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Lecture 4:

-Terminal Building
By: Zuliana Ismail
Learning Outcomes
Students able to:
• Describe major terminal design
• Describe about the passenger
movement and baggage handling.
• Explain the public transportation at
Landside Airside

• Landside areas include parking

facilities, public transportation,
terminal building and all utilities that
support the operations of terminals.
• All these facilities associated with the
movement of passengers and their
Landside Facilities


Terminal Building
Terminal Building
Terminal building is the main building where passengers embark and disembark aircrafts.
• *embark = go onboard an aircraft.

The terminals are the ‘front door’ to the Airport and serve as the public interface between the airside and landside elements.

The world's largest airport
• The Hong Kong International
Airport passenger terminal
building is 1.3 km long and
covers an area of 135.9 acres
and is the world's largest single
airport building.
• It also has 48 aircraft parking
stands with boarding gates and
air bridges, the terminal has a
capacity of 45 million
passengers a year, arriving on
460 flights every day.
Airport Terminal Design
Pier Finger Terminals

Kansai International

• Piers offer high aircraft capacity and simplicity of

design, but often result in a long distance from the
check-in counter to the gate (this way called as
Contact Pier).
• Most large international airports have piers, including Chicago's O'Hare International Airport,
Frankfurt International Airport, London Heathrow Airport, Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, Kuala
Lumpur International Airport, Bangkok International Airport, Beirut International Airport and
Miami International Airport.
Airport Terminal Design
Pier Satellite KLIA Airport

• This configuration involves a single terminal where all the ticketing and
passenger processing takes place.
• Connected to this are numerous concourses that lead to one or more
satellite structures.
• Need high speed escalators, monorails or electric-powered carts to reduce
walking distances.
Airport Terminal Design
Transporter Terminal
Tampa Airport

• In this concept passengers are transported to and from the building to the parked airplane.
• With this concept, aircraft can be parked remotely from the terminal buildings thus increasing the amount
of aircraft embarking and disembarking passengers.
• Airplane taxiing time to and from the runway is decreased as well as reduce the amount of aircraft engine
noise around the terminal.
Airport Terminal Design
Semicircular Terminal

Advantages: Incheon Airport

• Short distance from check-in area to contact pier.
• Low cost construction
What are the functions of
Terminal Building?
Four Key Functions of
• To process passengers (ticket check, customs
clearance, immigration control, safety)
• To provide various facilities for passenger
(shopping, toilets, eating, meeting & greeting, business
& conference).
• To organize passengers before journey by plane.
• To facilitate a change of transfer mode (ex: from
train to plane, from car to plane, etc.).
Inside Terminal Building
Parts of Terminal Building
A terminal building could be made for passengers, cargo and for any
other specific purposes. It comprises the basic physical parts as
•  Front side of the Terminal
• Visitors Area and Check-in Area
• Shop retails
• Security Hold Area & Baggage Make Up area
• Passengers Meet and Greet area
• Airlines offices, counters for Tour and Travel agencies
counters for Taxi services
• Lounges of Business class or Executive Class passengers
Any airport’s aim is to provide high quality terminal


• T o handle the passengers traffic flows

effectively .
• To provide a quality experience for
customers, because terminals provide the
first and last impressions for visitors to the
What are
• To become the key factors to build an
terminal building?

• Ambiance (character/atmosphere of place)

• Cleanliness
• Unique Architectural
• Excellent retail stores
• Many activities for passengers
• Pleasing & good waiting environment
• Passengers friendly
• Excellent customer service.

