Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

c c



 
 
GROUP MEMBERS
á NOR AFIRA BINTI ZAHARIN
(DN/F/09/01/0046)
á NOR DIYANA BINTI HISBULLAH
(DN/F/08/07/0199)
á FITRIAH BINTI MOHD NADRI
(DN/F/08/07/0185)
á NUR HAZIRAH BINTI ZASALI
(DN/F/09/01/0042)
á NUR BISMILLAH BINTI HARON
(DN/F/08/07/0062)
á MENI ANAK SUDIN
(DN/F/09/01/0023)
 c c 
= cc 
c 

á A "tumor" simply means a mass or tissue


swelling. This term applies to both benign
tumors such as a mole on the skin as well as
malignant tumors which are referred to as
cancer.
á Most eye tumors involve the conjunctiva, uvea
(composed of the iris, ciliary body, and
choroid), retina or optic nerve.
c c 

á 
Îa tumor that does not have the ability to
invade or spread to other organs. Benign
tumors are not cancers.
å  
á A choroidal nevus is a flat and often
pigmented "mole" inside the eye. A nevus is
usually benign and dark in color. A choroidal
nevus is found inside the eye within the
choroidal vessel layer deep to the retina. Think
of a nevus as being similar to freckles or a
mole.
å 
á A nevus is caused by cells called melanocytes,
which produce the pigment that colors skin,
hair and eyes. Most of the time, melanocytes
are distributed evenly, but occasionally they
form clusters, which leads to the development
of nevi.
  c
á Brownish area appears on the choroid
á The spot is usually flat
á The spot does become very large
á Blurred vision
á In severe cases it can transform
into choroid melanoma
c cc
á Most nevi do not require treatment, and it is
not possible to surgically remove a nevus.
However, a nevus should be examined at least
once a year in order to detect changes that
could signal a risk of the nevus becoming
cancerous.
á 
a tumor that has the ability to invade and
spread to other organs. The term "cancer"
refers to a malignant tumor.
c c
c
á Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the
retina that occurs predominantly in young
children.
å 
á Retinoblastoma occurs when retinal nerve
cells genetically mutate, causing them to grow
and multiply, eventually forming a tumor.
á These cells usually spread into the eye and
nearby structures, and can also spread to
other areas of the body , including the brain
and spine.
  c
á Abnormal appearance of the pupil,leucokoria
á Deterioration of vision
á Red and irritated eye
á Faltering growth or delayed development
c cc
á å  ! "#$
Îdrug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells by
traveling throughout the body.
á %! "#$
radiation therapy uses highÎenergy beams, such as XÎrays, to
kill cancer cells.
á &" "#$
&"# !!'!(!
to destroy blood vessels that nourish the tumor, with the
goal of killing the cancer cells.
á (""$
if the tumor has grown too much to be effectively treated
through other means.
NURSING DIAGNOSES
á Anxiety related to possibility of loss vision
á Altered vision related to tumor in the eyes
)$"%!#!&&*$!+!&&,&!

á Assess patient level of anxiety


á Determine how patient copes with anxiety with
interview
á Acknowledge awareness of the patient anxiety because
validates the feeling and communicates acceptance of
those feeling
á Stay with patient that may be helpful during an anxiety
attack
á Use the simple language and brief statement when
instructing patient about self care measures or about
diagnostic and surgical procedures
á Encourage good or quiet environment
á Provide patient with relaxation technique such
as breathing exercise to reduce anxiety

 c-
6 Patient is able to recognize sign of anxiety
 Patient become more relax
"%,&!"%!( !" $&

á Assess age.
á Determine nature of visual symptom and degree
of visual loss.
á Review medical history.
á Ask patient about specifics such as ability to read,
see television or history of fall and also
brightness.
á Assess eye and lid for inflammation, edema and
deviation. Problem that can negatively affect
vision.
á Provide adequate lighting to improve vision for
patient with diminished vision.
á Encourage use of sense of touch to become
familiar with unfamiliar object.

á  c
6 Patients achieves optimal functioning within limits
of visual impairment as evidenced by ability to
care of self.
á To navigate environment safely.
á To engage in meaningful activities.
HEALTH EDUCATION
á Patient and family need information to plan
strategies for assisting the visually impaired
patient to cope.
á Teach general eye care:
wMaintain sterility of all eye droppers, tube
medication & other to reduce the risk of eye
infection
wDo not share eye make up.
CONTINUE͙.
Ú Care of contact lenses as recommended by
manufacturer.
Ú Do not rub eyes.
Ô Demonstrate the proper administration of eyes
drops or ointment.
Ô Help family or caregiver identify & make
arrangements at home. Provide for patient safety
& sense of independence as indicated.
Ô Make appropriate referrals to home health
agency for nursing social service follow up.
@ 
c