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‡ In addition to monitoring change in the


marketing environment, marketers also
need to develop specific knowledge about
their particular markets

‡ Marketers want information to help them


interpret past performance as well as plan
future activities
r     

Marketing research is
the systematic design, collection, analysis
and reporting of data and findings
relevant to a specific marketing situation
facing the company
     


°efine the problem

°evelop research plan

Collect information
Make
Analyze information decision

Present findings
þ  
  
 

‡ Problems should not be defined either too broadly


or too narrowly

‡ Clarity on the following helps define the problem


appropriately
± What is to be researched (the content, the scope)
± Why is to be researched (decisions that are to be made)
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°ata Research
Sources Approach

Research Sampling
Instruments Plan

Contact
Methods
  


‡ Secondary data
± Are data that are collected for another
purpose and already exist somewhere

‡ Primary data
± Are data freshly gathered for specific purpose
or for a specific research project

‡ Researchers first examine secondary data


and when needed collect primary data
   
 
‡ Observational research

‡ Focus group research

‡ Survey research

‡ Behavioural data

‡ Experimental research
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‡ Shoppers need a landing strip

‡ People with shopping bags tend to buy more

‡ The µbutt-brush¶ effect

‡ Men Vs women in trial rooms

‡ Women enquire sales staff; men refer to product literature

‡ The value of physical possession




 

    
‡ Questionnaires
‡ Qualitative measures
± Shadowing
± Behaviour mapping
± Consumer journey
± Camera journals
± Extreme user interviews
± Storytelling
± Unfocus groups

‡ Mechanical devices
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In arranging for your trip, did you contact


Paramount Airways?
Airways
å ües å No
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With whom are you traveling on this trip?


å No one
å Spouse
å Spouse and children
å Children only
å Business associates / friends / relatives
å An organized tour group
Î

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Indicate your level of agreement with the following


statement: Small airlines generally give better
service than large ones
å Strongly disagree
å °isagree
å Neither agree nor disagree
å Agree
å Strongly agree
Î
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oingfisher Airlines
Large ««««««««««««...«««««.Small
Experienced«««««««.««««.Inexperienced
Modern«««««««««..««««.Old-fashioned
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Airline food service is _____ to me.


å Extremely important
å Very important
å Somewhat important
å Not very important
å Not at all important
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    

Indigo Airlines¶ food service is _____.


å Excellent
å Very good
å Good
å Fair
å Poor
Î

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´ow likely are you to purchase tickets on Jet


Airways if in-flight Internet access were available?
å °efinitely buy
å Probably buy
å Not sure
å Probably not buy
å °efinitely not buy
Î

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What is your opinion of Air °eccan


°eccan?
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What is the first word that comes to your mind


when you hear the following?
Airline ________________________
Spice Jet ________________________
Travel ________________________
Î

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When I choose an airline, the most important


consideration in my decision is:
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________.
Î

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âI flew Go Air a few days ago. I noticed that the
exterior and interior of the plane had very bright
colors. This aroused in me the following thoughts
and feelings.´ Now complete the story.
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
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%
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Make up a story that reflects what you think is


happening in this picture.
  

‡ Sampling unit
± Who is to be surveyed?

‡ Sample size
± ´ow many people should be surveyed?

‡ Sampling procedure
± ´ow should the respondents be chosen?
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‡ Mail questionnaire

‡ Telephone interview

‡ Personal interview
± Arranged interviews
± Intercept interviews

‡ Online interview
 !
  
 


‡ The data collection phase of marketing


research is generally the most expensive
and the most prone to error
± Some respondents might not be at home and
must be contacted again or replaced
± Other respondents might refuse to cooperate
± Some might give biased or dishonest answers
± Some interviewers might be biased or
dishonest
' & '  
 

‡ This involves extracting findings from the


collected data

‡ This involves:
± Tabulating data
± °eveloping frequency distributions
± Using advanced statistical techniques and
decision models
> "    

‡ The researcher should present findings


that are relevant to the major marketing
decisions facing management
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‡ Remember, research only provides


information and insights«.it is not a
decision by itself

‡ «the marketer has to interpret them and


make meaningful decisions!
! 
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 
 
‡ An important task of marketing research is to assess
efficiency and effectiveness of marketing activities

‡ Marketers are accountable and must justify their


expenditures to senior management

‡ Two complementary approaches to measure


marketing productivity are:
± Marketing metrics to assess marketing effects
± Marketing-mix modeling to estimate casual relationships
and how marketing activity affects outcomes
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External Internal
‡ Awareness ‡ Awareness of goals
‡ Market share ‡ Commitment to goals
‡ Relative price ‡ Active support
‡ Number of complaints ‡ Resource adequacy
‡ Customer satisfaction ‡ Staffing levels
‡ °istribution ‡ °esire to learn
‡ Total number of ‡ Willingness to change
customers
‡ Freedom to fail
‡ Loyalty
‡ Autonomy



    
 

Sales Market share


analysis analysis

Expense-
Financial
to-sales
analysis
analysis
   

Sales- Micro-
variance sales
analysis analysis
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‡ Overall market share


‡ Served market share
‡ Relative market share
!

 

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Step 1: Identifying functional expenses

Step 2: Assigning functional expenses to


marketing entities

Step 3: Preparing a profit-and-loss statement


for each marketing entity
   
  
   
  
  
|       
 
  
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"
  
"
  
  
 
    



Traceable Non-traceable
°irect
common common
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Potential Available
market market

Target Penetrated
market market
 
   
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‡ Total market potential

‡ Area market potential


± Market buildup method
± Multiple-factor index method
‡ Brand development index
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‡ Survey of buyers¶ intentions

‡ Composite of sales force opinions

‡ Expert opinion

‡ Past-sales analysis

‡ Market-test method
" 
    

°o you intend to buy an automobile within the


next 6 months?
0.00 No
0.20 Slight possibility
0.40 Fair possibility
0.60 Good possibility
0.80 ´igh possibility
1.00 Certain