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CONTENTS

› INTRODUCTION

› MODEL MATERIALS

› DESIRABLE QUALITIES OF DIE MATERIALS

› TYPES OF DIE MATERIAL

› COMPATIBILITY OF DIE MATERIALS WITH IMPRESSION


MATERIALS
› COMPARISON OF THE VARIOUS DIE MATERIALS

› SUMMARY

› CONCLUSION

› REFERENCES
› In dentistry replicas of the hard and soft tissues are used
for diagnosis and treatment of oral tissues. These replicas
are called ³study models´, ³casts´, or ³die´.
› ë ë A positive full scale replica of teeth, soft
tissues, and restored structures used as a diagnostic aid for
construction of orthodontic and prosthetic appliances.

They are used for observation of the patient¶s oral structure for e.g.
orthodontists use study models to evaluate the crowding of teeth or
progress in correcting that crowding.

›  ë J Is a working model.

Acc to GPTJ A life size likeness of some desired form. It is formed


within or is a material poured into a matrix or impression of the
desired form.
› 
 These are extremely accurate replicas of a single tooth
and are generally used to make crowns or inlays.

Acc. to PHILLIPS it is a reproduction of a prepared tooth made


from a gypsum product, epoxy resin, a metal, or a refractory
material.

Acc. to GPTJ the positive reproduction of the form of a prepared


tooth in any suitable substance.

It is the reproduction of the form of a prepared tooth in a suitable


hard substance.(JPD 1968; 20, 5)
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~ODEL ~ TERI LS
The most commonly used model materials are gypsum products.
Gypsum is a mineral found as white to milky-yellowish mass
in nature. Plaster and stone products are produced by calcining
calcium sulphate dihydrate or Gypsum

CaSO4 . 2H2O 110° - 130° C CaSO4 . ½H2O

(gypsum) (plaster or stone)


Calcium sulfate dihydrateJ CaSO4. 2H2O
GYPSUM

Heat in open vessel Heat in autoclave,


steam pressure 120°C- Heat ground gypsum Heat in boiling
at 120°C
130°C in autoclave J sodium 30% solution of
succinate additive, CaCl2 or MgCl2
1400C

Calcined calcium Calcium sulphate


sulfate hemihydrate
hemihydrate Autoclaved calcium sulfate
hemihydrate (sometimes called
(ȕ-hemihydrate) densite; similar to
(Į-hemihydrate) autoclaved material
(CaSO4)2 ½H2O
Calcium sulfate
hemihydrate
CaSO4 ½H2O

Heat at <200°C Heat at >200°C

Hexagonal calcium Orthorhombic


sulfate; soluble calcium sulfate;
anhydrite insoluble anhydrite

Anhydrous calcium sulfate J CaSO4


SETTING RE CTION

› m e e i rate is ti es re s l le i ater t a is t e i rate ear


r te erat re ( º ). m e setti reacti ca e erst  as f ll sJ
e t e e i rate is i e it ater, a s s e si is f r e t at is fl i
a  r a le. e i rate issl es til it fr s a sat rate sl ti.
m is sat rate e i rate sl ti, s ersat rate i i rate,
reci itates t i rate. s i rate reci itates t, slti is 
ler satrate it t e e i rate, s it cties t issl e.
isslti f e i rate a reciitati f i rate r ees as eit er
e rstals fr r frt er rt f alrea reset rstals ae. m is
is tis a ties till  i rate re iitates t.
CaSO4 ‡ (1/2)H2O] + [(3/2)H2O] ----------> CaSO4 ‡ (2)H2O + HEAT

P l a s t e r , Stone, Die Stone + Water ----------> Gypsum + HEAT

Calcium Sulfate Calcium Sulfate


Hemihydrate Dihydrate
  
 


› The water/powder ratio is 0.28 ± 0.30.

› Mixing time is 20-30 seconds mechanically and around one


minute through hand spatulation.

› The working time is 3 minutes.

› Setting time is 12±4 minutes.

