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Curriculum Development

Instruction (Code -6503)
(Master of Education)

Prepare by Faisal Mahmood Sulehria Sialkot

Under the Kind Supervision of
Respected Madam Sidra Rizwan
Previously teaching meant nothing more than
“giving information and imparting knowledge”. It was
the time when teaching was regarded as a bio-polar
process: Teacher and the subject being its two poles.
The child way altogether ignored.

Modern concept of the nature of teaching is that, it

is a triangular or tri- polar process. The three focal
points of this process are the teacher, the child and the
Characteristics of Good Teaching
Good Teaching is Stimulating
Simulation and inspiration are of fundamental importance in teaching.
A good teacher will try to stimulate his, pupils for work.
Good Teaching Involves Skill of Guiding, Learning
The pupils need guidance to do the right things, in the right manner
and at the right time. But guidance is not to be imposed on the child.
Good Teaching is well planned
A good teacher organizes and plans the subject matter in advance.
Without proper planning, effective delivery of the lesson is not
Good Teaching is suggestive and Cooperative
A good teacher will not impose anything on the child. Rather he will
seek his co-operation and suggest activities, ideas, materials, etc.
Characteristics of Good Teaching (Contd)
Good Teaching is Kindly and Sympathetic
A good teacher is always kind and attends to his pupils’ difficulties and doubts sympathetically.

Good Teaching is a Democratic

Good teaching should be based on democratic principles. The teacher should have due regard for
the rights and individuality of the child.

Good Teaching is Both Diagnostic and Remedial

The teacher must study and assess the inborn qualities of the children individually. Their
limitations, handicaps and difficulties are to be discovered and remedial measures suggested.

Good Teaching is Co-relative

A good teacher does not simply narrate various items of knowledge in watertight compartments.
He tries to link the new knowledge and experience of pupils. He also tries to co-relate his subject
with craft, their physical and social environment.

Good Teaching Literates the Learner

Good teaching develops in the child habits of initiative, dependent thinking, self-reliance arid self-
confidence. It enables him to learn for himself and reduces his dependence upon the teacher.
Need of Teaching
Patterns from Teaching Traditions
The teachers teach generally the same way as they were taught by their
teachers and specially by the way of the teacher whom they identify as
their ideals.
. .
Patterns from Social Learning
The teachers work generally as a prisoner of their own background and
develop the same type of behavior among their students as seen by

Patterns from Philosophical Traditions

Each and every teacher, whether he knows or not. teaches according to
one or other philosophy of education.
Need of Teaching (Contd)

Patterns from Conditions of School and Community

The teachers generally work in the school in the way, which the
school administration and the members of community expect
from them.

Patterns from Research

Some teachers conduct research on learning and teach
according to that pattern.
However, it has also been seen that several teachers fail to
work in the way.
Teaching Process

The task of teaching is complex and has cyclical nature.

Complexity of Teaching Process

Joel Levine presents three models of teaching, which show complex nature of learning.


Basic Model of Teaching (COMPLEXITY)

Teaching Process (Contd)

Joel M. Levine points the following about complex nature of

learning in the above shown three circles.

• Point A is beginning of teaching work in all the three circles.