• Good and adequate signage in the terminal

• Less walking distance for passengers
• Accurate information
• Efficient public transportation
• Hotels and rest rooms walking distance
• Well located facilities & services (restaurants, etc.)
• High security level, safe from any threat potential.
Attractive and Effective

Ambiance Singapore Changi

Ambiance Singapore Changi
Attractive and Effective
• Unique Architectural

Attractive and Effective
Attractive and Effective
Less walking distance for passengers

Attractive and Effective
Dubai Airport Retail Shops
Attractive and Effective
• Many activities for passengers
Attractive and Effective
• Pleasing & good waiting environment
Attractive and Effective
• Accurate information
Attractive and Effective
• Passengers friendly
• Excellent customer service.
Attractive and Effective
• Efficient public transportation
• Hotels and rest rooms walking distance
• Well located facilities & services
(restaurants, etc.)
• High security level, safe from any
threat potential

Passenger’s Movement
Flow chart of an embarking passenger

Flow chart of an EMBARKING passenger


• Airport Check-in are service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-
in is normally handled by an airline or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually
hand over any baggage they do not wish or are not allowed to carry-on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a
boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft.

Check-in counters
Aer Lingus Self Check-in Kiosk at Dublin
Immigration Duties

• Immigration responsible for:

• Monitor persons who leave or enter the

• Checking for appropriate documentation,
• Arresting people wanted by international
arrest warrants.
• Block the entry of dangerous people to the
Security Checks
• Passenger Screening:
• Confirming the identity of travelers, Checking a
photo ID & transports.

• Body Screening using Metal Detector Gate

• Baggage Screening using X-ray machine

Security Checks

• 1st major act of criminal act occurred on Nov,

1 1955, when man named Jack Graham
placed a bomb in luggage belonging to his
mother. The bomb exploded in flight, killing
all 33 people,
• 2nd such act occurred in 1960, when a suicide
bomber killed all aboard a National Airlines
Who handles security at
• A police force hired and dedicated to
the airport
• For Example, at Malaysia Airport Securities
are handled by: Malaysia Airports Berhad
Auxiliary Police. They are trained at
Malaysia Airport Training Centre (MATC),
• Members of a country's military
• Members of a country's airport
protection service Malaysia Airports Berhad
• In U.S, Transportation Security Auxiliary Police
Administration (TSA)
Security Checks
• Airport security procedures are designed to
prevent any criminal acts that may affect the security
both at airport on in flight.
1. Passenger Screening
2. Baggage Screening
3. Larger X-Ray Scanner
• Criminal acts including theft, vandalism against
passengers and their property, aircraft and all
airport facilities.
• The worst is hijacking of aircraft, damaging or
destroying aircraft or airport with explosives
Passenger Screening
• Confirming the identity of travelers.
• Checking a photo ID & transports.
• Some Airports using Biometrics (finger
print/retinal scan)
Passenger Screening

Walk-through metal detector

• Objects on your clothing or person containing metal
may set off the alarm on the metal detector.

Additional screening
• Additional screening occurs when an individual sets
off the alarm on the metal detector, or if he or she is
selected for the additional screening.
• This screening includes a hand-wand inspection
Passenger Screening-

Metal objects will be

detected and produce
alarm sound.
Passenger Screening

• Purpose: to ensure that certain prohibited

items don’t board commercial airliners.
• Every passenger thus is screened by airport
security staff using the latest screening
techniques to prevent any terrorist or
criminal activity.
• Every piece of luggage is screened for
explosives using the latest technology and
equipment before being placed on a plane
Prohibited items

There are a number of items that you cannot carry on a

plane, and some of that can't be packed in your bags,
example :

• Explosives: Fireworks, matches, gunpowder

• Weapons: Guns, swords, martial arts weapons, knives
with blades of any length
• Pressurized containers: Hair spray, oxygen tanks
• Household items: Flammable liquids, solvents, bleach
• Poisons: Insecticides, pesticides, rat poison
• Corrosives: Car batteries
baggage Screening

The X-ray machine

• Place all carry-on baggage and any items you are
carrying with you on the belt of the X-ray machine.
• Laptop computers and video cameras with cassettes
must be removed from their carrying cases and
placed in one of the bins provided.
• You will also need to remove your coat, jacket, suit
jacket or blazer and place it in one of the bins.
• These items go through the X-ray machine.
baggage Screening