› The compressive strength of the mixture in 1 hour is 20.7 MPa


Chemical Name Ʌ-calcium sulfate Ʉ-calcium sulfate Ʉ-calcium sulfate

Formula CaSO4-(1/2)H2O CaSO4-(1/2)H2O CaSO4-(1/2)H2O

   Irregular Uniform Uniform

Density Porous Moderately dense Dense

Dental Products Plaster, impression 


  

plaster

Common Names   


     
    
~ NIPUL TION

› Storage: In closed containers to prevent reaction with moisture from the


atmosphere which can cause formation of the dihydrate which can accelerate the
setting time.
› Correct water / powder ratio

To attain maximum strength and resistance to abrasion it is necessary to use the


current water to powder ratio when preparing dies made of gypsum products.
Reducing or increasing wJp ratios, the powder to liquid ratio below that
recommended by the manufactures result in not only reduced strength and
abrasion resistance but also a deviation from the expected setting expansion.
› The w/p ratio for gypsum die materials is 0.22 to 0.24 i.e. 100 gm of material is
mixed with 22 ml of water
SP TUL TION

Measured amounts of water and powder are added to a flexible


rubber mixing bowl. The water is dispensed in the bowl first
the powder is added and allowed to settle in to the water for
approximately 30 sec.

å Spatulate using stiff blade.

å Mixing for one minute.

å Use of automatic vibrator.

å Time and rate of spatulation.


SETTING PROCESS

› Initially a mix of hemihydrate and water can be poured.

› Next the material becomes rigid but not hard this is called
initial setting. At this stage the material can be carved but not
molded.

› The final set follows when the mix becomes hard and strong.
However at this stage the hydration reaction is not necessarily
complete nor has optimum strength and hardness necessarily
been achieved.
› Heat is given out during setting since the hydration of the
hemihydrate is exothermic.

› Dimensional changes also takes place. A setting expansion of


0.05 ± 0.3% is observed for dental stones. This is caused by the
outward thrust of the growing crystals of dehydrate. If the
material is placed under water at the initial set stage a greater
expansion on setting occurs. This is hygroscopic expansion.
DESIR LE QU LITIES OF DIE ~ TERI LS

› Ability to reproduce fine detail and sharp margins.

› Dimensional accuracy and stability ± should show little


dimensional change on setting and should remain stable.

› Mechanical properties

 High strength to reduce the likelihood of accidental


breakage.

 Abrasion resistance so that the die can withstand the


manipulative procedures during carving of wax pattern.
› Compatibility with impression materialsJ There should be no
interaction between surface of impression and die.

› Good color contrast with other materials being used for ex.
Inlay wax or porcelain.

› Biological safetyJ non-injurious to health by touch or


inhalation.

› Economical

› Easy to use.
TYPES OF DIE ~ TERI LS

› Ô 


 Model plaster

 Dental stone

 Improved stone

 Gypsum bonded

investment
 Phosphate bonded

investment
› ~


 Amalgam

 Electroplated copper

 Electroplated silver

 Metal sprayed dies

›   


 Silico phosphate cements


›        

Self curing acrylics

Epoxy resins

Polyesters and epiamines

›    

›  
 

 IBI I  I I WI

I I I
DIE MATERIAL IMPRESSION MATERIAL

› Gypsum type IV For all impression material


› Gypsum type V For all impression material
› Divestment For silicone, polysulphide and
alginate impression material
› Silver plated dies Used with elastomeric impression
material
› ~etal sprayed die Impression compound ,silicone rubber
impression
› malgam Used with inelastic impression material
› Epoxy polymer Used for all impression material
EXCEPT for HYDROCOLLOID
impression material.
› Ceramic die materials Silicone and polysulphide impression
material.
› Flexible die material Used with all EXCEPT polyvinyl
siloxane impression material.
MIGM STRENGTM DENT L STONE

› Both Type IV gypsum and Type V gypsum are known as high


strength dental stones.

› ADA specification no is 25. Both are calcium sulfate alpha


hemihydrate.

› The crystals are denser and have prismatic shape with a


reduced surface area , which makes them suitable as a die
material.
› 6ater /Powder ratioJ

the W/P ratio is an important factor in determining the


physical and chemical properties of the final gypsum product,

› The ideal 6/P ratio for gypsum products,

Type IV (die stone) - 0.22- 0.24

Type V (high strength & expansion) -0.18 -0.22


Effects of Impression and Die Stone Variables
A. IMPRESSION MATERIAL VARIABLESJ
1. Blood and Saliva
2. Plasticizers
3. Hydrophilicity
4. Disinfection Procedures
B. STONE AND DIE STONE VARIABLES
1. W/P Ratio
2. Disinfection Procedures
3. Additives
a. AcceleratorsJ K2SO4; Gypsum Particles
b. RetardersJ Borax (Na2B4O7-10H2O); Colloids
c. FillersJ Silica; Resin
AdvantagesJ
› Generally compatible with all impression materials.

