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COMPONENTS &

PROGRAMMING OF
PLC
 By Nurdiana binti Nordin
LEARNING OUTCOMES
 for lecture today
Learning outcomes
LECTURE CONTENTS
Today’s Lecture
Continuation from last week

v Hardware Components of PLC


v PLC Hardware Configurations
v Power Supply
v CPU/Processor
vMemory
vI/O Modules
vProgramming Device
vAdditional/Optional components
vProgramming of PLC

PLC HARDWARE
COMPONENTS: MEMORY
Memory
Memory
Factors affecting memory size
PLC HARDWARE
COMPONENTS:
INPUT & OUTPUT MODULES
Input & Output Modules
Input & Output Modules
 Input devices (push
button, limit switches,
various of sensors, etc)
are wired /connected
to the terminal on the
input modules
Input & Output Modules

 Output devices
(motor, light, valve,
motor starter, etc)
are wired/connected
to terminal on the
output modules
Input & Output Modules
- I/O modules can be located near the I/O devices
by using Remote I/O hence minimizing wiring
connection.
Input & Output Modules
Input & Output Modules
Input & Output Modules
Input & Output Modules
Common voltage rating for DISCREET I/O

modules

Input Interfaces Output Interface

12V/24V AC/DC 12-48V AC

48V AC/DC 120V AC

120V AC 230V AC

230V AC/DC 120V AC

5V DC 230V DC/5V DC/


24V DC
Input & Output Modules
Input & Output Modules
PLC HARDWARE
COMPONENTS:
PROGRAMMING DEVICE
Programming Devices

 Also called as
Program Terminal
(PT)
Programming Devices
Programming Device
PROGRAMMING OF PLC
Introduction
q Programming means: user enters
the control instruction/control
program to PLC through
programming devices
q
q PLC programming is based on basic
logic function stored in processor
(programmable & easily changed)
q
q PLC programming languages

PLC Program Scan
- The process that processor reads
input data, execute the control
program, and send output data
for complete cycle operation is
called program scan

- PLC program scan consist of


three stages:

 i. input scan
PLC Program Scan
PLC Program Scan
∆ PLC required certain amount of time to execute one
complete cycle
operation of program scan

∆ Typical scan time : 1 – 25mSec

Operating cycle / scan time
 depends on :
Logic Control and Sequence
I/O devices for Logic Control &
Sequence
Sensor One/Zero Actuator One/Zero
Interpretation Interpretation
Limit switch Contact/no contact Motor On/off

Photo detector On/off Control relay Contact/no contact

PB switch On/off Light On/off

Timer On/off Valve Closed/open

Control relay Contact/no contact Clutch Engaged/not


engaged
Circuit breaker Contact/no contact Solenoid Energized/not
energized
Programming of PLC
Basic Gates and Boolean
equations
Truth table and Boolean equations

v AND gate
v OR gate
v NOT gate
v NAND gate
v NOR gate
Basic Gates and Boolean
equations

XOR

AND
Programming of PLC
PLC Programming Language
5 types of programming languages
according to
IEC 61131-3 (International Standard for

PLC)

 i. Ladder diagram (LD) – graphical, discrete


control
 ii. Function block diagram (FBD) – graphical,
continuous control
 iii. Sequential function chart (SFC) – graphical,
sequencing
 iv. Instruction list (IL) – textual, discrete control

Ladder Diagram
- Ladder diagram is the most common PLC
language programming
- Logic input elements and output
components are displayed along
horizontal line (called rungs) and
connected on two vertical rail
- Logic input elements located to the left
and output element to the far right of
each rung
- Power is provided by the two vertical rails

Ladder Diagram
- In ladder diagram,
logic instructions are
executes from top to
bottom, left to the right

- Logic inputs are


connected in series,
parallel or some
combinations to obtain
desired logic

- Use ladder symbols



Ladder Diagram : Symbols
Normally open (NO) contacts (switch/relay/etc.)

Normally open (NO) contacts (switch/relay/etc.)

Output loads (motor/solenoid/valve/light/etc.)

TMR
3s
Timer

CTR Counter
MY 2 CENTS
Being happy doesn ’ t mean
that everything is perfect
perfec
but rather it means
you ’ ve decided to
look beyond
the imperfections