
fermentation of this syrup by yeast will produce ethanol.