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Presented By:

Deepmala Bartwal
MBA 1st Semester
Introduction to concepts of TQM
Standards and TQM
TQM Reasons for failure
Measurement of Quality
• TQM is a philosophy which applies equally
to all parts of the organization.
• TQM can be viewed as an extension of the
traditional approach to quality.
• TQM places the customer at the forefront of
quality decision making.
• Greater emphasis on the roles and
responsibilities of every member of staff
within an organization to influence quality.
• All staff are empowered.
Doing things right...

...FIRST time.
BS 7850-1:1992
Total quality management.
Guide to management principles.

BS 7850-2:1994

ISO 9004-4:1993
Total quality management. Guidelines for
quality improvement.
• Leadership
Top management vision, planning and
support.
• Employee involvement
All employees assume responsibility for the
quality of their work.
• Product/Process Excellence
Involves the process for continuous
improvement.
Continuous Improvement
 A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a
journey with no end and that there is a need for
continually looking for new approaches for improving
quality.
Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use”
 Design quality
Specific characteristics of a product that determine its
value in the marketplace.
 Conformance quality
The degree to which a product meets its design
specifications.
“A set of inter-related resources and
activities which transform inputs into
outputs.” (ISO 8402).
“Any activity that accepts inputs, adds
values to these inputs for customers, and
produces outputs for these customers.
The customers may be either internal or
external to the organization.” (BS 7850)
Controls

Process
Inputs Outputs

Resources
Process 1

Input from As customer


supplier
Process owner Process 1
Output Input
As supplier As customer

Process owner

Output to
As supplier customer
Traditional Approach TQM
• Lack of communication • Open communications
• Control of staff • Empowerment
• Inspection & fire fighting • Prevention
• Internal focus on rule • External focus on customer
• Stability seeking • Continuous improvement
• Adversarial relations • Co-operative relations
• Allocating blame • Solving problems at their roots
Customers’
expectations for
the product or
service

is poor
Customers’

perceptions
perceptions of
Gap

Expectations >
the product or
service

Perceived quality
Customers’
expectations of
the product or
service

perceptions Customers’
perceptions of
Expectations =

the product or
service

Customers’
expectations
for the product
Gap

or service
perceptions

Customers’
Expectations <

perceptions of the
expectations and their perceptions of the product or service

product or service
is good
Perceived quality
Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers’
Additional views of Quality
in Services
• Technical Quality versus Functional Quality
• Technical quality — the core element of the good or service.

• Functional quality — customer perception of how the good


functions or the service is delivered.

• Expectations and Perceptions


• Customers’ prior expectations (generalized and specific service
experiences) and their perception of service performance
affect their satisfaction with a service.

Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation)


Previous Word of mouth Image of product
Experience communications or service

Customer’s Customer’s
expectations perceptions
concerning a concerning the
product or service product or service
A “Gap” model
of Quality Customer’s own
Gap 4
specification of
quality
The actual product
Gap 1 or service

Management’s organization’s
concept of the specification of
product or service quality
Gap 3
Gap 2
• Philosophy that seeks to make
never-ending improvements to
the process of converting
inputs into outputs.
• Kaizen: Japanese
word for continuous
improvement.
• Successful Implementation of TQM
•Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day
operations.

• Causes of TQM Implementation


Failures
•Lack of focus on strategic planning and core
competencies.
•Obsolete, outdated organizational cultures.
• Lack of a company-wide definition of
quality.
• Lack of a formalized strategic plan for
change.
• Lack of a customer focus.
• Poor inter-organizational communication.
• Lack of real employee empowerment.
• Lack of employee trust in senior
management.
• View of the quality program as a quick
fix.
• Drive for short-term financial results.
1. Blind pursuit of TQM programs
2. Programs may not be linked to
strategies
3. Quality-related decisions may not
be tied to market performance
4. Failure to carefully plan a program
Performance

Plan
Do
Act
Check
“Continuous”
improvement

Time
• Promotion of high quality goods and
services
•Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
(MBNQA) (United States)
•Deming Prize (Japan)
•European Quality Award (European Union)
•ISO9000 certification
Continual
Continualimprovement
improvement of
of the
the quality
qualitymanagement
management system
system

Customers Customers
(and other Management (and other
interested responsibility interested
parties) parties)

Measurement,
Resource
analysis and
management improvement
Satisfaction

Requirements

Input
Product Output
Key: Product
Value adding activity realisation
information flow
• All take holistic approach
• Customers/people
• Measurable characteristics
• Visible
• Basis taken from TQM
• TQM – a way of working
• Involves everyone
• High prominence on
‘customer’
• Awards based upon TQM

Thank You…