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Industrial Burners

 In the industrial field, burner controls for

intermittent or continuous operation
ensure safe burner operation.
 It’s ensuring optimum combustion
 For high firing rates we offer electronic
air/fuel ratio control with optional
oxygen trim for maximum combustion
efficiency and low emission levels.
Industrial Burners contd..
 Fuels:
 Solid (Coal), Liquid (Oil) and Gas
 Coal: Classification
 Peat: First stage,highly moisture
content,small % of volatile matter and fixed
carbon,not suitable for power plant.
Industrial Burners contd..
 Lignite: Second stages,highly moisture
content and ash but has higher heating values
and fixed carbon.
 Sub Bituminous coal: here coal have lost
woody structure,moisture content from 17%
to 20% and volatile matter from 35% to
45%,also known as black lignite.
 Bituminous coal: low moisture content and
non- disintegrating properties.
Industrial Burners contd..
 Semi-Bituminous Coals:highest grade of
coals, when these burns small amount of
smoke, content high fixed carbon and highest
heating values.
 Semi- Anthracite Coals: Harder than earlier
one,found in small quantities so costly for
power generation
 Anthracite Coals; highest carbon content but
don’t have highest heating values
 Super-Anthracite Coals: very hard with
shiny black surface,higher % of carbon
content and the less than 8% volatile.
Fuel Combustion
 One of the chief factors in the economical working
of a power plant is the efficient combustion of
 Two most commonly used methods for burning of
coal are
 Stoker firing and Pulverized firing
 The selection of one of the above method
depends of the following factors
 Characteristics of the coal available
 Capacity of boiler unites
 Station load factor
 Load fluctuations
 Reliability and efficiency of the various types of
combustion equipment available
Methods for burning of coal
 Stoker Firing: is a power operated fuel
feeding mechanism and grate(metal
framework keeping fuel in fireplace).
 By the use of stokers, a cheaper grade
of fuel can be used, a higher efficiency
attained,greater flexibility of operation
assured,better furnace conditions
maintained and less smoke produced
than is usual with hand firing.
Stoker Firing:Advantages
 Generally less building space is
 Can be used for small or large boiler
 Very reliable and maintenance charges
are reasonably low.
 Cheaper grade of fuel is used.
 Reduction in auxiliary plant.
 Less smoke produced.
 Higher efficiency attained.
Stoker Firing:
 With very large unites the initial cost
may be rather high than with pulverized
 Construction is complicated.
 Sudden variations in the steam demand
can't be met to the same degree.
 Banking and stand by losses are always
 Trouble due to sagging and clinkering
of combustion chamber walls are
Classification of Stoker
 Overfeed stokers:the coal is fed into the
grate above the point of air admission
,mainly two types:
 traveling grate stoker and
 spreader stoker.
 Underfed stokers: the coal is fed into
the grate below the point of air
admissions, and suitable for non-
clinkering,high volatile coals having
coking properties and low ash content.
Pulverized Fuel Firing
 In this type firing system the coal is
reduced to a fine powder with the help
of grinding mill and then projected into
the combustion chamber with the help
of hot air current.
 Efficiency depends upon the size of the
 Use in modern thermal power plant
where available coal is cheap.
Pulverized Fuel Firing:
 Any grade of coal can be used since coal is
powder before use.
 Rate of feed of the fuel can be regulated properly
resulting in fuel economy.
 Higher boiler efficiency.
 Greater capacity to meet peak loads.
 Practically no ash handling troubles.
 No moving parts in the furnace subjected to high
 No standby losses due to banked fires.
 Practically free from sagging and clinkering
 The external heating surfaces are free from
 This system works successfully with or in
combination with gas or oil.
Pulverized Fuel Firing:
 High capital cost.
 Lot of fly ash in the exhaust which
makes the removing of fine dust
 The possibilities of explosion are more
as coal burns like gas.
 Maintenance of furnace brick work is
 Special equipment is needed to start
this system.
 The skill operates are required.
Coal Burners
 Fires the pulverized coal along with
primary air into the furnace.