X-Ray technology: “see through” the

Technologies to Screen
baggage Screening

Your baggage might also be inspected with an

Explosive Trace Detection machine (ETD), Alarm will
be sounded if a weapon or explosive item is detected.
Larger X-Ray Scanner

• In addition to passenger baggage, most

planes carry enormous amounts of cargo.
• All of this cargo has to be checked before it
is loaded.
• One old-fashioned method of bomb detection
still works as well or better than most hi-tech
systems -- the use of trained dogs.
• In addition to an X-ray system, many airports
also use larger scanners
Larger X-Ray Scanner

Larger X-Ray Scanner for bigger baggage

and trained Dogs are used to sniff for

The increased security has meant

longer waits and longer lines and
longer waits at the gate screening
counters and area.
How to reduce longer waits
problems for airport security
Flow chart of an DISEMBARKING passenger
Custom Duties

• Customs responsible for :

• The processing of people, carriers, cargo, and mail into and

out of the country.(including animals & hazardous items)
• The proper collection of taxes, fees, penalties for imported
• The prohibition of narcotics and illegal drugs.
Baggage Handling System
Functions : To process and move the passengers’s

• From the check in area to the departure area or

• From the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area.

• Faster
• Safe
Methods of Moving Bags
• Manual Methods
• Multiple luggage pieces in one cart

• Not automatically sorted

• Automatic Methods
• DCV – Destination Coded Vehicles

• Each cart contains a single

piece of baggage
• Automatically sorted
• Little or no human interaction required
DCV – Destination Coded
• DCVs = Destination-coded vehicles

• Automatic Scanner=scan the labels

on the baggage
• Conveyors- Like a local ‘roads’
Baggage Handling using DCVs
• Check-in: Agents put tag on baggage
• Bag’s owner, Flight number, Final destination, Intermediate connections and airlines
• Automated bar code scanner
• After reading the bar-code, the system will know where that bag is at all times.
• Hundred of computers keep track of the bag.
• Conveyors
• Hundreds of conveyors with junctions connecting all of them
• Sort all of the bags from all of the different airlines and send them to DCVs that are
headed to the proper terminal and gate
• DCVs –Destination Coded Vehicles
• Headed to proper destination
• Move bag quickly (5 times faster than conveyors)
• Tracked by computers
Parking Facilities
Parking Facilities
• Public Parking Facility- for airline passengers
• Near terminal building.
• Off-Airport Parking- for airline passengers
• Far away from terminal building, with lower charges.
• Separate Parking-for airport employee
• Far away from terminal area, airport workers using bus go
to the terminal.
• Car Rental Parking-for taxi or airport limousine
• Close to the terminal building. Pick-up / Drop-off
Public Transportation
Example: Public
Transportation at KLIA
• Taxis and limousine - Airport taxis or airport limousines are
provided by Airport Limo. The taxis and limousines are readily
available at the Taxi and Limousine counters.
• Bus - Both public and private buses connect KLIA to several points
in Kuala Lumpur and beyond.
• NadiKLIA bus - Main Terminal Building to LCCT
• Express Train- Kuala Lumpur International Airport can be reached
by the KLIA Express (ERL) and the KLIA Transit train services.
• Aerotrain - Main Terminal Building to Satellite Terminal A.
The journey between terminals takes under two minutes train is
able to transport 250passengers one time.
Terminal congestion means
excessive crowding in the terminal
How To Reduce Terminal
Building Congestion ?
Reducing Terminal congestion
• Separate/different levels to separate arrival and
departing flows.
• More Terminal Buildings to separate
international and domestic.
• Adequate signage inside terminal building for
quick passengers movement .
• Adequate public transport (Cars, Taxis, Buses)
for quick passengers movement .
• More check-in counters & more immigration
counter for quick passengers movement .