• Circle (A) provides shortest path to the goal, which means in other
words, it is the most successful path of reaching.
• Circle (B) shows that the teacher started into wrong direction from
his starting point ”A”. If he goes either way i.e. AD or AB or ABC or
ADB, he is creating problems for the students. In order to be
successful in achieving his goal the teacher will have to come back to
“A” point to reach “G” point, which is the goal. If he continues to
move in different directions, he cannot reach the goal.
• Circle (C) shows that there are sixteen major factors to bring into line.
Teaching Process (Contd)
He has identified the following sixteen factors, which have
to be managed if the teacher wants to attain his goal of
teaching. Each spoke in Circle (C) represents one factor.
1. Delineating course of teaching units, topics and daily
2. Identifying and using basic sources of the subject.
3. Determining objectives of the course, units and lessons.
4. Procuring and using teaching resources. .
5. Getting to know other teachers, administrators and staff.
6. Becoming familiar with school policies and expectations.
7. Maintaining emotional stability and physical health.
8. Getting to know background, needs and interests of
Teaching Process (Contd)
9. Establishing roles and standards of conduct.
10. Managing routine duties.
11. Motivating students.
12. Determining teaching strategies and pace of
13. Utilizing various teaching methods and activities.
14. Assessing readiness of students for learning.
15. Designing and using various assessment techniques.
16. Assessing students ’progress and achievement
The specific teaching akin to skill training rather than to education in a
broader sense is called “instruction”. May be audio-visual correspondence,
individual, etc. From the observation and analysis of forty-nine tape-
recorded lessons, the following operational definitions of strategy and tactic,
as these terms apply to instruction, were developed:
A generalized plan for a lesson (s), which includes structure, desired learner
behavior in terms of the goals of instruction and ah outline of planned
tactics necessary to implement the strategy. The lesson strategy is part of a
larger development scheme.
Goal-linked influenced/influencing behavior of the teacher - the way a
teacher behaves in the instructional situation in working towards the
development ' of the strategy; units of teacher behavior through which the
he fulfils his various instructional roles with the students of his class from
moment to moment; the components of teacher behavior through which
the teacher, the students and the subject matter interact.
After an operational definition of tactics and strategies had been
build, attention was turned to searching for the ways in which tactics and
strategies fit into the total picture of instruction; that is, an attempt was
made to seek relationships among tactics, strategies, teacher behavior,
goals of education and the learners.
The Phases of Instruction
The phases of instruction as related to the processes of learning may be
identified as follows:
Motivation Phase
The preparation for learning is accomplished by instruction, which
activates motivation by appealing to student interests. Communications
of the teacher during this phase have the additional purpose of relating
these interests in an expectancy of “what the student will be able to do”
once he has learned.
The Phases of Instruction
Apprehending Phase
During this phase, teaching is concerned with arousing attention in a general sense
and also with providing stimulation (often verbal), which “directs” attention so
that particular features of the stimulus situation are selectively perceived.
Acquisition Phase
This phase of instruction supports the process of entry into long-term store.
Coding processes may be provided or suggested. Alternatively, a set to employ a
strategy of coding may be activated by communications from the teacher.
Retention Phase
This phase pertaining to “storage” is included for the sake of completeness. The
manner in which internal processes of storage (such as interference, simplification
and the like) can be directly influenced by instruction, if indeed they can be, is not
entirely clear.
Recall Phase
External instructional events dining this phase may take the form of providing cues
to retrieval or of monitoring the process of retrieval to insure that suitable
strategies of search are employed. Teachings also include the conduct of “spaced
reviews”, providing opportunities for retrieval or occur.
The Phases of Instruction
Generalization Phase
During the Generalization phase, the teacher provides situations calling for
the transfer of learned knowledge and skills in novel ways, and providing
cues for application to previously un-encountered situations.

Performing Phase
. Instruction oriented to this phase of learning is largely a matter of setting
occasions for the student to “show” that he has learned. Obviously, these
occasions set the stage for the feedback that comes next.

Feedback Phase
The feedback phase is one in which information is supplied to the student
concerning the extent to which his performance has reached or
approached a criterion standard reflected in his expectancy
Almighty Lord created a universe. To beautify Lord made a
lot of different things. If we look around it is crystal clear that
everything is graced with the opposite. In teaching world even
when we take a small group of pupils, we do not find two
children alike. So individuality exists all around us. We can’t deny
this fact and to make teaching more effective we should accept
this reality.

Education and growth, both are two individual affairs, and can
be well shaped only in healthy and free atmosphere. Any form of
pressure or stress stops a child’s natural growth and learning. So
we recognize the child, and child- centered education is
responsible to give rise to the thinking of individual freedom.
If we follow these principles as guidelines this method would be more
fruitful and effective.
Individual Capability.
Individualized instruction should be in accordance with child’s aptitude,
interest, demand and learning rate.
Educational purposes must be integrated with ethics and morals to make
this method meaningful and helpful for building stronger foundations of
one’s own standards.
Instructional Method
It must be adopted as a stimulant or motive so that educational motivation
can be propagated into our learners.
A learner should get opportunities to flourish in stress-free environment.
Freedom helps to mold a child’s capabilities in the framework of nature.
Principles (Contd)
Fundamental Skills
It is crucial to teach fundamental skills to our learners like
reading, writing, and speaking. Once he has learnt, it would
facilitate him towards study, exercise, assignments, etc.
A child should be provided with opportunities to experiment
with what he learns. It would inculcate the habit of self-study
along with developing a sense of responsibility.
Teachers should guide and assist only when needed. They should
eliminate the obstacles and let learner work independently so
that they may grow and shape their natural abilities.