› Have the ability to reproduce fine detail and sharp margins.

› Dimensional accuracy and stability are good.

› Produces consistent results.

› Easy to use.

DisadvantagesJ

å Susceptibility to abrasion during carrying of the wax pattern


especially with Type IV Gypsum die.
To overcome the poor abrasion resistance, the following methods
can be usedJ
l Gypsum hardeners, such as aqueous colloidal silica or soluble
resin restorations, can be used instead of water during mixing
of the stone. This increases the abrasion resistance by 100%.
l Impregnate the surface of the die with a low viscosity resin
such as cyanoacrylate (fine film not thick). Mason et al JPD
23J96;1970)

l Use of gum arabic, calcium hydroxide mixture that reduces the


amount of water necessary to mix gypsum products.
USESJ

l As individual dies for full gold crowns and porcelain fused to


metal and cobalt chromium crowns.

l Used for constructing cast metal denture framework.


DIVEST~ENT

Die stone investment combination (divestment) is a combination of die material and


investment media. A commercial gypsum bonded material called divestment is
mixed with colloidal silica liquid. The die is made from this mix and wax pattern
constructed on it then the entire assembly (Die + Pattern) is invested in a mixture
of divestment and water, thereby eliminating the possibility of distortion of the
pattern on removal from the die or during the setting of investment. The setting
expansion of the material is 0.9% and thermal expansion is 0.6% when heated to
677°C. because divestment is a gypsum bonded material it is not recommended
for high fusing alloys like metal ceramic restorations. It is highly accurate
technique for conventional gold alloys especially intracranial preparations.
ELECTROPL TED DIES/ ELECTROFOR~ED DIES

› Used to overcome the poor abrasion resistance of gypsum.

› It involves electro deposition of silver or copper or gold on the

impression that gives a hard metallic surface to the cast.

› dvantages

 High strength,

 Hardness

 Abrasion resistance
l The first step in the procedure is to treat the surface of the
impression material so that it conducts electricity.

l This process is referred to as METALLIZING. In this process,


a thin layer of metal, such as silver is deposited on the surface of
the impression material.

AMMETER J- The current passed is of 10mA / tooth area for 12


hrs. It should not exceed 50mA.

Plating tank ± glass or hard rubber with well fitting cover to


prevent evaporation.
~etallizing agents are :
1. Bronzing powder suspended in almond oil
2. Aqueous suspensions of silver powder
3. Powdered graphite
Requirements for electroplating :

å The impression to be coated is made the cathode.


å Anode is the metal to be deposited either silver or copper
å Anode and cathode holder.
å Electrolyte is the solution through which the electric current is
passed.
å The ions are deposited from the anode to the cathode.
CO~POSITION OF ELECTROPL TING  TM :
Copper :
Copper sulfate (crystals) ± 200g
Sulfuric acid (concentrated) ± 30 ml
Phenol sulfonic acid ± 2 ml
Water (distilled) ± 1000 ml
Silver :
Silver cyanide ± 36g
Potassium cyanide ± 60 g
Potassium carbonate ± 45g
Water (distilled) ± 1000ml
PROCEDURE :
a) Copper plating :

š The surface of the impression is rendered conductive by


coating it with fine particles of copper or graphite.

š The coated impression is made the cathode (negative electrode)


of a plating bath, with an anode (positive electrode) of copper.

š The electrolyte is an acid solution of copper sulfate (about


250g/l.
A current is passed, causing slow
dissolution of the anode and
movement of copper ions from anode
to cathode, so plating the impression

è m       


Dental   
stone 
is then cast into the plated impression.
è        
The   
technique is 
  often not considered
     suitable for the elastomeric
materials
b) Silver plating:
Polysulfide and silicone impression materials can be silver plated
by the same general technique except
1) The impression is coated with silver or graphite powder.
2) The anode is silver.
3) The electrolyte is an alkaline solution of silver cyanide
› ¬¬ ¬Ô

a) Gives excellent clinical result

b) Hard and most abrasion resistant

c) High strength

d) Better marginal definition

e) Imparts smooth surface to the wax pattern in contact

f) Does not absorb oil or water.


› ¬¬ ¬Ô

a) Limited to non aqueous impression materials

b) Expensive, time consuming and special equipment required

c) Health hazard

d) Difficult to trim

e) Adaptation of wax pattern is not so good as die stone, pattern


tends to lift from the margins

f) Impression materials and electrodeposits can contribute to die


inaccuracies
EPOXY DIES OR POLY~ERS OR FILLED POLY~ERS

› Resins are used as die materials to overcome the low strength


and abrasion resistance of die stone.