 The secondary air admitted separately
below the burner,around the burner or
else where in the furnace.
 Ignition takes place by means of
radiation and flame propagation from
the fuel already burning in the furnace.
Coal Burners contd..
 Coal Burners may be classified according to their
design and by their arrangement in the furnace as
 Opposite Firing:burners are placed on the
opposite walls of the furnace and they fire directly
against each other
 Cross Firing:the burner fired in the vertical
directions and in horizontal directions and the fuel
stream intersect each other.
 Tangential Firing: burner are placed at the corner
of the furnace and they send horizontal streams
of air and fuel tangent to an imaginary circle in
the center of the furnace which results intense
turbulence and thorough mixing of the fuel and
Coal Burners contd..
 Cyclone burner:crushed coal is used and
not the pulverized fuel.
 This is done to eliminate pulverisers and
to reduce the fly ash difficulties.
 From the feeder the crushed coal and the
primary air enter with a vortex motion at
the center of the cyclone.
 The secondary air admitted separately
aids in the vortex motion.
 The fuel is quickly burned and ash in the
form of motion slag drains down the
inner wall of the cyclone.
Cyclone burner:
 Simplified coal crushing equipments can be
used instead of costly pulverized mills.
 Excess air required can be reduced to 15%
minimum using forced draught fan
 The cyclone furnace can be use low grade
fuels,reduce the size of the steam generator
and limits the fly ash emission so that
excessive furnace cleaning and precipitations
are not required.
Oil burning
 The function of the oil burner are to mix the fuel
and air in the proper proportion and to prepare
the fuel for combustion.
 Following are the two ways to achieved it:
 The oil may be vaporized or gasified by heating
within the burner
 The oil may be atomized by the burner and its
vaporization occurs in the combustion space
 Atomization of the oil is done in three basic ways
 The oil is broken into small droplets by using air
or steam under pressure.
 Forcing oil under pressure through a suitable
 Tearing an oil film into drops by centrifugal force.
Gas Burning
 Simple and requires no preparation.
 The most familiar gas burner is the
atmospheric burner.
 Gas and air together pass through a
tube leading to the burner ports, mixing
in the process.
 The mixture burns at the ports or the
opening in the burner head.
 Secondary air is drawn into the flame
from the surrounding atmosphere.
Gas Burning:Advantages
 Cleanliness
 Ease of control of furnace
 Ability to produce a long slow
burning flame with uniform and
gradual heat liberation.
 Ease of temperature regulation.
Fluidized Bed Combustion
 Bed of solids particles behave as fluid.
 When an evenly distributed air is passed upward
through a finely divided bed of solid particles at
low velocity,the particles are
undisturbed.however,if the steadily
increased,a stage is reached when the individual
particles are suspended in the air stream.
 If the vel. Further increased,the bed becomes
highly turbulent and rapid mixing of particles
occur which appear similar to the bubbles formed
in a boiling liquid, a bed is to be fluidized.
 In a fluidized bed, rapid mixing ensures
uniformity of temperature.
Classification of FBC
 Atmospheric FBC: here,the pressure
inside the bed is atmosphere. The control
systems are relatively conventional.
 Pressurized FBC: here,double shell design
is provided so that the thermal reactor
stress is separated from the pressure
stress.pressurized air is supplied to the
system,the main advantages of this
system is high burning rates,reduced
volume,increase coal loading but control
is difficult and plant life is low as
compared to ATM FBC
Advantages of FBC
 Low combustion temp.(820 to 950 0c)
inhibits the formation of Nox
 Due to better heat transfer, the unit size
and hence the capital costs are reduced.
 Safe and efficient operation.
 Multifuel and fully automatic operation.
 Easy ash removal system
 Higher thermal efficiency.
 No moving parts,resulting in reduced
maintenance cost.
 Can meet the rapid changes of demand.
 Shorter erection and commissioning
Disadvantages of FBC
 The major disadvantages is that
since the air has to be supplied at
a high pressure so as to support
the bed, the fan power is increased