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A theory is a set of concepts, definition relationship and

assumption that project a systematic view of phenomena.

A Nursing theory is a conceptualization of some aspect of

nursing communicated for the purpose of describing,
explaining, predicting
and / or prescribing nursing care(Maleis 1997)
Components of Theory:

A theory consists of interrelational concepts.
Concepts are mental formulation of an object (or)
event that come from individual perceptual
experience ( Alligood & marriner tomey 2002)

The definitions with in the descriptions of
a theory convey the general meaning of the
concepts in a manner that fits the theory.
Assumptions :

Assumptions are statements that

describe concepts (or) connect two concepts
that are factual.

A fact (or) situation that is
observed to exist (or) happen.

According to Fawcett, a conceptual model

consists of four concepts which are generally considered
central to the discipline of Nursing.
This serves as an organizing frame work around which
conceptual development proceeded


Refers to the recipient of nursing care, including
individual clients, families and the community.

It is defined in different way by the client, the clinical
setting and the healthcare profession.

Environment / Situation: It includes all possible

conditions affecting the client and the setting is which
health care needs occur.

It is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to
actual (or) potential health problem (ANA 1995)
Classification of theories in Nursing

According to range/scope/abstractness, theories are

classified in to

1) Meta theories
2) Grand theories
3) Middle range theories
4) Practice theories
1) Meta theories
Meta theories describe the philosophical
basis of the discipline. Focuses on broad issues
such as the processes of generating knowledge &
theory development.

2) Grand theories
This describes the comprehensive
conceptual framework. There are the most
complex and broadest in scope. They attempt to
explain broad area within a discipline and may
incorporate numerous other theories.
3) Middle range theories
Middle range theory lies between the nursing models
and more circumscribed, concrete ideas (practice theories)
Middle range theories are substantively specific and
encompass a limited number of a real world.

4)Practice theories
Practice theories are also called micro theories,
prescriptive theories (or) situation theories

• Abdellah was motivated to develop her typology by a

desire to promote comprehensive, client – centered nursing
• She used the problem – solving approach
• Her typology of nursing problem was first published in
1960 in patient – centered approaches to nursing
Concept of Abdellah’s Theory

Abdellah’s theories would state that

nursing is the use of the problem solving
approach based on the three major concepts of
health, nursing problems and problem solving.
 Health
She defined health as the dynamic pattern of
functioning whereby there is a continued interaction which
internal and external force that results in the optional use of
necessary resources that serve to minimize vulnerabilities

Nursing Problems
It may be overt as an apparent condition or convert as a
hidden (or) concealed one. Because convert problems can be
emotional, Sociological and interpersonal in nature, they are
often missed (or) perceived incorrectly
Problem solving
Quality professional Nursing care requires
that nurses be able to identify & solve, overt &
convert nursing problems. This can be
accomplished by problem solving approach. it
 Indentifying the data
Selecting pertinent data
Formulating Hypotheses
Testing Hypotheses through the collection of
Revising Hypotheses
Focus of care pendulum


Client centered