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p

General Concept

Speed Control

SCR Drives

Switched-mode DC Drives

Ädvantages of DC motor :

ã Ease of control

ã Deliver high starting torque

ã Near-linear performance

Disadvantages:

Ñ èigh maintenance

Ñ Large and expensive (compared to induction

motor)

Ñ Not suitable for high-speed operation due to

commutator and brushes

Ñ Not suitable in explosive or very clean environment

The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap (compared to

induction motor drives). But DC motor itself is more expensive.

Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor (especially

maintenance), it is getting less popular, particularly in high

power applications.

For low power applications the cost of DC motor plus drives

is still economical.

For servo application, DC drives is still popular because of

good dynamic response and ease of control.

Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, especially in

high power drives.

The field windings is used to excite the field flux.

Armature current is supplied to the rotor via brush

and commutator for the mechanical work.

Interaction of field flux and armature current in the

rotor produces torque.

When a separately excited motor is excited by a

field current of ÷ and an armature current of ÷flows in

the circuit, the motor develops a back emf and a

torque to balance the load torque at a particular speed.

supplied separately. Any change in the armature

current has no effect on the field current.

·ield and armature equations

Instantaneous field current :

Instantaneous armature current :

respectively

The motor back emf, which is also known as speed voltage,

is expressed :

eg = Kv X f

Kv is the motor voltage constant (in V/A-rad/s)

and X is the motor speed (in rad/det)

asic Torque Equation

The torque developed by the motor is :

Td = Kt if ia

Where (Kt = Kv) is the torque constant in V/A ± rad/s

Sometimes it is written as :

Td = Kt ĭ ia

For normal operation the developed torque must be equal to the load

torque plus the friction and inertia, i.e, :

where

B : viscous friction constant (N-m/rad/s)

6nder steady-state operation, time

derivatives is zero. Assuming the motor

is saturated

Vf = If Rf

The back emf is given by:

Eg = Kv Ȧ if

Va = Ia Ra + Eg

Va = Ia Ra + Kv Ȧ If

j j

j

The motor speed can be easily derived :

loaded, i.e, Ia is small

That is if the field current is kept constant, the motor speed depends

only on the supply voltage.

Td = Kt If Ia = Ȧ + TL

@ X

Ô From the derivation, several important facts can be

deduced for steady-state operation of DC motor.

can be satisfied by varying the armature current (p).

± controlling O (voltage control)

± controlling O (field control)

variable DC voltage to control the speed and torque

of DC motor.

Consider a 500V, 10kW , 20A rated- DC motor with armature resistance

of 1 ohm. When supplied at 500V, the unloaded motor runs at 1040

rev/min, drawing a current of 0.8A

± Estimate the full load speed at rated values

± Estimate the no-load speed at 250V.

Va = Ia Ra + Kv Ȧ If

At full load and rated value,

Ë Ë O

At no load and voltage at 250 V O

÷÷÷÷÷

ù Family of steady-state torque speed curves for a range

of armature voltage can be drawn as above.

ù The speed of DC motor can simply be set by applying

the correct voltage.

ù Note that speed variation from no-load to full load (rated) can

be quite small. It depends on the armature resistance.

u

m m ár m m 2

With a constant field current, the flux can be assumed to be constant. Let

m (Constant)

Ë

Ë 2

u

Series Motor

the speed which correspond to the rated Va, rated Ia and

rated p .

Constant Torque region ( w > wD)

p and p are maintained constant to met torque demand.

O is varied to control the speed. Power increases with speed.

Constant Power region ( w > wD)

O is maintained at the rated value and ÷ is reduced to increase speed.

èowever, the power developed by the motor (= torque x speed) remains

constant. Known as K

Say the motor running at position A. Suddenly is reduced (below ).

The current ia will reverse direction. áperating point is shifted to B.

Since ÷ is negative, torque is negative.

Power is also negative, which implies power is ³generated´ back to

the supply.

In other words, during the deceleration phase, kinetic energy from the motor

and load inertia is returned to the supply.

Widely employ in electric vehicle and electric trains. If we wish the motor

to operate continuously at position B, the machine have to be driven by

mechanical source.

The mechanical source is a ³prime mover´.

We must force the prime mover it to run faster so that the generated

will be greater than .

SCR ³phase-angle controlled´ drive

- By changing the firing angle, variable DC output voltage can be

obtained.

± Single phase (low power) and three phase (high and very high power)

supply can be used

± The line current is unidirectional, but the output voltage can reverse

polarity. èence 2- quadrant operation is inherently possible.

± 4-quadrant is also possible using ³two sets´ of controlled rectifiers.