› These are self curing acrylic material or polymeric materials


with fillers.

› Epoxy die material can be used with polyether, polysulphide


or silicone epoxy to which filler may be added.

CH2 ± CH ± R ± CH ± CH2
? ?
› dvantages

› More abrasion resistance.

› Less brittle than die stones.

› Can be carved at room temperature.

› Disadvantages

› Shrinkage on polymerization

› Less dimensional stability

› Expensive.
CompositionJ
It has two parts J RESIN and HARDNER

  
 
 


å Epoxynovoclac polymer 50-60%

å Vinyl 3 cyclo hexene diepoxide 30-50%

å 3,4 epoxy cyclo hexene methyl 0-20%

   
 


å Partially hydrolyzed 3,4 benzophene tetra carboxylic acid dianhydride 20%

å Partially hydrolyzed pyrometallic acid dianhydride not less than 50% and
preferably 90% or more.
å The setting reaction is condensation polymerization cross linkage reaction.
å Catalyst J tertiary amine 0.03 parts by weight mixed just before using the
material.
å As activator is toxic, the material should not come in contact with the skin
and cannot be used in mouth. The shrinkage value is 0.1%, which is very
low but hardening takes up 24 hours. Fast setting epoxy material is supplied
in auto mixing system. Epoxy resin in one cartridge and catalyst in another.
Forcing the 2 pastes through the static mixing tip thoroughly mixes the
epoxy material, which can be directly injected into a rubber impression.
This hardens so rapidly that die can be waxed up in half an hour after
injecting into the impression.
PropertiesJ
› Working time ± 15 min.

› Setting time ± 1 to 12 hours depending on the product.

› Knoop hardness number is 25 KHN ±15 less than that of high


strength stone (77 KHN).

› Compressive strength after 7 days is 16,000 psi.

› Abrasion resistance is superior to stone dies.


› Dimensional change due to shrinkage during polymerization is
between 0.03% and 0.3% and continues to occur for upto 3
days.

› Epoxy materials are very viscous when poured hence porosity


can occur.

› Epoxy resin cannot be used with water containing agar and


alginate materials because water retards the polymerization of
the resin. They are compatible with polyether, polysulphide or
silicon impression materials.
~ LGU~ DIES

› They are made by packing amalgam into impression made of


impression compound

› dvantages

Dies made of amalgam exhibit superior strength resistance to


abrasion and reproduce fine details and sharp margins
Although a material of choice a number of years ago it has been largely replaced by
electroplated dies. Which are also resistant to abrasion the property of amalgam
dies has declined for a number of reasons.

› Can be packed only into a rigid impression like that of impression compound.

› (Because of the tech necessary to produce a sound die) dimensional accuracy


may vary from one die to the next.

› Time required for fabricating an amalgam die is lengthy. Although the die
packing procedure may take only 30 minutes amalgam requires 12 to 24 hours of
hardening before it can be manipulated as a die.

› It has high thermal conductivity and so can cool a wax pattern rapidly which
may lead to distraction of the pattern. This can be overcome by warming the die
SILICO- PMOSPM TE CE~ENT

› It is similar to the filling and cementing material. The powder is a


mixture of silicate powder and zinc oxide liquid contains phosphoric
acid.
› dvantages: Strength and surface hardness are superior to those of
die stone.
› Disadvantages: This material contracts during setting and may be
dimensionally inaccurate. There is loss of water on standing since the
viscosity of these material is relatively high. Presence of surface
voids can occur.
~ET L SPR YED DIES:
A bismuth-tin alloy, which melts at 1380c, can be sprayed
directly on to an impression to form a metal shell, which can
then be filled with dental stone.
dvantage
-A metal coated die can be obtained rapidly from
elastomeric impression materials.
Disadvantage
-The alloy is rather soft, care is needed to prevent
abrasion of the die.
CERAMIC DIE MATERIALSJ
Two ceramic die materials are available
-A material for the production of dies on which porcelain
restorations are to be fabricated, without the use of a platinum foil
matrix. To form the dies heating to over 10000c is necessary.
-A ceramic material, supplied as a powder and liquid, and mixed
to a putty like consistency. After 1 hour the material is removed
from the impression and fired at 6000c for 8 minutes to produce a
hard strong die.
FLEXILE DIE ~ TERI L J
Similar to silicone or polyether impression material.
-Used to make provisional restorations or indirect composite
resin inlays .
eg; polyvinyl medium viscosity impression material
dvantages:
-More rapid setting
-ease of removal of provisional or inlay
Disadvantages:
-expensive
CO~P RISONS OF TME V RIOUS DIE ~ TERI LS

› ~oser et al in 1975 found that the epoxy resins reproduced

details better than stone

› Nomura et al in 1980 concluded that the detail

reproduction of epoxy resin dies was comparable to stone

› ailey et al in 1984 found no difference in the accuracy of

stone, epoxy resins and electroplated silver dies.