Switched-mode drive

± 6sing switched mode DC-DC converter. Dc voltage is varied by

duty cycle.

± Mainly used for low to medium power range.

± Single-quadrant converter (buck): 1- quadrant

± èalf bridge: 2-quadrant

± Full bridge: 4-quadrant operation

Mains operated.

Slow response.

Normally field rectifier have much lower ratings than the armature

rectifier. It is only used to establish the flux.

Continuous/Discontinuous current

The key reason for successful DC drive operation is due to the large

armature inductance .

Large allows for almost constant armature current (with small ripple)

due to ³current filtering effect of L´. (Refer to notes on Rectifier).

Average value of the ripple current is zero. No significant effect on the

torque.

supply is single phase (halfwave), discontinuous current may occur.

speed goes higher. In open loop operation the speed is poorly regulated.

inductance.

Armature Field

For continuous current, armature voltage is :

·ield voltage

`
÷

÷

for

2

2
÷

÷÷

for u

A
÷

÷

2

for u

O
÷

÷

2 u

for

Ärmature voltage :

`

÷

Ë for

2u

2

÷÷

Ë for u

2u

A

÷

Ë for u

u

O

÷

u

for

A separately excited DC motor has a constant torque load of 60 Nm. The

motor is driven by a full-wave converter connected to a 240 V ac supply.

The field constant of the motor KIf = 2.5 and the armature resistance is 2

ohm. Calculate the triggering angle for the motor to operate at 200 rpm.

Assume the current is continuous.

For continuous current, 2

and Ë

Where Eg is the back emf,i.e Ë Ë 2

and 2 u

u Ë Ë

A rectifier-DC motor drive is supplied by a three-phase, full controlled SCR

bridge 240Vrms/50èz per-phase. The field is supplied by a single-phase 240V

rms/50èz, with uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier. The field current is set as

maximum as possible.

The separately excited DC motor characteristics is given as follows :

Armature resistance:i = 0.3 ohm

Field resistance: i =175 ohm

Motor constant: O =1.5 V/A-rad/s

Assume the inductance of the armature and field circuit is large enough to ensure

continuous and ripple-free currents. If the delay angle of the armature converter (Į) is

45 degrees and the required armature current is 30A,

a) Calculate the developed torque, Td.

b) Speed of the motor, Ȧ (rad/s)

c) If the polarity of the field current is reversed, the motor back emf will reverse.

For the same armature current of 30A, determine the required delay angle of the

armature converter.

Since field current is maximum, § = 0.

Now the polarity of field is reversed, then

and

also

DC motor in inherently bi-directional. èence no problem to reverse

the direction. It can be a motor or generator.

devices.

èowever, if the rectifier is fully controlled, it can be operated to become

negative DC voltage, by making firing angle greater than 90 degrees,

Reversal using armature or field contactors

DRIVE REVERSING USING ÄRMÄTURE OR ·IELD CONTÄCTORS

(SINGLE PHÄSE SYSTEM)

i÷ ÷ D

Principle of reversal

Practical circuit

Supply is DC (maybe from rectified-filtered AC, or some other DC sources).

DC-DC converters (choppers) are used.

suitable for applications requiring position control or fast response, for

example in servo applications, robotics, etc.

Normally operate at high frequency

± the average output voltage response is significantly faster

± the armature current ripple is relatively less than the controlled rectifier

± single quadrant,

± two±quadrant

± and four±quadrant

6nidirectional speed. Braking not required.

The armature voltage at steady state :

Ë Ë Ë !

u u

Armature (DC) current is :

Ë

And speed can be approximated as : Ë

ó FáRWARD MáTáRING (T1 and D2 operate)

± T1 on: The supply is connected to motor terminal.

± T1 off: The armature current freewheels through D2.

± V (hence speed) is determined by the duty ratio.

ó REGENERATIáN (T2 and D1 operate)

± T2 on: motor acts as a generator

± T2 off: the motor acting as a generator returns

energy to the supply through D2.

A full-bridge DC-DC converter is used.

ó T1 and T2 operate; T3 and T4 off.

ó T1 and T2 turn on together: the supply voltage appear across the motor

terminal. Armature current rises.

ã T1, T2 and T3 turned off.

ã When T4 is turned on, the armature current rises through T4 and D2.

to the supply through D1 and D2.

ù T3 and T3 operate; T1 and T2 off.

ù When T3 and T4 are on together, the armature current rises and flows

in reverse direction.

ù èence the motor rotates in reverse direction.

ù When T3 and T4 turn off, the armature current decays through D1 and D2.

Ñ T1, T3 and T4 are off.

Ñ When Q2 is turned off, the armature current falls and the motor returns

energy to the supply through D3 and D4.

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