› Derriem et al in 1995 reported that the detail reproduction of stone
was inferior to epoxy and polyurethane resins. Stone cannot
reproduce details smaller than 20 nm as the gypsum crystal size
ranged formal 15 to 25 nm

› Chaffe et al in 1997 reported that epoxy resins reproduce a single


die with a degree of accuracy similar to gypsum material used

› ccording to Craig: The epoxy resin dies reproduce detail the


best followed by metal die and high strength dental stone.
Dimensional stability:

› Nomura et al in 1980 and Mose et al in 1975 demonstrated that the


epoxy dies were under sized

› Derriem et al in 1995 were able to show that the dies exhibited slight
shrinkage as compared to stone, which exhibited slight expansion.
This required the epoxy dies to be coated with several layers of
spacers

› Chaffee et al in 1997 concluded that the improved dental stone dies


were significantly larger in occluso-gingival dimension than epoxy
resins.
brasion resistance and strength

› Chaffee et al in 1997, Derriem et al 1995 ,Nomura et al in 1980 and Moser et al

in 1975 concluded that metal formed dies have superior abrasion resistance
,epoxy dies have good resistance and the high strength dental stones have the
least resistance to abrasion

› Philip Duke et. al in 2000 conducted a study of the physical properties of type

IV gypsum, resin containing and epoxy die materials. The results were all
gypsum products expanded where as the epoxy resin material contracted during
setting. The epoxy resin exhibited much better detail reproduction, abrasion
resistance, transverse strength than gypsum materials. In general the epoxy resin
exhibited the best properties of the materials studied
0acinthe ~ et al in 2000 conducted a study on the dimensional
accuracy of an epoxy resin die material using two setting
methods and concluded that retarding the setting reaction of an
epoxy resin die material improved its accuracy. Epoxy resin die
materials had a net shrinkage but the gypsum based materials
had a net expansion.
SU~~ RY

› Detailed reproduction of die materials for fixed partial


prosthesis affects the accuracy of working casts and is related
to the compatibility between the die and impression materials.

› Hence an accurate working cast and die are essential in making


successful cast restoration.

› Different types of materials and techniques are available that


will give an extremely precise reproduction of prepared teeth .
› Dental stone is compatible with majority of impression
materials.

› This material is inexpensive easy to use and generally


compatible with all impression material.

› Resistance to abrasion of the material can be effectively


increased by using gypsum hardner, such as aqueous colloidal
silica or soluble resin .

› Epoxy resin and electroplated dies are good alternatives


CONCLUSION

› A good impression and an accurate die are the first step


towards the fabrication of an accurate restoration whether its
inlay, onlay or crown. Proper selection of the die material and
its manipulation are paramount to achieve accuracy in the die.

› In conclusion, a wise choice of material, combined with proper


handling and meticulous approach to the details of each step of
fabrication will bring us that much closer to perfection .
 

› Fundamentals of fixed ProsthodonticsJShillingberg.


Contemporary fixed Prosthodontics JStephen F.Rosenstiel

› Philip¶s science of dental materials : nusavice

› Dental material -properties and manipulation JCraig ,powers

› Notes on dental materials- E C Combe

› Restorative dental materials- Robert G Craig


å IJP 2000 Vol 13, NoJ 3 ppJ 214-220.
å JPD 2000 Apr; Vol 83 NoJ 4 ppJ 466-473.
å JPD 2000 Mar; Vol 83 No. 3 ppJ 301-305.
å JPD 1998 Oct; Vol 80 No. 4 ppJ 485-489.
å JPD 1968 Apr; Vol 20, No 5 pp; 35-38
å JPD 1995 Aug;Vol 74 No. 2 ppJ198-201
å JPD 1988 Mar; Vol 59, No 3 ppJ 326-333
å JOP 2005 Mar; Vol 14, No 1 ppJ 25-31